2 Some Electrical Pioneers Ancient GreeksWilliam GilbertPieter van MusschenbroekBenjamin FranklinCharles CoulombAlessandro VoltaHans Christian Oersted
3 Some Electrical Pioneers (cont.) Andre-Marie AmpereMichael FaradayJoseph HenryJames Clerk MaxwellHeinrich HertzJ. J. ThomsonAlbert Einstein
4 Some Electrical Inventors Samuel F. B. Morse (Telegraph)Guglielmo Marconi (Wireless telegraph)Thomas Edison (Electric lights …..)Nikola Tesla (A.C. generators, motors)John Bardeen and Walter BrattainTransistorJack Kilby and Robert NoyceIntegrated CircuitMarcian (Ted) Hoff (microprocessor)
5 Ancient Greeks – Static Electricity Rub amber with wool.Amber becomes negatively charged by attracting negative charges (electrons) from the wool.The wool becomes positively charged.The amber can then pick up a feather.How?
6 William Gilbert ( )English scientist and physician to Queen Elizabeth.Coined the word “electricity” from the Greek word elektron meaning amber.In 1600 published "De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure" ("On the Magnet, Magnetic Bodies, and the Great Magnet of the Earth").Showed that frictional (static) electricity occurs in many common materials.
7 Pieter van Musschenbroek (1692 – 1761) Dutch physicist from Leiden, Netherlands, who discovered capacitance and invented the Leyden jar.Leyden jar (also called condenser)Ref:
8 Leyden Jars Q = C x V = 700 x 10-12 x 175 x 103 = x 10-4 coulombs700 pF, 175 KVNo. of electrons =1.225 x 10-4 coulombs / 1.6 x coul/elec= 7.66 x 1014 electronsRefs:
9 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790)Conducted many experiments on static electricity from 1746 – 1751 (including his lightning experiment) and became famous throughout Europe by describing these experiments in a series of letters to Peter Collinson.
10 Charles Coulomb (1736 – 1806)Using a torsion balance Coulomb in 1784 experimentally determined the law according to which charged bodies attract or repel each other.Coulomb’s LawUnit: Newton meter2 / coulomb2volt meter / coulomb
11 Alessandro Volta (1745 – 1827)Interpreted Galvani’s experiment with decapitated frogs as involving the generation of current flowing through the moist flesh of the frog’s leg between two dissimilar metals.Argued with Galvani that the frog was unnecessary.In 1799 he developed the first battery (voltaic pile) that generated current from the chemical reaction of zinc and copper discs separated from each other with cardboard discs soaked in a salt solution.The energy in joules required to move a charge of one coulomb through an element is 1 volt.
12 Hans Christian Oersted (1777 – 1851) X1822In 1820 he showed that a current produces a magnetic field.Ref:
13 André-Marie Ampère (1775 – 1836) French mathematics professor who only a week after learning of Oersted’s discoveries in Sept demonstrated that parallel wires carrying currents attract and repel each other.attractA moving charge of 1 coulomb per second is a current of1 ampere (amp).repel
14 Faraday’s electromagnetic Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867)Self-taught English chemist and physicist discovered electromagnetic induction in 1831 by which a changing magnetic field induces an electric field.A capacitance of 1 coulomb per voltis called a farad (F)Faraday’s electromagneticinduction ring
15 Joseph Henry (1797 – 1878)American scientist, Princeton University professor, and first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.Built the largest electromagnets of his dayDiscovered self-inductionUnit of inductance, L, is the “Henry”
16 James Clerk Maxwell (1831 – 1879) Born in Edinburgh, Scotland;Taught at King’s College in London ( ) and was the first Cavendish Professor of Physics at Cambridge ( ).Provided a mathematical description of Faraday’s lines of force.Developed “Maxwell’s Equations” which describe the interaction of electric and magnetic fields.Predicted that light was a form of electromagnetic waves
17 “From a long view of the history of mankind - seen from, say, ten thousand years from now - there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics. The American Civil War will pale into provincial insignificance in comparison with this important scientific event of the same decade”.-- Richard P. FeynmanThe Feynman Lectures on PhysicsVol. II, page 1-11
18 What do Maxwell’s Eqs. Predict? Corresponds to Coulomb’s Lawe = electrical permittivityE
19 What do Maxwell’s Eqs. Predict? B = magnetic flux density(magnetic induction)m = magnetic permeabilityMagnetic field lines must be closed loopsForce on moving charge qLorentz forceB
20 What do Maxwell’s Eqs. Predict? Corresponds to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic inductionA changing magnetic flux B density induces a curl of EThe rate of change of magnetic flux through an area A induces an electromotive force (voltage) equal to the line integral of E around the area A.Motors and generators are based on this principle
21 What do Maxwell’s Eqs. Predict? = permeability of free space= permittivity of free spaceBJExtra term added by MaxwellXcorresponds to Ampere’s Law
22 What do Maxwell’s Eqs. Predict? In free space (J = 0)These two equations can be combined to form the wave equationSolutions to this equation are waves that propagate with a velocity c given by(the speed of light!)
23 James Clerk Maxwell (1831 – 1879) By the time that Maxwell died in 1879 at the age of 48 most scientists were not convinced of his prediction of electromagnetic waves. They had never been observed. No one knew how to generate them or to detect them.They would be discovered by Heinrich Hertz in 1887 and this would eventually lead to radio, television, and cell phones….Predicted that light was a form of electromagnetic waves
24 Heinrich Hertz (1857 – 1894)Generates and detects electromagnetic waves in 1887The frequency of electrical signals is measured in hertz (cycles/second)Ref:
25 Sir Joseph John Thomson (1856 – 1940) Discovers the electron in 1898Cathode TubeJ. J. ThomsonElectric Field -- “corpuscle”Cavendish Labs
26 Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)In 1905 publishes his Special Theory of Relativity based on two postulates:1. Absolute uniform motion cannot be detected by any means.2. Light is propagated in empty space with a velocity c which is independent of the motion of the source.This theory predicts seemingly unusual effects such as the measured length of moving bodies and time intervals being dependent on the frame of reference being used for the measurement.
27 Opening paragraph of “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies,” by Albert Einstein, Annalen der Physik 17 (1905), p. 891.“It is well known that if we attempt to apply Maxwell's electro-dynamics, as conceived at the present time, to moving bodies, we are led to asymmetry which does not agree with observed phenomena. Let us think of the mutual action between a magnet and a conductor. The observed phenomena in this case depend only on the relative motion of the conductor and the magnet, while according to the usual conception, a distinction must be made between the cases where the one or the other of the bodies is in motion. If, for example, the magnet moves and the conductor is at rest, then an electric field of certain energy value is produced in the neighborhood of the magnet, which excites a current in those parts of the field where a conductor exists. But if the magnet be at rest and the conductor be set in motion, no electric field is produced in the neighborhood of the magnet, but an electromotive force which corresponds to no energy in itself is produced in the conductor; this causes an electric current of the same magnitude and in the same direction as the electric force, it being of course assumed that the relative motion in both of these cases is the same”.
28 Some Electrical Inventors Samuel F. B. Morse (Telegraph)Guglielmo Marconi (Wireless telegraph)Thomas Edison (Electric lights …..)Nikola Tesla (A.C. generators, motors)John Bardeen and Walter BrattainTransistorJack Kilby and Robert NoyceIntegrated Circuit
36 Wireless Telegraph Guglielmo Marconi Marconi Spark Transmitter Built at the Hall Street Chelmsford FactorySeptember, 1897
37 Replica of original lightbulb Electric LightsThomas EdisonReplica of original lightbulbPatent #223,898Invented and developed complete DC electric generation and distribution system for city lighting systemsCarried on a major competition with George Westinghouse who developed an AC generation and distribution system
38 Alternating Current (AC) Systems Nikola TeslaOver 700 patentsRotating magnetic field principlePolyphase alternating-current systemInducton motorAC power transmissionTelephone repeaterTesla coil transfromerRadioFluorescent lights
39 The First Point-Contact Transistor 1947 Bell Labs MuseumThe First Point-Contact Transistor 1947
40 The First Junction Transistor 1951 Bell LabsThe First Junction Transistor 1951M1752Outside the LabLab model
41 Texas Instrument’s First IC -- 1958 Jack KilbyRobert NoyceFairchildIntel
46 Moore’s lawWowThis growth rate is hard to imagine, most people underestimateHow many ancestors do you have from 20 generations agoi.e., roughly how many people alive in the 1500’s did it take to make you?220 = more than 1 million people
47 Graphical illustration of Moore’s law 1981198419871990199319961999200210,000transistors150,000,000transistorsLeading edgechip in 1981Leading edgechip in 2002Something that doubles frequently grows more quickly than most people realize!A 2002 chip can hold about 15, chips inside itself
48 This year’s transistors are just twice the size of a virus Nick TredennickGilder Technology Report
56 Moore's Law leads to need for Electronic Design Automation (EDA)
57 Electronic Design Automation (EDA) PSpice – analyze analog circuitsSPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis)1970s: SPICE – Nagel and Pederson1980s: PSpice – Microsim Corp.1998: Merged with OrCAD
58 Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Verilog – Digital Design1984: Gateway Design Automation Inc.1990: acquired by Cadence Design System1995: Verilog becomes an IEEE StandardVHDL – Digital DesignV: VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit)HDL: Hardware Description LanguageDeveloped under government contract in the 1980s1987 (1993) IEEE standard (IEEE 1076)