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Laws of Electromagnetism. Beginning of Electromagnetics Henry Cavendish Coulomb’s Law Ohm’s Law Relation to Maxwell.

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Presentation on theme: "Laws of Electromagnetism. Beginning of Electromagnetics Henry Cavendish Coulomb’s Law Ohm’s Law Relation to Maxwell."— Presentation transcript:

1 Laws of Electromagnetism

2 Beginning of Electromagnetics Henry Cavendish Coulomb’s Law Ohm’s Law Relation to Maxwell

3 Beginning of Electromagnetics The Cavendish Apparatus

4 Beginning of Electromagnetics Cavendish in his Laboratory

5 Pioneers of the Field Benjamin Franklin Concept of electricity Lightning is electrical Use of electrical ground

6 Andre Marie Ampere Ampere’s Law Pioneers of the Field

7 Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss Gauss’s Law

8 Pioneers of the Field Michael Faraday Faraday’s Law

9 Pioneers of the Field George Gabriel Stokes Stokes’s Theorem

10 Pioneers of the Field James Clerk Maxwell Maxwell’s Equations

11 Pioneers of the Field Sir J C Bose Short wavelength radio waves Existence of EM radiation from sun Sir J. C. Bose invented the Mercury Coherer (together with the telephone receiver) used by Marconi to receive the radio signal in his first transatlantic radio communication over a distance of 2000 miles in December Marconi was celebrated worldwide for this achievement, but the fact that the receiver was invented by Bose was totally concealed

12 Pioneers of the Field Sir J C Bose’s Apparatus

13 Pioneers of the Field Sir J C Bose Bose’s spiral-spring receiver used for 5-mm radiation One of Bose's transmitter antennas

14 Pioneers of the Field J.C. Bose at the Royal Institution, London, 1897

15 Pioneers of the Field Sir J C Bose A close up of the spark gaps normally mounted inside the transmitting antenna

16 Sir J C Bose A complete set up showing the transmitting antenna at the left, with the receiving antenna at right Pioneers of the Field

17 Applications in Wireless Communication Guglielmo Marconi Invention of Radio Concept of Ionosphere Wireless Telegraph

18 Applications in Wireless Communication Marconi’s 2 meter antennae

19 Applications in Wireless Communication Heinrich Hertz First Wireless link in 1901 First to broadcast and receive radio waves Produced EM waves and measured their wavelength & velocity

20 Hertz’s Experiment Copy Right: Pozar D.M., “ Microwave Engineering”, John Wiley & Sons. Applications in Wireless Communication

21 Hertz Resonator Applications in Wireless Communication

22 Hertz’s First Spark Gap Oscillators Applications in Wireless Communication

23 Relationship between current density and radiation

24 Maxwell’s Equations Frequency Domain

25 Laws in Media With Dielectric Constant as Tensor Maxwell’s Two Curl Equations get modified as Appleton-Hartee Equation Where

26 Fractional Domain Electrodynamics Fractional Dimension Sierpinski triangle

27 Koch curve Fractional Domain Electrodynamics Construction Dimension

28 Fractional Domain Electrodynamics Fractional Calculus Hausdorff-Besicovitch Dimension Fractional derivative & example

29 Fractional Domain Electrodynamics Measurement of Hausdroff-Besicovitch Dimension where N(h) is the number of disks of size h needed to cover the object Thus Koch coastline has a Hausdorff-Besicovitch dimension is Theoretically Experimentally By surrounding the Koch coastline with boxes

30 Fractional Domain Electrodynamics Measurement of Hausdroff-Besicovitch Dimension Surrounding the Koch Coastline with Boxes & graph

31 Fractional Domain Electrodynamics Measurement of Hausdroff-Besicovitch Dimension Experimental data Dimension(experimental) =1.18 Dimension(Theoretical) =1.26 Deviation=6%

32 CONCLUSION In this project we have tried to represent the Maxwell’s equations of EM in fractional dimension which is one of the emerging field in electromagnetics And studied the effect of EM field in ionospheric propagation Application of electromagnetics in wirelwss communication

33 REFERENCES: [1] Sadiku M. N.O.Elements of Electromagnetics,Oxford,2002 [2] Colin R.E. “Microwave Engineering”,Mc Graw Hill,2000 [3] H.O.Peitgen,H.Jurgens & D. Saupe,”Chaos and Fractals”:New Frontiers of Science. New York, Springer Verlag, Inc., 1992 [4] B. B. Mandelbrot, “The Fractal Geometry of Nature, San Fransisco, CA:Freeman,1983 [5] [6] [7]

34 Thank You

35


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