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1 Magnetism Content of the presentation - Maxwell's general equations on magnetism - Hysteresis curve - Inductance - Magnetic circuit modelling - Eddy currents and hysteresis losses - Force / torque / power 1990 - 1995 M.sc.EE Student at IET, Aalborg University. 1995 - 1999 Ph.D. Student at IET, Aalborg University. 1999 - 2002 Assistant Professor at IET, Aalborg University. 2002 - Associate Professor at IET, Aalborg University. Few words and mini CV of my self

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2 Maxwell James Clerk Maxwell 1831 - 1879 Unified theory of the connection between electricity and magnetism

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3 Maxwells equations in free space Not easy to understand in this form. Practical engineers tend to forget the definition of divergence, curl, surface and line integral

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4 Ørsted H.C Ørsted 1777-1851 Ørsteds discovery was a deflection of a Compass needle when it is close to a current carrying conductor. But he was not able to describe the physics or mathematics behind the phenomena 1820 {f = Bxil / 90° : f=Bil}

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5 Amperé André-Marie Ampére 1775 – 1836 Just one week after Ørsteds discovery Ampere showed that two current carrying wires attract or repulse each other, and was able to show that : Thus, for two parallel wires carrying a current of 1 A, and spaced apart by 1 m in vacuum, the force on each wire per unit length is exactly 2 × 10 -7 N/m. I2I2 I1I1 r l It was first in 1826 he published the circuit law in Maxwell’s equation

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6 Faraday Michael Faraday 1791-1867 {e = Bxlv / 90° : e =Blv} Induction by movement ”generator” Induction by alternating current ”transformer” The Induction law 1821

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7 Gauss Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777 – 1855 Basically the magnetic induction can’t escape. The equation says that we don’t have a monopole. There will always be a north and a south pole

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8 Relations in Maxwell’s equations Simplified analogies and the relations in Maxwell’s equations

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9 Permeability Return μ = μ r μ 0 Where μ r typically is 1000-100000 in magnetic cores

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10 Analogies

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11 Faraday’s law Faraday’s law (again)

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12 Some of the first electrical machines Not useful because it makes AC Improved to a DC machine where Ampere proposed Pixii to use a mechanical commutator Alternator by Pixii 1832 Note it is made with electromagnets (Henry 1828)

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13 Letz’s law Letz’s law (consequence of Maxwell’s equation)

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14 Amperé’s law Ampere’s law (again)

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15 Inductor example Example : Inductor

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16 Inductor example

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17 Inductor example No saturation and hysteresis

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18 Magnetic circuit model Ohm’s law in magnetic circuits

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19 Magnetic circuit model What about Kirchoff’s current law (KCL) Gauss law

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20 Magnetic circuit model What about Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL) Ampere law is similar to Kirchoff’s voltage law

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21 Magnetic circuit model (Steel and air-gap)

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22 Magnetic circuit model (Steel and air-gap)

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23 Core losses Hysteresis losses

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24 Hysteresis losses

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25 Hysteresis losses Hysteresis curve at various H-fields

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26 Hysteresis losses

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27 Eddy current losses

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28 Eddy current losses How do we reduce Eddy current losses LAMINATED SOLID

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29 Eddy current losses

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30 Eddy current losses in windings Can be a problem with thick wires - Low voltage machines - High speed machines

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31 Force, torque and power Universal modeling of terminal characteristic of electro-magnetic devices based on energy balance

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32 Force, torque and power

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33 Force, torque and power

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34 Force, torque and power

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35 Force, torque and power

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36 Force, torque and power

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37 Force, torque and power

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38 Force, torque and power

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39 Force, torque and power

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40 Force, torque and power

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41 Simplified machines

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42 Simplified machines

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43 Electromagnetic gearing L gu larger than L g ≈ ∞ Δθ=90

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44 Electromagnetic gearing Same winding but now enclosing two poles : L A is the same (if end winding is neglected the Resistance is also the same) Δθ=45 Torque doubling

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45 Normal/radial forces Normal forces Ex. Changing the air gap from 0.3 mm to 0.15 mm Gives a doubling of inductance The Δx is very small i.e a large Force In electrical machines the normal forces versus the tangential force (torque) is typically a factor 10.

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