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By: Maxwell Technologies - San Diego

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1 By: Maxwell Technologies - San Diego
Tecate Training By: Maxwell Technologies - San Diego

2 About Maxwell Manufacturing facilities:
Capacitor Manufacturer since 1965 Manufacturing facilities: US, Europe, Asia Maxwell is a leading developer and manufacturer of innovative, cost-effective energy storage and power delivery solutions. Certifications: ISO 9001:2000 ISO/TS 16949 ISO 9002

3 Table of Content When can I use an Ultracapacitor? What is an Ultracapacitor? Ultracapacitor Market Ultracapacitor Applications Sizing your System Sizing Examples Guidelines to Designing an Ultracapacitor System Summary

4 When can I use an Ultracapacitor?
Applications that require high reliability back-up power solutions Short term bridge power seconds for transfer to secondary source or orderly shut down Power quality ride-through to compensate for momentary severe voltage sags Power buffer for large momentary in-rush or power surges

5 What is the difference between Power and Energy?
Power vs Energy What is the difference between Power and Energy?

6 Application Model

7 Peak Power Shaving Peak Power Shaving
Ultracapacitors provide peak power ... Required Power Ultracapacitor Peak Power Available Power

8 Back-up Power Back-Up Power Support
Ultracapacitors provide peak power… ...and back-up power. Ultracapacitor Backup Power Available Power Required Power

9 What is an Ultracapacitor?

10 Ultracapacitor Performance Characteristics
Ultracapacitors perform mid-way between conventional capacitors and electrochemical cells (batteries). Fast Charge and Fast Discharge Capability Highly reversible process, 100,000’s of cycles Lower energy than a battery ~10% of battery energy Greater energy than electrolytic capacitors Excellent low temperature performance

11 What is an Ultracapacitor?
Ultracapacitors are: A 100-year-old technology, enhanced by modern materials Based on polarization of an electrolyte, high surface area electrodes and extremely small charge separation Known as Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors and Supercapacitors Dielectric Film foil Electrode Electrolyte ECDL Separator C = er A/d Minimize (d) Maximize (A) E = 1/2 CV2

12 Technology Comparison

13 Technology Comparison (page 2)
0,01 0,1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Power Density/[W/kg] Energy Density/[Wh/kg] Double-Layer Capacitors 10h 1h 0,1h 36sec 3,6sec 0,36sec 36msec Lead Acid Battery Ni/Cd Li- Al-Elco U/C Fuel Cells

14 Ultracap vs Battery Technologies

15 Ultracapacitor Market

16 Ultracapacitor Market
Ultracapacitor World Market Consumer Products Digital Camera PDA Toys Memory back-up UPS Windmill Industrial Stationary Fuel Cell Automation/Robotics Transportation Hybrid Bus/Truck Engine starting Light Hybrid Local Power Rail

17 Available Products Aqueous Electrolyte: ESMA, Elit, Evan, Skeleton Technologies and Tavrima Advantages: High electrolytic conductivity No need for tight closure to isolate Low environmental impact Disadvantages: Low decomposition voltage (1.23V) Narrow operational range (freezing point of water) Organic Electrolyte: Maxwell Technologies, Panasonic, EPCOS, Ness Capacitors, ASAHI GLASS High decomposition voltage Wide operating voltage Low electrolytic conductivity Need for tight closure to isolate from atmospheric moisture Talk about symmetric vs asymmetric, Carbon cloth vs powder

18 Ultracapacitor Applications

19 Applications Automotive Traction Consumer Electronics Industry
Large Cells Automotive 14/42 V systems HEV Electrical Subsystems Traction Regen braking Voltage stabilization Diesel engine starting Consumer Electronics AMR PDAs Digital cameras 2-Way pagers Scanners Toys Small Cells Industry Power quality Pitch systems Actuators 7

Electric Rail Pack Braking Energy Recapture Diesel engine starting Wind power plant pitch systems Burst power Small cell applications Digital cameras, AMR, Actuators, Memory boards TRACTION INDUSTRY CONSUMER


22 SITRAS® SES - Solution Energy storage system: Stationnary or on the vehicle Time t1 Vehicle 1 is braking Energy storage system stores the braking energy Time t2 Vehicle 2 is acccelerating Energy storage system delivers the energy Application: Time shifted delivery of the stored braking energy for vehicle re-acceleration Solutions: Possible with either stationary or on-vehicle energy storage system Advantage: Cost savings through reduced primary energy consumption

23 SITRAS® SES - Benefits

24 MITRAC of Bombardier Transport
MITRAC energy saver

25 Diesel Engine Cranking by Stadler
Ultracap module for diesel engine vehicles Robust construction with voltage balancing Easy to scale up for additional cranking power Easy to integrate in existing housing Easy to use, maintenance free 9

26 Wind Turbine Pitch Systems
Modern wind turbines consist of three- bladed variable speed turbines Independent electro-mechanical propulsion units control and adjust the rotor-blades Latest technology uses the wind not only to produce wind energy but also for its own safety 9

27 Pitch System Storage Systems
Each pitch systems is equipped with an ultracapacitor emergency power supply Ultracapacitors represent an optimum emergency power supply system due to their Enhanced level of safety High reliability Efficiency Scalability Switch box including 2600F ultracapacitors 75 V, 81 F ultracapacitor module 4 modules are put in series to power 300 V pitch systems of 3-5 MW wind power plants 9

28 Fuel Cell Powered Fork Lift
Fork lift equipped with a fuel cell Cell system and an ultracapacitor module BOOSTCAP module: 48 BCAP0010 112 V, 55 F 40 kW peak power

29 Vehicle Applications of Ultra-capacitors
Distributed energy modules are located at the actuator level in the vehicle control hierarchy in close proximity to the actuator power driver (should be within 18”).

30 Fuel Cells with Ultracapacitors
Ultracapacitors are accepted as the normal energy storage option for fuel cells Every major automotive company in the world is testing fuel cells as an alternative drive train power system. All significant fuel cell companies are either using or experimenting with ultracapacitors as an integral part of the system. Several major automotive companies have declared fuel cells with ultracapacitors as their baseline system architecture. Honda and Hyundai have gone public, others we are working with have not. “Utilizing ultracapacitors we have gained an edge in energy efficiency and throttle responsiveness over competitors that are pursuing the hybrid battery–fuel cell model” Honda Motor Company

31 Sizing Your System

32 Data sheet

33 Data sheet

34 How to measure Ultracapacitors
To measure UC you need: bi-directional power supply (supply/load) OR separate power supply and programmable load (constant current capable) voltage vs. time measurement and recording device (digital scope or other data acquisition) Capacitance and Resistance: Capacitance = (Id * td)/(Vw - Vf) = (Id * td)/Vd ESR = (Vf - Vmin)/Id Vw = initial working voltage    Vmin = minimum voltage under load Id = discharge current             Vf = voltage 5 seconds after removal of load. td = time to discharge from initial voltage to minimum voltage

35 Basic Equations Definition of Capacitance: C = Q/V (1) Charge = current * time: Q = I*t C = I*t/V (1a) Solving for voltage: V = I*t/C (2) Dynamic Voltage: dV/dt = I/C (3) Stored Energy E = ½ C*V2 (4) At initial voltage Vo, Eo = ½ C*Vo2 At final voltage Vf, Ef = ½ C*Vf2 Delivered energy = Eo – Ef ΔE = ½ C*(Vo2 – Vf2) (5) Series: Cseries = Ccell/Nseries Rseries = Rcell*Nseries Rpseries = Rpcell Parallel: Cparallel = Ccell*Nparallel Rparallel = Rcell/Nparallel Rpparallel = Rpcell*Nparallel Derivation of series capacitance value: Ecell = ½ Ccell * Vcell2 (1) ET = ½ CT * VT2 (2) 2*ET/ VT2 = CT (3; 2 rearranged) ET = N* Ecell = N* ½ Ccell * Vcell2 (4) VT = N * Vcell (5) CT = 2*[N* ½ Ccell * Vcell2] /[N * Vcell]2 (substituting 4 & 5 into 3) CT = Ccell /N

36 Voltage & Current vs. Time
C = 15 farad; Resr = 100 milliohm Vo = 48V; I = 30A -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Time (sec) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Voltage (V) Current (A) Voltage Current Vo - Resr + +C- dV/dt = I/C ; dV = I*dt/C dVtotal = I*dt/C + I*Resr ΔE = ½ C*(Vo2 – Vf2) dVesr = I*Resr V = Q/C i Vf Vmin

37 Basic Model Series/Parallel configurations Current controlled
Changes capacitor size; profiles are the same Series configurations Capacitance decreases, Series Resistance increases Cs=Ccell/(#of cells in series) Rs=Rcell*(# of cells in series) Parallel configurations Capacitance increases, Series Resistance decreases CP=Ccell*(# of cells in parallel) RP=Rcell/(# cells in parallel) Current controlled Use output current profile to determine dV/dt dV = I * (dt/C + ESR) Power controlled Several ways to look at this: Pterm = I*Vcap –I2*ESR (solve quadratic for I) I = [Vcap - sqrt(Vcap2-4*ESR*Pterm)]/(2*ESR) Solve for dV/dt as in current-controlled J=W*s=1/2CV2 Solve for C. Series: Cseries = Ccell/Nseries Rseries = Rcell*Nseries Rpseries = Rpcell Parallel: Cparallel = Ccell*Nparallel Rparallel = Rcell/Nparallel Rpparallel = Rpcell*Nparallel Derivation of series capacitance value: Ecell = ½ Ccell * Vcell2 (1) ET = ½ CT * VT2 (2) 2*ET/ VT2 = CT (3; 2 rearranged) ET = N* Ecell = N* ½ Ccell * Vcell2 (4) VT = N * Vcell (5) CT = 2*[N* ½ Ccell * Vcell2] /[N * Vcell]2 (substituting 4 & 5 into 3) CT = Ccell /N Power controlled Pterm = I*Vterm Pterm = I*Vcap –I2*ESR ESR*I2 - Vcap * I + Pterm = 0 I = [Vcap - sqrt(Vcap2-4*ESR*Pterm)]/(2*ESR)

38 Applications with a single energy storage component
Applications in which little total energy is required (i.e. memory backup) Possibly used with other energy sources Short duration, high power (i.e. pulse transmit) Long duration, low power (i.e UPS backup) Opportunities for high charge rates (i.e toys)

39 Applications with two energy storage components
Power vs. Energy design trade when using two components Single component vs. two components Engines/Fuel cells/Batteries/Solar Arrays are energy rich/power poor (or poor response) Size these components for enough energy, system may be limited in power Size these components for power, system may have surplus of energy Ultracapacitors are power rich/energy poor Size an ultracapacitor for enough energy, system may have a surplus of power Size an ultracapacitor for power, system may be limited in energy Two components A primary source for energy; Ultracapacitor for power Requires appropriate definition of peak power vs. continuous power Load leveling applications response time Basic sizing Standby applications Automotive, Industrial, Consumer Electronics (check other presentations)

40 Ultracapacitor Aging Unlike batteries, Ultracapacitors do not have a hard end of life criteria. Ultracapacitors degradation is apparent by a gradual loss of capacitance and a gradual increase in resistance. End of life is when the capacitance and resistance is out of the application range and will differ depending on the application. Therefore life prediction is easily done.

41 Capacitance and ESR vs Frequency

42 C and ESR Temperature Dependency

43 BCAP Self Discharge

44 BCAP Cycling Capacity

45 BCAP Cycling 500’000 cycles between 1.8 and 2.7 V, 100 A
ESR (1 Hz) increase 140 % (0.49 to 0.79 mOhm Capacitance decrease 38 % (2760 to 1780 F), 30% compared to rated capacitance

46 BCAP DC Life Capacitance and ESR variation at U, T = 40 °C

47 BCAP DC Life Capacitance and ESR variation at U, T = 65 °C

48 Sizing Examples

49 Example sizing 1) Define System Requirements
15 W delivered for 10 seconds 10V max; 5V min 2) Determine total energy needed: J=WS=10W*10sec=150J a) Determine Capacitance based on: J=1/2CV2 b) Substitute the energy from above: 150J=1/2C(Vmax2-Vmin2) c) Solve for C: C=300/(102-52)=4F 3) Add 20-40% safety margin to cover I2R losses Csystem = 4.8F 4) Calculate number of cells in series (since maximum cell voltage = 2.5V) 10V/2.5V = 4 cells in series 5) Calculate cell-level capacitance C = Csys * # of series cells = 4.8F* 4 = 19.2F per 2.5V “cell” 6) Calculate number of cells in parallel (we will assume a 10F cell) # in parallel = 19.2/10F = 2 x 10F cells in parallel

50 Product Strategy BOOSTCAP® Products Product Family MC Product Family
BC Product Family PC Product Family Product Type Energy Power Product Cells Modules

51 Product Portfolio Offerings
Enhance application cost effectiveness by filling the product portfolio ladder - Initial focus: MC Series Power Ladder Energy Ladder 3000 F 3000 F 2600F 2600F 2000 F 2000 F 1500 F 1500 F 1200 F 1200 F 650 F 650 F 11 New Ultracapacitor Cells

52 New Product Portfolio for MC Series
Type MC Series BMOD Series Cells 16 V Modules 48 V Modules 3000 F 2600 F 2000 F 1500 F 1200 F 650 F Energy 29 New Products Power

53 Guidelines to Designing an Ultracapacitor System

54 Ultracapacitor Cell Balancing
Why Cell Balancing? Achieve cell to cell voltage balance Accounts for variations in capacitance and leakage current, initial charge and voltage dependent on capacitance, sustained voltage dependent on leakage current Reduces voltage stress on an individual cell Increase overall reliability of the individual cells

55 Ultracapacitor Cell Balancing
How to Cell Balance? Resistor method, resistor placed in parallel, resistor value calculated at 10x leakage current for slow balance, 100x for faster balance, good for low cycle when efficiency or stand by loss not an issue Surface Mount Resistor for low duty cycle application

56 Ultracapacitor Cell Balancing
Active method, use semiconductors to limit or balance voltage between cells, best for high duty cycle or when efficiency and stand by loss from leakage current are important, highest cell reliability option Active cell to cell balance circuit

57 Cell Balancing Low Cost Scalable balance current 10mA, 300mA circuits
2600F cells; 4 in Series Low Cost Scalable balance current 10mA, 300mA circuits Very low quiescent current (<20µA) No on/off required Modular installation N cells requires N-1 circuits Voltage independent Low capacitance, high leakage cell Note high and low points; low capacitance cell 1.5 hours of Vehicle cycling (~ 200A) 300mA balancer for 50 & 60mm Ø cells 10mA balancer for 5F & 10F cells

58 Cell Balancing Three cells with one cell balancing resistor removed:

59 Ultracapacitor Packaging
Why Packaging? Ensure proper mechanical stress Ensure robust low resistance interconnect Ensure proper electrical isolation Ensure proper thermal considerations Ensure agency compliance Increase overall cell reliability Reduce or eliminate maintenance requirements

60 Ultracapacitor Packaging
How to Package Cells? Care should be taken for the electrical interconnect, a few key guidelines to follow: Do not over torque. Over torque at the terminals may cause internal failure of contact points. For example, the Maxwell BCAP specification is 100 in.-lbs Use similar conductor metal interconnect bus bars to eliminate galvanic corrosion. Good surface to surface contact will reduce inter-cell resistance, reducing voltage drop and temperature stress

61 Ultracapacitor Packaging
How to Package Cells? Cell to cell spacing should take into consideration two key points and can be accomplished by the design of the interconnect or the cell balancer: Depending on the cell some part of the outer case may be electrically the same as one of the terminals, ensure electrical isolation and watch for rubbing components that may wear through ultracapacitor insulation, do not remove the factory installed insulator sleeve Some air space between the cells allows convection cooling via air flow improving reliability, depends on cycle time, short duration high cycle applications may require forced air or other cooling method

62 Ultracapacitor Packaging
Electrical Isolation Aluminum Interconnect Proper Torque and Hardware

63 Summary

64 Benefits Summary Calendar Life Cycle Life Charge acceptance
Function of average voltage and temperature Cycle Life Charge acceptance Charge as fast as discharge, limited only by heating Temperature High temp; no thermal runaway Low temp; -40°C

65 Benefits Summary No fixed Voc No Vmin Cell voltage management
Control Flexibility; context-dependent voltage is permitted Power Source voltage compatibility Examples; Fuel cells, Photovoltaics No Vmin Cell can be discharge to 0V. Control Safety; No over-discharge Service Safety Cell voltage management Only required to prevent individual cell over-voltage State of Charge & State of Health State of Charge equals Voc Dynamic measurements for C and ESR = State of Health No historical data required

66 Useful Links
Useful links on Maxwell Technologies Web-site: White Papers Technology Overview Sizing worksheet Application Notes Data Sheets

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