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Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Tecate Training By: Maxwell Technologies - San Diego.

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Presentation on theme: "Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Tecate Training By: Maxwell Technologies - San Diego."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Tecate Training By: Maxwell Technologies - San Diego

2 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors About Maxwell Capacitor Manufacturer since Manufacturing facilities: US, Europe, Asia Maxwell is a leading developer and manufacturer of innovative, cost-effective energy storage and power delivery solutions. Certifications: ISO 9001:2000 ISO/TS ISO 9002

3 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Table of Content 1.When can I use an Ultracapacitor? 2.What is an Ultracapacitor? 3.Ultracapacitor Market 4.Ultracapacitor Applications 5.Sizing your System 6.Sizing Examples 7.Guidelines to Designing an Ultracapacitor System 8.Summary

4 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors When can I use an Ultracapacitor? Applications that require high reliability back-up power solutions Short term bridge power seconds for transfer to secondary source or orderly shut down Power quality ride-through to compensate for momentary severe voltage sags Power buffer for large momentary in-rush or power surges

5 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Power vs Energy What is the difference between Power and Energy?

6 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Application Model

7 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Peak Power Shaving Ultracapacitors provide peak power... Available Power Required Power Ultracapacitor Peak Power Peak Power Shaving

8 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Back-Up Power Support Ultracapacitors provide peak power…...and back-up power. Required Power Available Power Ultracapacitor Backup Power Back-up Power

9 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors What is an Ultracapacitor?

10 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Performance Characteristics Ultracapacitors perform mid-way between conventional capacitors and electrochemical cells (batteries). Fast Charge and Fast Discharge Capability Highly reversible process, 100,000’s of cycles Lower energy than a battery ~10% of battery energy Greater energy than electrolytic capacitors Excellent low temperature performance

11 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors What is an Ultracapacitor? C =  r A/d Minimize (d) Maximize (A) E = 1/2 CV 2 Dielectric Film foil Electrode Electrolyte ECDL Separator Ultracapacitors are:  A 100-year-old technology, enhanced by modern materials  Based on polarization of an electrolyte, high surface area electrodes and extremely small charge separation  Known as Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors and Supercapacitors

12 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Technology Comparison

13 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Technology Comparison (page 2) Fuel Cells

14 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracap vs Battery Technologies

15 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Market

16 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Market Ultracapacitor World Market Consumer Products Digital Camera PDA Toys Memory back-up UPS Windmill Industrial Stationary Fuel Cell Automation/Robotics Transportation Hybrid Bus/Truck Engine starting Light Hybrid Local Power Rail

17 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Available Products Aqueous Electrolyte: ESMA, Elit, Evan, Skeleton Technologies and Tavrima Advantages: High electrolytic conductivity No need for tight closure to isolate Low environmental impact Disadvantages: Low decomposition voltage (1.23V) Narrow operational range (freezing point of water) Organic Electrolyte: Maxwell Technologies, Panasonic, EPCOS, Ness Capacitors, ASAHI GLASS Advantages: High decomposition voltage Wide operating voltage Disadvantages: Low electrolytic conductivity Need for tight closure to isolate from atmospheric moisture

18 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Applications

19 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Applications Automotive  14/42 V systems  HEV  Electrical Subsystems Traction  Regen braking  Voltage stabilization  Diesel engine starting Industry  Power quality  Pitch systems  Actuators Consumer Electronics  AMR  PDAs  Digital cameras  2-Way pagers  Scanners  Toys Small Cells Large Cells

20 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Electric Rail Pack Braking Energy Recapture Diesel engine starting Today’s Markets Wind power plant pitch systems Burst power Small cell applications Digital cameras, AMR, Actuators, Memory boards TRACTIONINDUSTRYCONSUMER

21 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors

22 Energy storage system: Stationnary or on the vehicle Time t 1 Vehicle 1 is braking Energy storage system stores the braking energy Time t 2 Vehicle 2 is acccelerating Energy storage system delivers the energy SITRAS ® SES - Solution Advantage: Cost savings through reduced primary energy consumption Application: Time shifted delivery of the stored braking energy for vehicle re- acceleration Solutions: Possible with either stationary or on-vehicle energy storage system

23 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors SITRAS ® SES - Benefits

24 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors MITRAC of Bombardier Transport MITRAC energy saver

25 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Diesel Engine Cranking by Stadler Ultracap module for diesel engine vehicles  Robust construction with voltage balancing  Easy to scale up for additional cranking power  Easy to integrate in existing housing  Easy to use, maintenance free

26 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Wind Turbine Pitch Systems  Modern wind turbines consist of three- bladed variable speed turbines  Independent electro-mechanical propulsion units control and adjust the rotor-blades  Latest technology uses the wind not only to produce wind energy but also for its own safety

27 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Pitch System Storage Systems  Each pitch systems is equipped with an ultracapacitor emergency power supply  Ultracapacitors represent an optimum emergency power supply system due to their Enhanced level of safety High reliability Efficiency Scalability 75 V, 81 F ultracapacitor module 4 modules are put in series to power 300 V pitch systems of 3-5 MW wind power plants Switch box including 2600F ultracapacitors

28 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Fuel Cell Powered Fork Lift Fork lift equipped with a fuel cell Cell system and an ultracapacitor module BOOSTCAP module:  48 BCAP0010  112 V, 55 F  40 kW peak power

29 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Vehicle Applications of Ultra-capacitors Distributed energy modules are located at the actuator level in the vehicle control hierarchy in close proximity to the actuator power driver (should be within 18”).

30 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Fuel Cells with Ultracapacitors Ultracapacitors are accepted as the normal energy storage option for fuel cells Every major automotive company in the world is testing fuel cells as an alternative drive train power system. All significant fuel cell companies are either using or experimenting with ultracapacitors as an integral part of the system. Several major automotive companies have declared fuel cells with ultracapacitors as their baseline system architecture. Honda and Hyundai have gone public, others we are working with have not. “Utilizing ultracapacitors we have gained an edge in energy efficiency and throttle responsiveness over competitors that are pursuing the hybrid battery–fuel cell model” Honda Motor Company

31 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Sizing Your System

32 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Data sheet

33 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Data sheet

34 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors How to measure Ultracapacitors To measure UC you need: bi-directional power supply (supply/load) OR separate power supply and programmable load (constant current capable) voltage vs. time measurement and recording device (digital scope or other data acquisition) Capacitance and Resistance: Capacitance = (Id * td)/(Vw - Vf) = (Id * td)/Vd ESR = (Vf - Vmin)/Id Vw = initial working voltage Vmin = minimum voltage under load Id = discharge current Vf = voltage 5 seconds after removal of load. td = time to discharge from initial voltage to minimum voltage

35 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Basic Equations Definition of Capacitance: C = Q/V (1) Charge = current * time: Q = I*t C = I*t/V (1a) Solving for voltage: V = I*t/C (2) Dynamic Voltage: dV/dt = I/C (3) Stored Energy E = ½ C*V 2 (4) At initial voltage V o,E o = ½ C*V o 2 At final voltage V f,E f = ½ C*V f 2 Delivered energy = E o – E f ΔE = ½ C*(V o 2 – V f 2 ) (5)

36 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Voltage & Current vs. Time C = 15 farad; R esr = 100 milliohm V o = 48V; I = 30A Time (sec) Voltage (V) Current (A) - R esr + +C-+C- i Voltage Current VoVo V min VfVf V = Q/CdV esr = I*R esr dV/dt = I/C ; dV = I*dt/C dV total = I*dt/C + I*R esr ΔE = ½ C*(V o 2 – V f 2 )

37 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Basic Model Series/Parallel configurations Changes capacitor size; profiles are the same Series configurations Capacitance decreases, Series Resistance increases C s =C cell /(#of cells in series)R s =R cell *(# of cells in series) Parallel configurations Capacitance increases, Series Resistance decreases C P =C cell *(# of cells in parallel)R P =R cell /(# cells in parallel) Current controlled Use output current profile to determine dV/dt dV = I * (dt/C + ESR) Power controlled Several ways to look at this: P term = I*V cap –I 2 *ESR (solve quadratic for I) I = [V cap - sqrt(V cap 2 -4*ESR*P term )]/(2*ESR) Solve for dV/dt as in current-controlled J=W*s=1/2CV 2 Solve for C.

38 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Applications with a single energy storage component Applications in which little total energy is required ( i.e. memory backup ) Possibly used with other energy sources Short duration, high power (i.e. pulse transmit) Long duration, low power (i.e UPS backup) Opportunities for high charge rates (i.e toys)

39 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Applications with two energy storage components Power vs. Energy design trade when using two components Single component vs. two components Engines/Fuel cells/Batteries/Solar Arrays are energy rich/power poor (or poor response) Size these components for enough energy, system may be limited in power Size these components for power, system may have surplus of energy Ultracapacitors are power rich/energy poor Size an ultracapacitor for enough energy, system may have a surplus of power Size an ultracapacitor for power, system may be limited in energy Two components A primary source for energy; Ultracapacitor for power Requires appropriate definition of peak power vs. continuous power

40 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Aging Unlike batteries, Ultracapacitors do not have a hard end of life criteria. Ultracapacitors degradation is apparent by a gradual loss of capacitance and a gradual increase in resistance. End of life is when the capacitance and resistance is out of the application range and will differ depending on the application. Therefore life prediction is easily done.

41 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Capacitance and ESR vs Frequency

42 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors C and ESR Temperature Dependency

43 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors BCAP Self Discharge

44 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors BCAP Cycling Capacity

45 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors BCAP Cycling 500’000 cycles between 1.8 and 2.7 V, 100 A ESR (1 Hz) increase 140 % (0.49 to 0.79 mOhm Capacitance decrease 38 % (2760 to 1780 F), 30% compared to rated capacitance

46 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors BCAP DC Life Capacitance and ESR variation at U, T = 40 °C

47 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors BCAP DC Life Capacitance and ESR variation at U, T = 65 °C

48 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Sizing Examples

49 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Example sizing 1) Define System Requirements 15 W delivered for 10 seconds 10V max; 5V min 2) Determine total energy needed: J=WS=10W*10sec=150J a) Determine Capacitance based on: J=1/2CV 2 b) Substitute the energy from above: 150J=1/2C(V max 2 -V min 2 ) c) Solve for C: C=300/( )=4F 3) Add 20-40% safety margin to cover I 2 R lossesCsystem = 4.8F 4) Calculate number of cells in series (since maximum cell voltage = 2.5V) 10V/2.5V = 4 cells in series 5) Calculate cell-level capacitance C = Csys * # of series cells = 4.8F* 4 = 19.2F per 2.5V “cell” 6) Calculate number of cells in parallel (we will assume a 10F cell) # in parallel = 19.2/10F = 2 x 10F cells in parallel

50 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Product Strategy BOOSTCAP ® Products Product FamilyMC Product FamilyBC Product Family PC Product Family Product TypeEnergyPowerEnergyPowerEnergy Product Cells Modules Cells Modules Cells Modules Cells Modules Cells Modules

51 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Product Portfolio Offerings Enhance application cost effectiveness by filling the product portfolio ladder - Initial focus: MC Series 3000 F 2600F 2000 F 1500 F 1200 F 650 F Power Ladder 3000 F 2600F 2000 F 1500 F 1200 F 650 F Energy Ladder 11 New Ultracapacitor Cells

52 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors New Product Portfolio for MC Series TypeMC SeriesBMOD Series Cells16 V Modules48 V Modules 3000 F√√ 2600 F√√ 2000 F√√ 1500 F√√ 1200 F√ 650 F√ 3000 F√√ 2600 F√√ 2000 F√√ 1500 F√√ 1200 F√ 650 F√ Energy Power 29 New Products

53 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Guidelines to Designing an Ultracapacitor System

54 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Cell Balancing Why Cell Balancing? Achieve cell to cell voltage balance Accounts for variations in capacitance and leakage current, initial charge and voltage dependent on capacitance, sustained voltage dependent on leakage current Reduces voltage stress on an individual cell Increase overall reliability of the individual cells

55 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Cell Balancing How to Cell Balance? Resistor method, resistor placed in parallel, resistor value calculated at 10x leakage current for slow balance, 100x for faster balance, good for low cycle when efficiency or stand by loss not an issue Surface Mount Resistor for low duty cycle application

56 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Cell Balancing Active method, use semiconductors to limit or balance voltage between cells, best for high duty cycle or when efficiency and stand by loss from leakage current are important, highest cell reliability option Active cell to cell balance circuit

57 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Cell Balancing Low capacitance, high leakage cell Note high and low points; low capacitance cell 1.5 hours of Vehicle cycling (~ 200A) Low Cost Scalable balance current 10mA, 300mA circuits Very low quiescent current (<20µA) No on/off required Modular installation N cells requires N-1 circuits Voltage independent 2600F cells; 4 in Series 300mA balancer for 50 & 60mm Ø cells 10mA balancer for 5F & 10F cells

58 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Cell Balancing Three cells with one cell balancing resistor removed:

59 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Packaging Why Packaging? Ensure proper mechanical stress Ensure robust low resistance interconnect Ensure proper electrical isolation Ensure proper thermal considerations Ensure agency compliance Increase overall cell reliability Reduce or eliminate maintenance requirements

60 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Packaging How to Package Cells? Care should be taken for the electrical interconnect, a few key guidelines to follow: Do not over torque. Over torque at the terminals may cause internal failure of contact points. For example, the Maxwell BCAP specification is 100 in.-lbs Use similar conductor metal interconnect bus bars to eliminate galvanic corrosion. Good surface to surface contact will reduce inter-cell resistance, reducing voltage drop and temperature stress

61 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors How to Package Cells? Cell to cell spacing should take into consideration two key points and can be accomplished by the design of the interconnect or the cell balancer: Depending on the cell some part of the outer case may be electrically the same as one of the terminals, ensure electrical isolation and watch for rubbing components that may wear through ultracapacitor insulation, do not remove the factory installed insulator sleeve Some air space between the cells allows convection cooling via air flow improving reliability, depends on cycle time, short duration high cycle applications may require forced air or other cooling method Ultracapacitor Packaging

62 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Ultracapacitor Packaging Electrical Isolation Aluminum Interconnect Proper Torque and Hardware

63 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Summary

64 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Benefits Summary Calendar Life Function of average voltage and temperature Cycle Life Function of average voltage and temperature Charge acceptance Charge as fast as discharge, limited only by heating Temperature High temp; no thermal runaway Low temp; -40°C

65 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Benefits Summary No fixed V oc Control Flexibility; context-dependent voltage is permitted Power Source voltage compatibility Examples; Fuel cells, Photovoltaics No V min Cell can be discharge to 0V. Control Safety; No over-discharge Service Safety Cell voltage management Only required to prevent individual cell over-voltage State of Charge & State of Health State of Charge equals V oc Dynamic measurements for C and ESR = State of Health No historical data required

66 Ultracapacitors Microelectronics High-Voltage Capacitors Useful Links Useful links on Maxwell Technologies Web-site: White Papers Technology Overview Sizing worksheet Application Notes Data Sheets


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