Presentation on theme: "Short Version : 29. Maxwell’s Equations & EM Waves"— Presentation transcript:
1Short Version : 29. Maxwell’s Equations & EM Waves
229.1. The Four Laws of Electromagnetism 4 Laws of EM (incomplete)LawMathematical StatementPhysicalMeaningHow q produces E;E lines begin & end on q’s.Gauss for ENo magnetic monopole;B lines form loops.Gauss for BChanging B gives emf.FaradayAmpere(Steady I only)Moving charges give B.Note E-B asymmetry between the Faraday & Ampere laws.
329.2. Ambiguity in Ampere’s Law B in a RC circuit.Ampere’s law:I is current through any open surface S bounded by C.Current flows through surfaces 1,2,& 4.But not 3. Ampere’s law fails ( for non-steady current ).Maxwell’s modification:Changing E gives I , which in turn gives B.
429.3. Maxwell’s Equations Law Mathematical Statement Physical Meaning How q produces E;E lines begin & end on q’s.Gauss for EGauss for BNo magnetic monopole;B lines form loops.FaradayChanging B gives emf.Moving charges & changing E give B.Ampere-MaxwellMaxwell’s Eqs (1864).Classical electromagnetism.
5Maxwell’s Equations in Vacuum Gauss for EGauss for BFaradayAmpere-Maxwell
629.4. Electromagnetic Waves Faraday’s law:Ampere-Maxwell’s law:changing B gives E.changing E gives B. Electromagnetic (EM) waves
7Plane Electromagnetic Wave EM wave in vacuum is transverse: E B k (direction of propagation).Right-hand ruleFor uniqueness, see Prob 46Sinusoidal plane waves going in x-direction:
8Gauss’s Laws Plane wave : Both E & B field lines are straightlines, so their flux over any closed surfaces vanish identically.Hence the Gauss’s laws are satisfied.
9Faraday’s Law For loop at x of height h & width dx : Faraday’s Law : Faraday’s law expressed as a differential eq :
10Ampere-Maxwell Law I = 0 For loop at x of height h & width dx : Ampere-Maxwell law expressed as a differential eq :in vacuum
11Conditions on Wave Fields For E = E(x,t) j & B = B(x,t) k,Faraday’s Law :Ampere-Maxwell Law :For a plane waveFaraday’s Law :Ampere-Maxwell Law :
1229.5. Properties of Electromagnetic Waves speed of wave == speed of light in vacuum= cMaxwell: light is EM wave.1983: meter is defined so that c is exactly 299,792,458 m/s.Hence, 0 = 1 / (4 c2 107 ) C2/Nm2, where c = 299,792,458.
13Example Laser LightA laser beam with wavelength 633 nm is propagating through air in the +z direction.Its electric field is parallel to the x axis and has magnitude 6.0 kV/m. Findthe wave frequency,the amplitude of the magnetic field, andthe direction of the magnetic field.(a)(b)(c) y axis.
14Polarization Polarization // E. Radiation from antennas are polarized.E.g., radio, TV, ….Light from hot sources are unpolarized.E.g., sun, light bulb, …Reflection from surfaces polarizes.E.g., light reflecting off car hoods is partially polarized in horizontal direction.Transmission through crystal / some plastics polarizes.E.g., Polaroid sunglasses, …Only component of E // preferred direction e is transmitted. = angle between Einc & .Law of Malus :or
15Liquid crystal display (LCD) 2 polarizers with mutually perpendicular transmission axes.No light gets through where they overlap.Polarization of EM wave gives info about its source & the medium it passes through.Applications: astronomy, geological survey, material stress analysis, …Liquid crystal display (LCD)Unpolarized lightHorizontal polarizer passes light.Horizontal polarizer blocks light.Applied V aligns molecules; polarization not rotated.LC molecules rotate polarization to horizontal direction.Vertical polarizer passes only Ev .
16Conceptual Example 29.1. Crossed Polarizers Unpolarized light shines on a pair of polarizers with their transmission axes perpendicular, so no light gets through the combination.What happens when a third polarizer is sandwiched in between, with its transmission axes at 45 to the others?1st & middle polarizers not so some light passes through.Passed light’s polarization not to axis of last polarizer so some light passes through.
17Making the ConnectionHow does the intensity of light emerging from this polarizer “sandwich” compare with the intensity of the incident unpolarized light?Intensity of light emerging from 1st polarizer :( polarized along axis of 1st polarizer )Intensity of light emerging from middle polarizer :( polarized along axis of middle polarizer.)Intensity of light emerging from ensemble :( polarized along axis of 3rd polarizer.)
1829.6. The Electromagnetic Spectrum Earth’s atmosphere:Transparent to: most radio, visible light.Opaque to: most IR, upper UV, X-rays, rays.UV is absorbed by ozone layerIR by green house gases.
1929.7. Producing Electromagetic Waves Any changing E or B will create EM waves.Any accelerated charge produces radiation.Radio transmitter: e’s oscillate in antenna driven by LC circuit.X-ray tube: accelerated e’s slammed into target.MW magnetron tube: e’s circle in B.EM wave :f = f of q motionMost efficient: ~ dimension of emitter / recieverOutgoing EM wavesSource replenishes radiated energyLC oscillator drives I in antennaWaves emit / receive axis of dipole.
2029.8. Energy & Momentum in Electromagetic Waves Consider box of thickness dx, & face A k of EM wave.Energy densities:Energy in box:Rate of energy moving through box:Intensity S = rate of energy flow per unit areaPlane waves:
21Plane waves:In general:see Prob 64Poynting vectorAverage intensity for plane waves :E, B in phase
22Example Solar EnergyThe average intensity of noontime sunlight on a clear day is about 1 kW/m2.What are the peak electric & magnetic fields in sunlight ?At this intensity, what area of 40% efficient solar collectors would you need to replace a 4.8-kW water heater ?(a)(b)Area needed is
23Waves from Localized Sources Afar from localized source, wave is spherical :Intensity = power / area wave fields dominates static fields away from the sources.
24Example 29.4. Cell Phone Reception A cell phone’s typical average power output is about 0.6 W.If the receiver at a cell tower can handle signals with peak electric fields as weak as 1.2 mV/m, what is the maximum allowable distance from cell phone to tower ?
25Application: Cell Phones Hexagonal cell area 25 km2.~ circle of radiusTransmission & reception are at different frequencies.
26Momentum & Radiation Pressure Maxwell :radiation momentumradiation pressureon absorbing surfaceradiation pressureon reflecting surfaceCosmos 1, a solar light-sailing spacecraft, failed at launch in 2005.