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20 Directing © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Recall the types of script breakdowns and identify.

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Presentation on theme: "20 Directing © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Recall the types of script breakdowns and identify."— Presentation transcript:

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2 20 Directing

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Recall the types of script breakdowns and identify the information included in each. Summarize the director’s responsibilities in each phase of production. Explain the importance of marking the script when shooting on location. Identify some qualities common to effective directors. Objectives

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Director Perceived as most glamorous job Actually most difficult and time-consuming Involved in every phase of production Responsible for creation of program Must be prepared to receive praise and blame

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Director in Pre-Production Responsible for: Script breakdowns Marking script Auditions Hosts pre-production meetings

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Script Breakdown Before breakdown begins: Program proposal approved by executive producer Outline approved Script written and approved Locations scouted and approved

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Prop List

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Prop Plot Considerably longer than prop list

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Location Breakdown

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Cast Breakdown by Scene

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Other Types of Breakdowns Scene breakdown by cast Equipment breakdown

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Marking the Script Insert scene and shot numbers in script Indicate shooting in studio or on location Enter planned camera shot descriptions using approved abbreviations Use wide variety of shot sizes and angles Note cutaways and reaction shots also

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Shooting for the Edit Transitions must be planned and marked in script before shooting begins It is critical to know exactly how ending of one scene transitions to beginning of next scene in order to be able to edit scenes together later

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Action and Scene Transitions Stationary camera shot should not immediately precede moving camera shot Moving camera shot should not immediately precede stationary camera shot Edit can be made between two stationary camera shots, and between two moving camera shots

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Set Design Director and producer approve together To keep control over contrast ratio and image quality, director must consider Colors of set pieces, furniture, walls, curtains, lighting, make-up, and costumes

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Audition View audition on screen Determine performer’s ability to follow direction Be certain of your casting decisions Firing cast member will cause every scene that person was in to be reshot—more time and money Obtain talent release before shooting begins

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Pre-Production Meeting Discuss staff responsibilities Impart director’s vision for program Develop production calendar mindful of conflicts of staff Schedule necessary equipment and its transport to locations

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Talent Rehearsals Once cast is proficient with script, camera crew begins to attend rehearsals To be more efficient, crew should know what is going to happen in program before it happens

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Director in Production Dry run, or camera rehearsal, before shootingDry run Once satisfied with rehearsals, director calls for shooting to begin Always use correct terminology when communicating Memorize start-up command sequence

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Director in Production (Cont.) Follow well-thought-out script! Gets three good takes of each scene before moving on Include cutaways! If there is time, shoot ideas that manifest on the spot—after completing above steps

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Multiple TakesTakes In film-style shooting, each scene is shot multiple times from different angles, thus multiple takes To organize all takes, each take begins with 10-second shot of slate A slate greatly reduces editing time by ending need to view all footage—good and badslate

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Countdown

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Take LogTake Log/Shot Log Companion to slate—aids editing process

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Director in Post-Production Role varies from program to program Often very involved in editing and post Sometimes not involved in editing at all

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Effective Director Traits Not dictator, can delegate tasks “People person,” polite Artist/technician, knows equipment abilities Fosters team attitude Gives constructive criticism only Takes responsibility for final decisions

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Start Something You Can Finish Keep it short, keep it simple Small crew reduces complication Have script breakdowns Act like professional; be respectful Keep eye on big picture, not minutiae Realistic vision proportional to budget

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Director’s Guild of America Career Page

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Why is it important to prepare the various breakdowns for each production? Discussion

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is the role of the director in each phase of production? Pre-production—Discuss staff responsibilities, impart vision for program, develop production calendar, schedule necessary equipment and transportation to locations. Production—Conduct dry run (camera rehearsal) before shooting, initiate program shooting, always use correct terminology when communicating, start- up command sequence, follow the well-thought-out script, get three good takes of each scene before moving on, do not forget cutaways, shoot on-the- spot ideas (if there is time). Post-production—Role varies from program to program, often very involved in editing and post, sometimes not involved in editing at all. Review Question

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is the purpose of an equipment breakdown? To have organized checklist of what equipment must be used for each scene in production. This ensures that right gear is at the right location for each shoot. Review

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is the purpose of a location breakdown? Listing of all the scenes that must be shot at each location. Prevent leaving a location without a required scene shot. Each scene on single page list is checked off before the production team leaves a location. Review

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. How do the slate and take log work together? The slate identifies each take (scene number and take number). The slate is recorded for at least 10 seconds, so the editor can see it while scanning footage at high speed. The take log indicates the good and bad takes using the slate information. For example, the editor knows that take 4 of scene 8 is the good take and he can scan the footage right past takes 1 through 3 to get to take 4. Using a slate and take log can greatly decrease the time required in the editing room. Review

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. List the six types of script breakdowns. Prop list, prop plot, location breakdown, cast breakdown by scene, scene breakdown by cast, and equipment breakdown. Review Question

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Identify some qualities of an effective director. Not a dictator, makes decisions, knows the capabilities of equipment, is a “people person,” is polite, an artist/technician, is highly organized, is always prepared, fosters a team attitude, takes initiative, displays even temper, gives only constructive criticism, can delegate tasks, takes responsibility for final decisions. Review Question

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain why knowing the four rules of action is critical when marking a script for scene transitions. The last shot of one scene may contain action or camera movement or both. Knowing how one scene ends is critical in deciding how to begin shooting the next scene. Because the scenes of a program are not typically shot in order, all the transitions must be planned out for the entire program before shooting can begin. Review Question

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. audition: The process in which a director makes casting decisions for a program by watching and listening to prospective performers. cast breakdown by scene: A list of the program’s cast members with the corresponding scene numbers in which they appear. Glossary

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. countdown: The procedure used by a production’s floor manager to initiate action on the set and cue the performers by counting down from “10.” dry run: A program rehearsal session that includes the talent, technical director, audio engineer, camera operators, and director. Also called a camera rehearsal. Glossary

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. equipment breakdown: A list of each scene in a program with all the equipment needed to shoot each scene. location breakdown: A list of each location included in a program with the corresponding scene numbers that take place at that location. prop list: A list of each prop needed for a production. Glossary

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. prop plot: A list of all the props used in a program sorted by scene. scene breakdown by cast: A list of each scene number in a program with all the cast members needed for each scene. script breakdown: The process of analyzing a program’s script from many different perspectives. Glossary

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. shooting for the edit: The process in which a director plans exactly how each scene of a program will transition from the scenes that immediately precede it and to the scenes that follow it. Production shooting then follows the director’s plan. Glossary

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. slate: A board or page that is held in front of the camera to note the scene number, the take number, and several other pieces of information about the scene being shot. take: Each recording of an individual scene. The take number counts each time an individual scene is shot. take log: A written list of each scene and take number that have been shot and recorded on a particular tape. Also called a shot log. Glossary


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