Presentation on theme: "Required Elements to Include in Lesson Plan Goal and Objectives Teaching Procedures Accommodations Assessment Theory Connections DRTA."— Presentation transcript:
Required Elements to Include in Lesson Plan Goal and Objectives Teaching Procedures Accommodations Assessment Theory Connections DRTA
General Notes The goal for the DRTA is related to the major purpose of this method of teaching—to reinforce strategies for monitoring comprehension. The objectives should be specific and measureable and correlated to GLEs: Objective for making and revising predictions Objective for vocabulary Objective for writing response activity Other reminders— Break the text into at least 4 sections Include at least three questions per segment as well as a question for revising previous prediction Label each question using Bloom’s Taxonomy Label in the margins where vocabulary and comprehension is addressed
Accommodations Versus Modifications Accommodations— Accommodations indicate changes to how the content is: 1) taught, 2) made accessible; and/or 3) assessed. Accommodations do not change what the student is expected to master. The objectives of the course remain intact. Modifications-- Indicates the what (content) being taught is modified. The student is expected to learn something different than the general education standard (e.g., GLE).
Accommodations—General Examples Ex. - The use of Braille, books on tape, screen readers, interpreter, word processor, etc. for visually impaired students Ex. – For struggling readers - Color-key vowels and provide a vowel chart to reference to the correct sound for the letter Ex. - Provide a space for the student to work that decreases distractions Ex. Oral testing, untimed testing, extended time to complete assignments, shortened tests, draw a diagram, develop a model, perform the answer, etc. Explain how you will address the varied needs of the students in your classroom. How will you meet the needs of students that require remediation or enrichment. Ex. – How will you address the needs of struggling readers? Ex. - How will you address the needs of ESL students? Ex. – Will you integrate “study skills” into your teaching practices? Ex. – Will you use Learning Centers, Tiered Instruction, Varied Pacing, Problem-Based Learning, Compacting, Chunking, varied forms of collaborative activities, peer-teaching, etc.?
Accommodations—Hearing Impaired Hearing Impaired Visual accommodations include sign language interpreters, lip reading, and captioning. Aural accommodations include amplification devices such as FM systems. Other When speaking, make sure the student can see your face and avoid unnecessary pacing and moving. When speaking, avoid obscuring your lips or face with hands, books, or other materials. Repeat discussion questions and statements made by other students. Write discussion questions/answers on a whiteboard or overhead projector. Speak clearly and at a normal rate. Use visual aids with few words and large images and fonts. Provide written lecture outlines, class assignments, lab instructions, and demonstration summaries and distribute them before class when possible. From http://www.washington.edu/doit/Stem/hearing.htmlhttp://www.washington.edu/doit/Stem/hearing.html
Accommodations—Visually Impaired Blindness refers to the disability of students who cannot read printed text, even when enlarged. Typical accommodations include: Audiotaped, Brailled or electronic-formatted lecture notes, handouts, and texts. Verbal descriptions of visual aids. Raised-line drawings and tactile models of graphic materials. Braille lab signs and equipment labels. Auditory lab warning signals. Adaptive lab equipment (e.g., talking thermometers and calculators, light probes, and tactile timers). Computer with optical character reader, speech output, Braille screen display and/or Braille embosser. Low Vision refers to students who have some usable vision, but cannot read standard- size text, have field deficits (for example, cannot see peripherally or centrally but can see well in other ranges), or other visual impairments. Typical accommodations include: Seating near front of class. Large print handouts, lab signs, and equipment labels. TV monitor connected to microscope to enlarge images. Class assignments made available in electronic format. Computer equipped to enlarge screen characters and images. From http://www.washington.edu/doit/Stem/disability_type.htmlhttp://www.washington.edu/doit/Stem/disability_type.html
Accommodations—Learning Disability Learning Disabilities are documented disabilities that may affect reading, processing information, remembering, calculating, and spatial abilities. Examples of accommodations for students who have specific learning disabilities include: Notetakers and/or audiotaped class sessions. Captioned videos and films. Extra exam time, alternative testing arrangements. Visual, aural, and tactile instructional demonstrations. Reinforcing directions verbally. Breaking large amounts of information or instructions into smaller segments. Detailed printed or audiotaped project descriptions or instructions. Books on tape. Computers equipped with speech output, which highlights and reads (via screen reading software and a speech synthesizer) text on the computer screen. Word processing software that includes electronic spelling and grammar checkers, software with highlighting capabilities, and word prediction features. Software to enlarge screen images.
Accommodations—Gifted Encourage students to explore concepts in depth and encourage independent studies or investigations. Use thematic instruction to connect learning across the curriculum. Encourage creative expression and thinking by allowing students to choose how to approach a problem or assignment. Expand students’ time for free reading. Invite students to explore different points of view on a topic of study and compare the two. Provide learning centers where students are in charge of their learning. Brainstorm with gifted children on what types of projects they would like to explore to extend what they’re learning in the classroom. Determine where students’ interests lie and capitalize on their inquisitiveness. Refrain from having them complete more work in the same manner. Employ differentiated curriculum to keep interest high. Avoid drill and practice activities. Ask students’ higher level questions that require students to look into causes, experiences, and facts to draw a conclusion or make connections to other areas of learning. If possible, compact curriculum to allow gifted students to move more quickly through the material. Encourage students to make transformations- use a common task or item in a different way. From http://www.bsu.edu/web/lshasky/Forms/Interventions/Gifted.pdfhttp://www.bsu.edu/web/lshasky/Forms/Interventions/Gifted.pdf
Modifications--General Examples Modify the amount of work required Alter format of materials on page (font, spacing) Allow for alternate modes of responding Use alternate grading system Different test items Noted different objective for specific students
Assessment Formal Summative- Grade related, not necessary to have in every daily lesson plan. Summative assessments come at the end of a process or activity such as: unit tests projects term papers final exams. NOTE: A Formal/Summative assessment must be included as part of a unit plan. OR Informal Formative- How will you know lesson objectives have been met? These are used continuously throughout a lesson to check for student understanding. They are interactive and are used primarily to “form” or alter an ongoing process or activity. Guided discussions Teacher observation(s) of specific tasks, criterion, attributes, etc Think-Pair-Share NOTE: Be certain that your assessment(s) effectively demonstrate how you will measure and evaluate the performance/achievement of your students as stated in your learning/behavioral objectives.
Theory Connections—General Overview Emergent Literacy Children are in the process of becoming literate from birth; reading and writing are interrelated and develop concurrently; and children do not learn the same way at the same time. Constructivism Knowledge is constructed through experiences; teacher is a facilitator providing an interactive environment; students are thinkers with emerging views about the world. Reading Readiness Readers must master basic skills before learning to read; includes a scope and sequence arranged and sequenced according to difficulty level. Traditional Adherence to fixed curriculum, teacher is disseminator of information, student is viewed as “blank slate”.
Emergent LiteracyReading Readiness Theoretical Perspective Children are in the process of becoming literate from birth and are capable of learning what it means to be a user of written language before entering school. Children must master a set of basic skills before they can learn to read. Learning to read is an out- come of school-based instruction. Acquisition of Literacy Skills and Strategies Children learn to use written language and develop as readers and writers through active engagement with their world. Literacy develops in real-life settings in purposeful ways. Children learn to read by mastering skills arranged and sequenced in a hierarchy according to their level of difficulty. Relationship of Reading to Writing Children progress as readers and writers. Reading and writing (as well as speaking and listening) are interrelated and develop concurrently. Children learn to read first. The skills of reading must be developed before introducing written composition. Functional- Formal Learning Children learn informally through interactions with and modeling from literate significant others and explorations with written language. Children learn through formal teaching and monitoring (i.e., periodic assessment) of skills. Individual Development Children learn to be literate in different ways and at different rates of development. Children progress as readers by moving through a “scope and sequence” of skills. Vacca, J.; Vacca, R. & Gove, M. (1991). Reading and Learning to Read, 2 ed., Glenview, IL: HarperCollins Publishers.
TraditionalConstructivist Curriculum -Curriculum is presented part to whole, with emphasis on basic skills. -Strict adherence to fixed curriculum is highly valued. -Curriculum is presented whole to part with emphasis on big concepts. -Pursuit of student questions is highly valued. Curricular Activities Rely heavily on textbooks and workbooks. Rely heavily on primary sources of data and manipulative materials. How Ss are Viewed Ss are viewed as blank slates onto which information is etched by the teacher. Ss are viewed as thinkers with emerging theories about the world. Teacher -Generally behave in a didactic manner, disseminating information to students. -Teachers seek the correct answer to validate student learning. -Ts generally behave in an interactive manner, mediating the environment for Ss. -Ts seek the students' point of view in order to understand students' present conceptions for use in subsequent lessons. Assessment Assessment of student learning is viewed as separate from teaching and occurs almost entirely through testing. Assessment of student learning is interwoven with teaching and occurs through teacher observation of Ss at work and through student exhibitions and portfolios. How Ss Work Students primarily work alone.Students primarily work in groups. Brooks, J.G., and Brooks, M.G. (1993). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Theory Connections Identify 3 theory connections using this format: ______________ (describe example from your lesson plan) is an example of _____________(insert theory-ex. Constructivism), because it ______________ (insert specific reason why-ex. reflects that students are thinkers with emerging theories about the world). Your examples should be for completed using your DRTA lesson. The examples are listed below are to illustrate what the theory connection should look like. Example #1—using Literature Circles Students talk about their books in small groups, which is an example of Constructivism, because (a) students work primarily in groups and (b) the teacher acts as a facilitator by mediating the environment for children, and (c) students are viewed as thinkers with emerging theories about the world. Example #2—using phonics lesson The teacher works with students using explicit and systematic phonics instruction to teach them letter/sound relationships. This is an example of Reading Readiness, since it reflects the idea that students learn through formal teaching and monitoring of schools. Students practice their phonics skills by reading a predictable book containing words with that phonic element (/ ă ). This is an example of emergent literacy, since it reflects the idea that children learn informally through interactions with and modeling from literate significant others and explorations with written language.
Assessment Create a rubric to evaluate objectives. Two parts Evaluation of actual process of DRTA Evaluation of writing response activity Identify key skill areas for each part Determine point value per skill area
VERY IMPORTANT! It is your responsibility to check the rubric to be sure you have covered all required elements!!!