# SCIENCE “Science does not know its debt to imagination” –Emerson.

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SCIENCE “Science does not know its debt to imagination” –Emerson

What are the 4 branches of Science? 1. Biology Study of life 2. Chemistry Study of composition of matter 3.Physics Study of forces and motion 4.Earth Science Study of the Earth and its surroundings

Four Branches of Earth Science Geology –Study of the solid earth Oceanography –Study of the oceans Meteorology –Study of the atmosphere and weather Astronomy –Study of the universe

4 Earth’s Spheres

1. Hydrosphere = all earth’s water…everywhere.

2. Atmosphere = all the air surrounding earth

3. Geosphere = all of the solid earth

4. Biosphere = all living things on earth

System – any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole. Driving Forces - The Sun Internal Heat Earth as a System

So What? Why do we study the earth and things that are around the earth?

So What? Why do we study the earth and things that are around the earth? Water Wars

Determining Location Latitude – distance N or S of equator measured in degrees –Lines run east and west –Measures distances N & S –0º = equator –90º = poles

Determining Location Longitude – distance E or W of the Prime Meridian measured in degrees –Lines run N and S –Measures distances E & W –0º = Prime Meridian…Greenwich, Eng. –180º = International Date Line

Latitude and Longitude Written as follows: 118°00’00” meaning 118 degrees, 0 minutes, and 0 seconds. 31°30’15” = 31 degrees, 30 minutes, and 15 seconds. Remember that minutes and seconds only go to 60…not 100! Always connect the top/bottom and left/right lines of lat or long

Maps Projecting from a round earth/globe onto a flat map will always produce some type of distortion… Land & distances at the poles are greatly enlarged Land & distances at the equator are normal

Topographic Maps (Contour Maps) Represents the 3-D earth in 2-D. –Shows elevations by contour lines (lines of equal elevation) –Contour interval – elevation difference between adjacent lines –Scale – a distance on the map = a distance on the surface (ratio, bar, verbal) –Legend/key – explains symbols on the map

5 Rules of Contour Lines Never cross “Vs” point upstream Closely spaced lines = steep land Farther spaced lines = flatter land Form closed loops

Types of Rocks Chapter 3

What is a Rock? Any consolidated material consisting of more than one mineral

3 Types of Rocks 1.Igneous 2.Metamorphic 3.Sedimentary

Igneous Rocks (from fire) 2 main types 1. Intrusive Cools and forms slowly (large crystals) From magma Underground 2. Extrusive Cools and forms quickly (small crystals) From lava Above ground

Igneous Rocks Classification 2 ways to classify igneous rocks 1. Texture & 2. Composition –Texture (4 types) 1. Coarse grained – slow cooling, large crystals 2. Fine grained – fast cooling, small crystals 3. Glassy – super fast cooling, glassy 4. Porphyritic – slow and fast cooling, has both large and small crystals

Course-Grained Igneous Texture

Fine-Grained Igneous Texture

Obsidian Exhibits a Glassy Texture.

Porphyritic Igneous Texture

2 Magma Groups (families) 1. Granitic (felsic) = continental High in silica, light colored, low density 2. Basaltic (mafic) = oceanic Low in silica, dark colored, high density

Sedimentary Rocks From (Latin) sedimentum = settling Made from sedimentssediments

Sedimentary Rock Classification 3 MAIN TYPES: 1. Clastic = form from sedimentClastic 2. Chemical = form from precipitation or evaporation 3. Biochemical (organic) = form from remains of once living organisms

Chemical

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks categorized by size/shape Conglomerate – rounded pebble sized Breccia – angular pebble sized Sandstone – sand sized Siltstone– silt sized Shale/mudstone – clay sized

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Crystalline limestone – precipitates from ocean water Travertine – precipitates in caves Chert/flint – quartz Gypsum – precipitates from oceans, too Rock salt – evaporated salt water

Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Fossil limestone – fossils remains Coquina – shells and shell fragments Chalk – microscopic shells and clay Bituminous coal – plant remains

Sedimentary Rock Features Ripple Marks Mudcracks Bedding Foliation (layers)

Metamorphic Rocks Means to change form 2 types of metamorphism 1. Contact Metamorphism – small areas from magma 2. Regional Metamorphism – large areas from mountain building

3 Agents of Metamorphism 1.Heat (temperature) 2.Pressure (stress) 3.Chemicals

Metamorphic Rock Types 1.Foliated – easily seen layers due to heat and pressure. ex: gneiss and slate 2.Non foliated – no layers can be seen ex: marble and quartzite

1. Foliated Metamorphic 1.Slate – very thin layers, from shale 2.Phyllite – thin layers, sheen, wavy, from slate 3.Schist – medium layers,shiny, micas, from phyllite 4.Gneiss – distinct black & white layers, from schist or granite

Nonfoliated Metamorphic 1.Marble – shiny, fizzes in acid, H = 3, from limestone 2.Quartzite – shiny, won’t fizz, H = 6 – 7, from sandstone 3.Anthracite coal – shiny, black, from bituminous coal The carbon cycle…see page 85

Lab Information

Igneous Rocks = most common overall --never layered --can be spotty,glassy --can have holes --crystals rectangular

Sedimentary Rocks Most common on surface Usually dull earthy colors Can have fossils Can be layered Rounded grains

Metamorphic Rocks = most common around NC crystals flattened may be layered/foliated can be shiny/sheeny

The Rock Cycle Continuous model that shows how rocks can change from 1 type into another. Interactions among water, air, land, and living things can cause rocks to change. types of energy that drive the rock cycle: 1. SUN=external forces = weathering, etc. produce sedimentary rocks 2. MAGMA=internal forces=heat produces igneous and metamorphic rocks

and deposition and chemicals Heat, pressure, and chemicals and crystallization

Rock Cycle Driving Factors 1.Sun - Drives the water cycle that produces weathering and erosion. 2.Heat from Earth’s Interior -Heat produces igneous and metamorphic rocks. 3.Gravitational Energy - Gravity pulls everything down…rockslides, falling rain, tall mountains, etc.

Vocab. terms Magma – underground molten rock Lava – above ground molten rock Crystallization – formation of minerals from cooling magma/lava Weathering – breaking rocks into smaller pieces called (sediments)

Erosion – transportation of sediments –W W G G Deposition – dropping off of sediments Lithification – compacting and cementing of sediment (turn to rock) Metamorphism – changing one type of rock into another (3 ways: heat/pressure/or chemicals)

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