# 5 years 14 years 20 years 28 years 50 years

## Presentation on theme: "5 years 14 years 20 years 28 years 50 years"— Presentation transcript:

5 years 14 years 20 years 28 years 50 years
The production of a commodity has been growing exponentially with time at a rate of 5% per year. The time required to QUADRUPLE the annual production at this growth rate is closest to: 5 years 14 years 20 years 28 years 50 years * The percentage growth rate value changes from year to year. *

5 years 14 years 20 years 28 years 50 years
The production of a commodity has been growing exponentially with time at a rate of 5% per year. The time required to QUADRUPLE the annual production at this growth rate is closest to: 5 years 14 years 20 years 28 years 50 years * The percentage growth rate value changes from year to year. *

Although it is probably impossible to predict precisely when an earthquake will occur, one of the following features may indicate that an area is at high risk of a major earthquake: A seismic gap along an active fault zone aftershocks Ground subsidence Electrical storms Low levels of radon in wells

Although it is probably impossible to predict precisely when an earthquake will occur, one of the following features may indicate that an area is at high risk of a major earthquake: A seismic gap along an active fault zone aftershocks Ground subsidence Electrical storms Low levels of radon in wells

We can sample rocks at the surface of the Earth to determine their density, but to place limits on the nature of materials deeper in the Earth, we need to determine the AVERAGE density of Earth. We can do that by studying the interaction of the Earth with the moon. In doing that determination, you would need all but one of the following. Which one don’t you need? The Earth’s moment of inertia The radius of the Earth The gravitational constant (G) The orbital velocity of the moon The distance from the Earth to the Moon

We can sample rocks at the surface of the Earth to determine their density, but to place limits on the nature of materials deeper in the Earth, we need to determine the AVERAGE density of Earth. We can do that by studying the interaction of the Earth with the moon. In doing that determination, you would need all but one of the following. Which one don’t you need? The Earth’s moment of inertia The radius of the Earth The gravitational constant (G) The orbital velocity of the moon The distance from the Earth to the Moon

Fe, O, Si, Mg Fe, Mg, Ni, O O, Si, Al, Fe O, Fe, Si, Ni Fe, Ni, S, O
There are over 100 elements in the Earth, but amazingly, only four elements constitute, in total 90% (by weight) of the entire Earth. These four elements are: Fe, O, Si, Mg Fe, Mg, Ni, O O, Si, Al, Fe O, Fe, Si, Ni Fe, Ni, S, O

Fe, O, Si, Mg Fe, Mg, Ni, O O, Si, Al, Fe O, Fe, Si, Ni Fe, Ni, S, O
There are over 100 elements in the Earth, but amazingly, only four elements constitute, in total 90% (by weight) of the entire Earth. These four elements are: Fe, O, Si, Mg Fe, Mg, Ni, O O, Si, Al, Fe O, Fe, Si, Ni Fe, Ni, S, O

pyrite Potassium Feldspar Chalcopyrite Magnetite Galena
The Earth’s crust includes the following five minerals. If you could mine every last crystal of these five minerals from the crust, which one would end up providing the most lead? pyrite Potassium Feldspar Chalcopyrite Magnetite Galena

pyrite Potassium Feldspar Chalcopyrite Magnetite Galena
The Earth’s crust includes the following five minerals. If you could mine every last crystal of these five minerals from the crust, which one would end up providing the most lead? pyrite Potassium Feldspar Chalcopyrite Magnetite Galena

Four of the five main structural groups of silicate minerals involve polymerization. The polymerization is achieved by: The covalent bonding of oxygen with positive cations The joining of single chains with positive cations The sharing of oxygen atoms between silica tetrahedra The replacement of some silicon atoms with aluminum The sharing of silicon atoms with aluminum atoms

Four of the five main structural groups of silicate minerals involve polymerization. The polymerization is achieved by: The covalent bonding of oxygen with positive cations The joining of single chains with positive cations The sharing of oxygen atoms between silica tetrahedra The replacement of some silicon atoms with aluminum The sharing of silicon atoms with aluminum atoms

As seismic energy waves travel deeper and deeper in the lower mantle of the Earth, the P-wave velocity increases with depth because: The compressibility modulus decreases with depth in the mantle The chemical composition of the mantle changes with depth The density increases with depth in the mantle The elasticity increases more rapidly than the density with increase in depth The lower mantle becomes more plastic

As seismic energy waves travel deeper and deeper in the lower mantle of the Earth, the P-wave velocity increases with depth because: The compressibility modulus decreases with depth in the mantle The chemical composition of the mantle changes with depth The density increases with depth in the mantle The elasticity increases more rapidly than the density with increase in depth The lower mantle becomes more plastic

west South north east It does not plunge
The sketch below is a plan map view of a series of sedimentary strata which have been folded and eroded to the horizontal. Strike and dip directions are shown. Which way does the fold plunge? west South north east It does not plunge

west South north east It does not plunge
The sketch below is a plan map view of a series of sedimentary strata which have been folded and eroded to the horizontal. Strike and dip directions are shown. Which way does the fold plunge? west South north east It does not plunge

clay hematite limonite quartz feldspar
Weathering produces minerals that are more stable at the Earth’s surface. Which of the following is the most abundant product of the weathering process? clay hematite limonite quartz feldspar

clay hematite limonite quartz feldspar
Weathering produces minerals that are more stable at the Earth’s surface. Which of the following is the most abundant product of the weathering process? clay hematite limonite quartz feldspar

Which of the following features is most likely to be associated with a palco-placer gold deposit?
Submarine lava flows Granite porphyry Cross bedding Igneous layering Vesicularity

Which of the following features is most likely to be associated with a palco-placer gold deposit?
Submarine lava flows Granite porphyry Cross bedding Igneous layering Vesicularity

To generate a computer model of Earth, we must specify two things to the computer. Which of the following are they? 1. the compressibility moduli of the different materials in Earth 2. the distribution of the different materials in the model Earth 3. the densities of the different materials in the model Earth 4. the shear moduli of the different materials in the model Earth 5. the seismic velocities within the different materials in the model Earth 5 and 2 4 and 2 1 and 2 3 and 2 4 and 5

To generate a computer model of Earth, we must specify two things to the computer. Which of the following are they? 1. the compressibility moduli of the different materials in Earth 2. the distribution of the different materials in the model Earth 3. the densities of the different materials in the model Earth 4. the shear moduli of the different materials in the model Earth 5. the seismic velocities within the different materials in the model Earth 5 and 2 4 and 2 1 and 2 3 and 2 4 and 5

If you were in the Kingston area about 450 million years ago, what would you have seen?
Desert sands Ice sheets like in Greenland An oceanic island-arc A Himalayan-like mountain range Shallow seas

If you were in the Kingston area about 450 million years ago, what would you have seen?
Desert sands Ice sheets like in Greenland An oceanic island-arc A Himalayan-like mountain range Shallow seas

Of the following five rocks, which one can best neutralize acid rain?
Rock salt A sulfide deposit A granite A sandstone A limestone

Of the following five rocks, which one can best neutralize acid rain?
Rock salt A sulfide deposit A granite A sandstone A limestone

On a semi-log plot of annual production of a commodity versus time, the plot for the commodity that is being produced at an exponential rate is:

On a semi-log plot of annual production of a commodity versus time, the plot for the commodity that is being produced at an exponential rate is:

In carrying out a risk assessment and risk management process, we calculate the risk by multiplying the probability of the hazard occurring by: The type of risk The frequency of the risk The severity of the risk The length of the hazard The proximity of the hazard

In carrying out a risk assessment and risk management process, we calculate the risk by multiplying the probability of the hazard occurring by: The type of risk The frequency of the risk The severity of the risk The length of the hazard The proximity of the hazard

What is the major danger from fissure eruptions?
Release of sulfur dioxide gas tsunami earthquakes mudflows solifluction

What is the major danger from fissure eruptions?
Release of sulfur dioxide gas tsunami earthquakes mudflows solifluction

When exploring for oil, seismic reflection studies provide the most effective way to search for suitable sedimentary rock structures that might host the oil. What kind of structure is most likely to be a prime target for oil? An up-arch antiform A moraine An unconformity A strike-slip fault Mud-cracks

When exploring for oil, seismic reflection studies provide the most effective way to search for suitable sedimentary rock structures that might host the oil. What kind of structure is most likely to be a prime target for oil? An up-arch antiform A moraine An unconformity A strike-slip fault Mud-cracks

If we want to determine whether humans have been responsible for dramatically changing the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution, we need to know what their values were before that time. Which of the following approaches can give us that information? Drilling and analyzing ice cores from glaciers Analyzing the composition of gas in mud layers on the ocean floor Analyzing atmospheric gas collected in Hawaii Analyzing the carbonates in fossil shells Analyzing the tree rings in bristlecone pines

If we want to determine whether humans have been responsible for dramatically changing the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution, we need to know what their values were before that time. Which of the following approaches can give us that information? Drilling and analyzing ice cores from glaciers Analyzing the composition of gas in mud layers on the ocean floor Analyzing atmospheric gas collected in Hawaii Analyzing the carbonates in fossil shells Analyzing the tree rings in bristlecone pines

Roughly what percentage of the world’s human population currently lives in urban areas?
10% 25% 50% 75% 90%

Roughly what percentage of the world’s human population currently lives in urban areas?
10% 25% 50% 75% 90%

San Francisco, California, sits right on the San Andreas fault
San Francisco, California, sits right on the San Andreas fault. This fault marks a tectonic plate boundary. At this plate boundary: Plates are moving towards each other One plate is sliding under another plate Plates are moving away from one another Continents are colliding Plates are sliding past each other

San Francisco, California, sits right on the San Andreas fault
San Francisco, California, sits right on the San Andreas fault. This fault marks a tectonic plate boundary. At this plate boundary: Plates are moving towards each other One plate is sliding under another plate Plates are moving away from one another Continents are colliding Plates are sliding past each other

If the Earth’s magnetic field did not occasionally reverse polarity:
Polar-wander curves would not exist Compasses would not work Paleomagnetic analysis of a rock would not give the direction of the pole The sea floor would not produce linear magnetic anomalies Continental drift would not have occurred

If the Earth’s magnetic field did not occasionally reverse polarity:
Polar-wander curves would not exist Compasses would not work Paleomagnetic analysis of a rock would not give the direction of the pole The sea floor would not produce linear magnetic anomalies Continental drift would not have occurred

What is the main control on the size of crystals produced in igneous rocks?
Viscosity of the magma Volatile content Temperature of the magma Shape of the igneous body Rate of cooling

What is the main control on the size of crystals produced in igneous rocks?
Viscosity of the magma Volatile content Temperature of the magma Shape of the igneous body Rate of cooling

Reverse dip-slip Normal dip-slip Nobody’s strike-slip Transverse
What type of fault is most likely to be associated with a constructive plate margin? Reverse dip-slip Normal dip-slip Nobody’s strike-slip Transverse

Reverse dip-slip Normal dip-slip Nobody’s strike-slip Transverse
What type of fault is most likely to be associated with a constructive plate margin? Reverse dip-slip Normal dip-slip Nobody’s strike-slip Transverse

mafic ultramafic granite dioritic porphyrytic
Magmas contain dissolved volatiles. Which of the following magmas will generally be the riches in water? mafic ultramafic granite dioritic porphyrytic

mafic ultramafic granite dioritic porphyrytic
Magmas contain dissolved volatiles. Which of the following magmas will generally be the riches in water? mafic ultramafic granite dioritic porphyrytic

Decrease in per capita consumption
There is no single “one-model-fits-all” solution to problems of population growth rates that are too high. However, one of the following is MOST directly linked to a reduction in the population growth rate of countries. Which one is it? Economic incentives Use of contraceptives industrialization Decrease in per capita consumption Education of men

Decrease in per capita consumption
There is no single “one-model-fits-all” solution to problems of population growth rates that are too high. However, one of the following is MOST directly linked to a reduction in the population growth rate of countries. Which one is it? Economic incentives Use of contraceptives industrialization Decrease in per capita consumption Education of men

I have hired you to help my exploration company find a vein-type Cu-Mo-Ag-Au porphyry deposit. Where, of the following possibilities, is the best place to look for such a deposit? Shield volcanoes in the middles of plates Destructive plate margins Constructive plate margins Transform plate margins Kimberlite pipes in the middle of plates

I have hired you to help my exploration company find a vein-type Cu-Mo-Ag-Au porphyry deposit. Where, of the following possibilities, is the best place to look for such a deposit? Shield volcanoes in the middles of plates Destructive plate margins Constructive plate margins Transform plate margins Kimberlite pipes in the middle of plates

Granite porphyry greywacke Shale/mudstone Salt dome Quartz sandstone
Of the following rock types, which is the most likely to be a trap rock for trapping oil and gas underground? Granite porphyry greywacke Shale/mudstone Salt dome Quartz sandstone

Granite porphyry greywacke Shale/mudstone Salt dome Quartz sandstone
Of the following rock types, which is the most likely to be a trap rock for trapping oil and gas underground? Granite porphyry greywacke Shale/mudstone Salt dome Quartz sandstone

Which strike and dip symbol best represents the orientation of the coal bed in space?
Note: the orientation and numbers in the diagram are known to change

Which strike and dip symbol best represents the orientation of the coal bed in space?
Note: the orientation and numbers in the diagram are known to change

In determining the recurrence interval for large earthquakes along faults, we make use of the “Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships”. This law is related to: The fact that pieces of the Earth’s crust are constantly moving up and down The order in which sediments are deposited The fact that the focus Is always above the epicenter of the earthquake The fact that, as a result of a tsunami, a peat layer is thrown on top of a sand layer The fact that layers are shifted when a fault motion takes place

In determining the recurrence interval for large earthquakes along faults, we make use of the “Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships”. This law is related to: The fact that pieces of the Earth’s crust are constantly moving up and down The order in which sediments are deposited The fact that the focus Is always above the epicenter of the earthquake The fact that, as a result of a tsunami, a peat layer is thrown on top of a sand layer The fact that layers are shifted when a fault motion takes place

Which meteorite type is a best approximation to the AVERAGE composition of the Earth?
A basaltic achondrite meteorite A Leonid meteorite A chondrite meteorite An ultramafic meteorite An iron meteorite

Which meteorite type is a best approximation to the AVERAGE composition of the Earth?
A basaltic achondrite meteorite A Leonid meteorite A chondrite meteorite An ultramafic meteorite An iron meteorite

Biotite mica Pyroxene Olivine Na-rich Plagioclase Quartz
As a magma of Granodiorite composition cools down from 1500° C, which of the following minerals would crystalize first? Biotite mica Pyroxene Olivine Na-rich Plagioclase Quartz

Biotite mica Pyroxene Olivine Na-rich Plagioclase Quartz
As a magma of Granodiorite composition cools down from 1500° C, which of the following minerals would crystalize first? Biotite mica Pyroxene Olivine Na-rich Plagioclase Quartz

The Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock deals with:
The development of the hydrological cycle The Plate Tectonic cycle The formation of the Solar System The “physiology” of the Earth The Rock Cycle

The Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock deals with:
The development of the hydrological cycle The Plate Tectonic cycle The formation of the Solar System The “physiology” of the Earth The Rock Cycle

Greywacke Banded Iron Formation Quartz Sandstone Limestone Mudstone
Which of the following rocks would be most likely to contain feldspar grains? Greywacke Banded Iron Formation Quartz Sandstone Limestone Mudstone

Greywacke Banded Iron Formation Quartz Sandstone Limestone Mudstone
Which of the following rocks would be most likely to contain feldspar grains? Greywacke Banded Iron Formation Quartz Sandstone Limestone Mudstone

Water wells have been sunk in the region shown in the plan map
Water wells have been sunk in the region shown in the plan map. The height of the water table is indicated. Which way is the ground water dominantly flowing in the region? East to west West to East North to South South to North Up and Down like a yo-yo, and circling like a tornado Note: the numbers on the diagram are known to vary from year to year

Water wells have been sunk in the region shown in the plan map
Water wells have been sunk in the region shown in the plan map. The height of the water table is indicated. Which way is the ground water dominantly flowing in the region? East to west West to East North to South South to North Up and Down like a yo-yo, and circling like a tornado Note: the numbers on the diagram are known to vary from year to year

Greywacke Banded Iron Formation Quartz Sandstone Limestone Mudstone
Which of the following rocks would be most likely to contain feldspar grains? Greywacke Banded Iron Formation Quartz Sandstone Limestone Mudstone

Greywacke Banded Iron Formation Quartz Sandstone Limestone Mudstone
Which of the following rocks would be most likely to contain feldspar grains? Greywacke Banded Iron Formation Quartz Sandstone Limestone Mudstone

From the sketch below showing a cross-section of cross-bedding sandstone layers, which way was the water that produced them moving? Uni-directionally, from left to right Bi-directionally, back and forth From up to down Uni-directionally from right to left From down to up Note: the direction of the asymmetrical wave pattern is known to vary from year to year

From the sketch below showing a cross-section of cross-bedding sandstone layers, which way was the water that produced them moving? Uni-directionally, from left to right Bi-directionally, back and forth From up to down Uni-directionally from right to left From down to up Note: the direction of the asymmetrical wave pattern is known to vary from year to year

A silicate mineral that is not in the presence of water is most likely to be above its melting point at: A low temperature and a high pressure A high temperature and high pressure A low temperature and low pressure A high temperature and low pressure The surface of the Earth

A silicate mineral that is not in the presence of water is most likely to be above its melting point at: A low temperature and a high pressure A high temperature and high pressure A low temperature and low pressure A high temperature and low pressure The surface of the Earth

Greater than 100°C 50°C 15°C 0°C - 20°C
The average temperature at the surface of the Earth is currently approximately 16°centigrade. However, what would the average surface temperature of the Earth be if the Earth had no atmosphere. Greater than 100°C 50°C 15°C 0°C - 20°C

Greater than 100°C 50°C 15°C 0°C - 20°C
The average temperature at the surface of the Earth is currently approximately 16°centigrade. However, what would the average surface temperature of the Earth be if the Earth had no atmosphere. Greater than 100°C 50°C 15°C 0°C - 20°C

Diorite Gabbro Limestone Granite Rock Salt
Which of the following rock types would tend to chemically weather LEAST rapidly? Diorite Gabbro Limestone Granite Rock Salt

Diorite Gabbro Limestone Granite Rock Salt
Which of the following rock types would tend to chemically weather LEAST rapidly? Diorite Gabbro Limestone Granite Rock Salt

Differentiation of igneous rocks by partial melting can only occur if:
There is convection in the magma chamber The magma becomes less viscous during crystallization The magma contains water Early-formed liquids are separated from the remaining rock As crystals form, they react with the liquid.

Differentiation of igneous rocks by partial melting can only occur if:
There is convection in the magma chamber The magma becomes less viscous during crystallization The magma contains water Early-formed liquids are separated from the remaining rock As crystals form, they react with the liquid.

Brad R. Allenby, in his paper on Earth-Systems Engineering, argues that the desired goal, or end point, of Earth Systems Engineering should be: Economic growth Sustainability Climate change Equity Decreased population

Brad R. Allenby, in his paper on Earth-Systems Engineering, argues that the desired goal, or end point, of Earth Systems Engineering should be: Economic growth Sustainability Climate change Equity Decreased population

Proximity to Earth’s surface
Which of the following features of an igneous rock can be used to get an idea of its chemical composition? Size Type of rock structure Proximity to Earth’s surface Colour All of the above

Proximity to Earth’s surface
Which of the following features of an igneous rock can be used to get an idea of its chemical composition? Size Type of rock structure Proximity to Earth’s surface Colour All of the above

Which of the following rock types is most likely to be well-sorted?
Greywacke Limestone Quartz Sandstone Glacial till Arkose

Which of the following rock types is most likely to be well-sorted?
Greywacke Limestone Quartz Sandstone Glacial till Arkose

Aluminum Sodium Calcium Iron Potassium
Quartz and Feldspar are minerals that belong to the same silicate structural type. Their compositional difference is due to the replacement of some silicon atoms by another element to form the feldspars. What is the element that replaces silicon? Aluminum Sodium Calcium Iron Potassium

Aluminum Sodium Calcium Iron Potassium
Quartz and Feldspar are minerals that belong to the same silicate structural type. Their compositional difference is due to the replacement of some silicon atoms by another element to form the feldspars. What is the element that replaces silicon? Aluminum Sodium Calcium Iron Potassium

A mafic dyke would most likely be associated with:
A pyroclastic flow A fissure eruption A strike-slip fault A tsunami A translation slip

A mafic dyke would most likely be associated with:
A pyroclastic flow A fissure eruption A strike-slip fault A tsunami A translation slip

Hubbert’s Peak refers to:
The first site, in the early 1950’s, for measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide The total resource of a commodity The highest average global population growth rate in the 20th century The highest global production of crude oil The highest continental mountain

Hubbert’s Peak refers to:
The first site, in the early 1950’s, for measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide The total resource of a commodity The highest average global population growth rate in the 20th century The highest global production of crude oil The highest continental mountain

Absolute ages have been attached to the Relative Time Scale by determination of:
The nature of superposition of the sedimentary layers Radiometric ages of igneous rocks younger and older than sedimentary formations Radiometric ages of fossil skeletons The nature of the biotic succession of rocks The cross-cutting relationships of igneous rocks and faults

Absolute ages have been attached to the Relative Time Scale by determination of:
The nature of superposition of the sedimentary layers Radiometric ages of igneous rocks younger and older than sedimentary formations Radiometric ages of fossil skeletons The nature of the biotic succession of rocks The cross-cutting relationships of igneous rocks and faults

Earthflow Mudflow Solifluction Creep Translational rock slip
Which of the following types of mass movement generally has the highest velocity? Earthflow Mudflow Solifluction Creep Translational rock slip

Earthflow Mudflow Solifluction Creep Translational rock slip
Which of the following types of mass movement generally has the highest velocity? Earthflow Mudflow Solifluction Creep Translational rock slip

Quartz Olivine Potassium-rich Clay Feldspar Muscovite Mica
Limonite can form by the chemical weathering of which of the following minerals? Quartz Olivine Potassium-rich Clay Feldspar Muscovite Mica

Quartz Olivine Potassium-rich Clay Feldspar Muscovite Mica
Limonite can form by the chemical weathering of which of the following minerals? Quartz Olivine Potassium-rich Clay Feldspar Muscovite Mica

Salt Domes are important for oil exploration because:
They form antiformal fold structures about them Salt is the source rock for oil Salt rock squeezes oil out of the source rocks Oil is trapped in the salt dome Water flowing out from the salt carries oil

Salt Domes are important for oil exploration because:
They form antiformal fold structures about them Salt is the source rock for oil Salt rock squeezes oil out of the source rocks Oil is trapped in the salt dome Water flowing out from the salt carries oil

In an attempt to model the composition of the deep layers of the interior of the Earth we re-create conditions deep in the Earth’s interior using: A smelting furnace A diamond anvil press A seismometer The mineral composition of metamorphic rock The inverse theory approach

In an attempt to model the composition of the deep layers of the interior of the Earth we re-create conditions deep in the Earth’s interior using: A smelting furnace A diamond anvil press A seismometer The mineral composition of metamorphic rock The inverse theory approach

The texture and structures of sedimentary rocks can yield information on the conditions of their deposition. Just by looking at the grain size of a sandstone at an outcrop, one can infer: The number of times the sand has been reworked by successive currents The grain size of the rocks from which the sane weathered The distance over which the sand has been transported The composition of the rock from which the sand weathered The velocity of the current by which it was deposited

The texture and structures of sedimentary rocks can yield information on the conditions of their deposition. Just by looking at the grain size of a sandstone at an outcrop, one can infer: The number of times the sand has been reworked by successive currents The grain size of the rocks from which the sane weathered The distance over which the sand has been transported The composition of the rock from which the sand weathered The velocity of the current by which it was deposited

Which of the following diagrams is the most probable description of the future production of a non-renewable resource that has been produced exponentially up to the present time?

Which of the following diagrams is the most probable description of the future production of a non-renewable resource that has been produced exponentially up to the present time?

The Earth’s carrying capacity refers to:
The number of “sinks” available for human needs The fact that humans move more material annually than all other Earth processes The ultimate total amount of a non-renewable resource available to us How large a human population the Earth can sustainably support The level of overshoot and oscillation

The Earth’s carrying capacity refers to:
The number of “sinks” available for human needs The fact that humans move more material annually than all other Earth processes The ultimate total amount of a non-renewable resource available to us How large a human population the Earth can sustainably support The level of overshoot and oscillation

The thickness of the lithospheric plates was determined by:
Discovering the low-velocity zone Detecting an increase in seismic velocity of seismic waves crossing the MOHO Detecting the shadow zone for seismic P and S-Waves Noting that seismic S-waves are stopped at the base of the plates Noting the refraction of seismic P-waves at the mantle-core boundary

The thickness of the lithospheric plates was determined by:
Discovering the low-velocity zone Detecting an increase in seismic velocity of seismic waves crossing the MOHO Detecting the shadow zone for seismic P and S-Waves Noting that seismic S-waves are stopped at the base of the plates Noting the refraction of seismic P-waves at the mantle-core boundary

When seismologists try to find ways to predict earthquakes, they are faced with the fact that earthquake behavior follows a Power Law relationship. Which of the graphs below shows the correct relationship between the number of earthquakes as a function of the Richter magnitude?

When seismologists try to find ways to predict earthquakes, they are faced with the fact that earthquake behavior follows a Power Law relationship. Which of the graphs below shows the correct relationship between the number of earthquakes as a function of the Richter magnitude?

When we are assessing the future of a commodity, we refer to the reserves and resources of that commodity. The definition of a reserve of a commodity is: The amount of the commodity already removed from the ground but not sold The estimated total amount of the commodity in the whole Earth The economic amount of the commodity discovered but not yet extracted The estimated total amount of the commodity that is ultimately economically available to us from the Earth’s crust The shyness of commodity experts when bidding on the stock-market

When we are assessing the future of a commodity, we refer to the reserves and resources of that commodity. The definition of a reserve of a commodity is: The amount of the commodity already removed from the ground but not sold The estimated total amount of the commodity in the whole Earth The economic amount of the commodity discovered but not yet extracted The estimated total amount of the commodity that is ultimately economically available to us from the Earth’s crust The shyness of commodity experts when bidding on the stock-market

In February 2008, S. Self and S. Blake called one of the following “probably the greatest natural hazard of mankind in terms of the severity and longevity of impact – the ultimate geologic hazard”. Which one were they referring to? A caldera collapse and super-eruption A Richter-magnitude nine earthquake A mega-landslide in the Himalayas An earthquake-generated tsunami Enhanced global warming and resultant climate change

In February 2008, S. Self and S. Blake called one of the following “probably the greatest natural hazard of mankind in terms of the severity and longevity of impact – the ultimate geologic hazard”. Which one were they referring to? A caldera collapse and super-eruption A Richter-magnitude nine earthquake A mega-landslide in the Himalayas An earthquake-generated tsunami Enhanced global warming and resultant climate change

Pyrite Feldspar Quartz Calcite Olivine
Which of the following minerals is closest to the AVERAGE composition of the Earth? Pyrite Feldspar Quartz Calcite Olivine

Pyrite Feldspar Quartz Calcite Olivine
Which of the following minerals is closest to the AVERAGE composition of the Earth? Pyrite Feldspar Quartz Calcite Olivine

Which of the following rocks is least likely to have a foliation?
Schist Slate Gneiss Migmatite Quartzite

Which of the following rocks is least likely to have a foliation?
Schist Slate Gneiss Migmatite Quartzite

An unconformity, like the one in the Kingston area, is best defined as:
A gap in the rock record A basal conglomerate A layer of sedimentary rocks A thin, tabular or sheet-like, igneous intrusion A layer of rocks with very unusual fossils

An unconformity, like the one in the Kingston area, is best defined as:
A gap in the rock record A basal conglomerate A layer of sedimentary rocks A thin, tabular or sheet-like, igneous intrusion A layer of rocks with very unusual fossils

For an exponential equation of the form y=-ekt, where “y” is growing as a function of time, the “k” term is: The growth rate of quantity “y” in percent One one-hundredth of the growth rate of quantity “y” in percent A constant whose value is the base of the natural logarithm The doubling time One one-hundredth of the doubling time

For an exponential equation of the form y=-ekt, where “y” is growing as a function of time, the “k” term is: The growth rate of quantity “y” in percent One one-hundredth of the growth rate of quantity “y” in percent A constant whose value is the base of the natural logarithm The doubling time One one-hundredth of the doubling time

When determining the risk of a “landslide” in a particular region, which of the following will provide the most valuable information? Installation of seismometers The tracing out of faults Carbon-14 dating peat layers Analysis of air photographs Measurement of acceleration due to gravity

When determining the risk of a “landslide” in a particular region, which of the following will provide the most valuable information? Installation of seismometers The tracing out of faults Carbon-14 dating peat layers Analysis of air photographs Measurement of acceleration due to gravity

The MOHO is a boundary in the Earth across which, as one goes deeper in the Earth, a number of changes occur. Only one of the five changes listed below is correct. Which one is it? The Fe content goes down The temperature goes down The density goes down The Si content goes down The seismic velocity goes down

The MOHO is a boundary in the Earth across which, as one goes deeper in the Earth, a number of changes occur. Only one of the five changes listed below is correct. Which one is it? The Fe content goes down The temperature goes down The density goes down The Si content goes down The seismic velocity goes down

Evidence of abundant fossils of life-forms that made hard protective shells did not appear in the geological record until how long ago? 3.5 billion years ago 5 billion years ago 65 million years ago 600 million years ago 300 million years ago

Evidence of abundant fossils of life-forms that made hard protective shells did not appear in the geological record until how long ago? 3.5 billion years ago 5 billion years ago 65 million years ago 600 million years ago 300 million years ago

Which of the following will NOT help to determine the recurrence history of large (greater than magnitude 7.5) earthquakes in a region? Looking for evidence of ancient tsunamis in the soil record Determining the age of peat layers Studying human historical records of the region Digging trenches and pits around the faults Setting up seismic stations to record the foci of earthquakes over a 20 year period

Which of the following will NOT help to determine the recurrence history of large (greater than magnitude 7.5) earthquakes in a region? Looking for evidence of ancient tsunamis in the soil record Determining the age of peat layers Studying human historical records of the region Digging trenches and pits around the faults Setting up seismic stations to record the foci of earthquakes over a 20 year period

Amygdules Mud cracks Joints Cross-bedding Leaching

Amygdules Mud cracks Joints Cross-bedding Leaching

The three most abundant elements in the continental crust are:
O, Al, Fe O, Si, Fe O, Fe, Mg O, Si, Al K, Ca, Na

The three most abundant elements in the continental crust are:
O, Al, Fe O, Si, Fe O, Fe, Mg O, Si, Al K, Ca, Na

A crystal of Potassium Feldspar from a granite has been analyzed by the K-Ar method of geochronology. The ratio in the crystal of the number of 40K atoms to the number of 40Ar atoms is 1 to 3. Given that the half life for the decay of parent to daughter is 1.3 billion years, which of the following values is closest to the age of formation of the granite? 0.30 billion years 0.65 billion years 1.3 billion years 2.0 billion years 2.6 billion years

A crystal of Potassium Feldspar from a granite has been analyzed by the K-Ar method of geochronology. The ratio in the crystal of the number of 40K atoms to the number of 40Ar atoms is 1 to 3. Given that the half life for the decay of parent to daughter is 1.3 billion years, which of the following values is closest to the age of formation of the granite? 0.30 billion years 0.65 billion years 1.3 billion years 2.0 billion years 2.6 billion years

A sample of basalt in which the remnant magnetic field is oriented vertically probably formed and cooled: At the azimuth Under sea water Near the equator At 45 degrees north or south latitude Near the north or south pole

A sample of basalt in which the remnant magnetic field is oriented vertically probably formed and cooled: At the azimuth Under sea water Near the equator At 45 degrees north or south latitude Near the north or south pole

pink yellow black white green
You are in Iceland, witnessing a lava flow. What is most likely to be the colour of the rock formed when the lava has crystallized and cooled? pink yellow black white green

pink yellow black white green
You are in Iceland, witnessing a lava flow. What is most likely to be the colour of the rock formed when the lava has crystallized and cooled? pink yellow black white green

The fact that, over time in the sedimentary rock record, fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order is the basis for: The principle of original horizontality The principle of biotic succession The Law of Superposition The doctrine catastrophism The principle of cross-cutting relationships

The fact that, over time in the sedimentary rock record, fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order is the basis for: The principle of original horizontality The principle of biotic succession The Law of Superposition The doctrine catastrophism The principle of cross-cutting relationships

We wish to put the foundations of our building into solid rock, but we need to know the thickness of the soil layer sitting above the rock. We can carry out a seismic refraction study, but this requires the knowledge of the velocity of the seismic P-waves in the soil and in the rock. We obtain these by: Taking the inverse of the slopes on the travel-time curves Measuring the critical distance Calculating the path taken by the seismic waves Determining the difference between the focus and epicenter of the earthquake Measuring the difference in arrival time of the first P and the first S seismic wave

We wish to put the foundations of our building into solid rock, but we need to know the thickness of the soil layer sitting above the rock. We can carry out a seismic refraction study, but this requires the knowledge of the velocity of the seismic P-waves in the soil and in the rock. We obtain these by: Taking the inverse of the slopes on the travel-time curves Measuring the critical distance Calculating the path taken by the seismic waves Determining the difference between the focus and epicenter of the earthquake Measuring the difference in arrival time of the first P and the first S seismic wave

A laterite A porphyritic rock an ultramafic rock A salt dome Sandstone
If you are exploring for a bauxite ore deposit, which of the following is most likely to be associated with it? A laterite A porphyritic rock an ultramafic rock A salt dome Sandstone

A laterite A porphyritic rock an ultramafic rock A salt dome Sandstone
If you are exploring for a bauxite ore deposit, which of the following is most likely to be associated with it? A laterite A porphyritic rock an ultramafic rock A salt dome Sandstone

In carrying out a risk analysis and risk management plan to minimize damage from a natural or anthropogenic hazard, which of the following is a step that needs to be done after we assess the risk from the hazard in the are under consideration, but before we undertake any risk-control solutions? A poll to determine the wishes of the public Further collection of scientific data over a sufficiently long time period Refinement of the emergency measures organizations Public education A cost-benefit analysis

In carrying out a risk analysis and risk management plan to minimize damage from a natural or anthropogenic hazard, which of the following is a step that needs to be done after we assess the risk from the hazard in the are under consideration, but before we undertake any risk-control solutions? A poll to determine the wishes of the public Further collection of scientific data over a sufficiently long time period Refinement of the emergency measures organizations Public education A cost-benefit analysis

In order to have an ore deposit, you need:
An accumulation of a mineral that you can extract and make money from A local accumulation of metal A porphyry-copper deposit A mineral deposit of non-silicate minerals e) A mineral deposit that is close to market

In order to have an ore deposit, you need:
An accumulation of a mineral that you can extract and make money from A local accumulation of metal A porphyry-copper deposit A mineral deposit of non-silicate minerals e) A mineral deposit that is close to market

At which of these locations are fissure eruptions most prominent?
Subduction zones Central Canada Mid-ocean ridges The Andes Mountains Mount Pinatubo

At which of these locations are fissure eruptions most prominent?
Subduction zones Central Canada Mid-ocean ridges The Andes Mountains Mount Pinatubo

In carrying out seismic modeling to determine the structure of the Earth, we make use of the “Ocean’s Razor”. With this, we: Obtain a measure of the difference in arrival times of seismic waves Determine the refraction patterns of seismic waves Locate the focus of the earthquake Determine the magnitude of the earthquake Choose the simples solution that fits the data

In carrying out seismic modeling to determine the structure of the Earth, we make use of the “Ocean’s Razor”. With this, we: Obtain a measure of the difference in arrival times of seismic waves Determine the refraction patterns of seismic waves Locate the focus of the earthquake Determine the magnitude of the earthquake Choose the simples solution that fits the data

Compression-rarefaction Waves
Which of the following types of seismic waves arrives first at a seismic station following an earthquake 500 kilometres away from the seismic station? Love Waves Rayleigh Waves Tsunami Waves Shear Waves Compression-rarefaction Waves

Compression-rarefaction Waves
Which of the following types of seismic waves arrives first at a seismic station following an earthquake 500 kilometres away from the seismic station? Love Waves Rayleigh Waves Tsunami Waves Shear Waves Compression-rarefaction Waves

Which of the following lists is in correct order going from lower to higher grade of regional metamorphism? Slate, gneiss, mica schist Slate, mica schist, gneiss Mica schist, gneiss, slate Gneiss, slate, mica schist Mica schist, slate, gneiss

Which of the following lists is in correct order going from lower to higher grade of regional metamorphism? Slate, gneiss, mica schist Slate, mica schist, gneiss Mica schist, gneiss, slate Gneiss, slate, mica schist Mica schist, slate, gneiss

Water Wood An India Rubber Ball Silly Putty Plasticene
Which of the following materials best represents the behavior of the mantle of the earth? Water Wood An India Rubber Ball Silly Putty Plasticene

Water Wood An India Rubber Ball Silly Putty Plasticene
Which of the following materials best represents the behavior of the mantle of the earth? Water Wood An India Rubber Ball Silly Putty Plasticene

What is the basic building block in the silicate minerals?
(SiO4)4- (SiO2)2- SiO4 SiO2 (SiO4)2-

What is the basic building block in the silicate minerals?
(SiO4)4- (SiO2)2- SiO4 SiO2 (SiO4)2-

Greywacke Rhyolite Chert Iron formation Rock Salt
Which of the following rock types has provided evidence for a change over Earth history in the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere? Greywacke Rhyolite Chert Iron formation Rock Salt

Greywacke Rhyolite Chert Iron formation Rock Salt
Which of the following rock types has provided evidence for a change over Earth history in the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere? Greywacke Rhyolite Chert Iron formation Rock Salt

When most rocks experience partial melting, the melted part is:
Denser than the original rock More felsic than the original rock Poorer in water than the original rock Darker in colour than the original rock Concentrated in iron compared to the original rock

When most rocks experience partial melting, the melted part is:
Denser than the original rock More felsic than the original rock Poorer in water than the original rock Darker in colour than the original rock Concentrated in iron compared to the original rock

Gabbro Granite Ultramafic Rock Basalt Granodiorite
In a layered intrusion, which igneous rock type is most likely to be at the top of the intrusion? Gabbro Granite Ultramafic Rock Basalt Granodiorite

Gabbro Granite Ultramafic Rock Basalt Granodiorite
In a layered intrusion, which igneous rock type is most likely to be at the top of the intrusion? Gabbro Granite Ultramafic Rock Basalt Granodiorite

5 years 10 years 30 years 60 years 90 years
If the current rate of exponential growth of human population were to continue in the future, the Earth’s human population will have doubled in about how many years? 5 years 10 years 30 years 60 years 90 years

5 years 10 years 30 years 60 years 90 years
If the current rate of exponential growth of human population were to continue in the future, the Earth’s human population will have doubled in about how many years? 5 years 10 years 30 years 60 years 90 years

Nobody’s Transform Strike slip Reverse Dip-Slip Normal Dip-Slip
Which of the following types of faults is likely to be connected with the most dangerous earthquakes? Nobody’s Transform Strike slip Reverse Dip-Slip Normal Dip-Slip

Nobody’s Transform Strike slip Reverse Dip-Slip Normal Dip-Slip
Which of the following types of faults is likely to be connected with the most dangerous earthquakes? Nobody’s Transform Strike slip Reverse Dip-Slip Normal Dip-Slip

Very deep (greater than 200 km) earthquakes occur
5 years 14 years 20 years 28 years 50 years

Very deep (greater than 200 km) earthquakes occur
5 years 14 years 20 years 28 years 50 years

Iron formation bauxite Porphyry copper chromite petroleum
Which of the following ore-deposit types would be most likely to generate acid mine-tailings? Iron formation bauxite Porphyry copper chromite petroleum

Iron formation bauxite Porphyry copper chromite petroleum
Which of the following ore-deposit types would be most likely to generate acid mine-tailings? Iron formation bauxite Porphyry copper chromite petroleum

It is only in the last 40 years that geologists have developed the Plate tectonic theory. One of the most important consequences of this theory is that it has provided an explanation of how continental mountain ranges are formed. In the framework of the Plate Tectonic Theory, where are the major continental mountain ranges produced? Constructive plate boundaries Destructive plate boundaries Strike-slip boundaries Conductive plate boundaries Transform plate boundaries

It is only in the last 40 years that geologists have developed the Plate tectonic theory. One of the most important consequences of this theory is that it has provided an explanation of how continental mountain ranges are formed. In the framework of the Plate Tectonic Theory, where are the major continental mountain ranges produced? Constructive plate boundaries Destructive plate boundaries Strike-slip boundaries Conductive plate boundaries Transform plate boundaries

The development of the Himalayas was probably partly responsible for a cooling of the Earth’s climate that led us into the recent Ice Ages over the last 2 million years. Which of the following best explains this effect of the Himalayas on the climate. The energy used to uplift the mountains led to atmospheric cooling The uplift of the mountains shut off the ocean “conveyor belt” The uplifted mountains absorbed most of the solar radiation, thus cooling the atmosphere The uplifted mountains experienced an increased rate of erosion, and that increased weathering process extracted carbon dioxide from the atmosphere Uplifting of the mountains changed the tilt

The development of the Himalayas was probably partly responsible for a cooling of the Earth’s climate that led us into the recent Ice Ages over the last 2 million years. Which of the following best explains this effect of the Himalayas on the climate. The energy used to uplift the mountains led to atmospheric cooling The uplift of the mountains shut off the ocean “conveyor belt” The uplifted mountains absorbed most of the solar radiation, thus cooling the atmosphere The uplifted mountains experienced an increased rate of erosion, and that increased weathering process extracted carbon dioxide from the atmosphere Uplifting of the mountains changed the tilt

Determine the epicenters of the Earthquakes on a map of the world
Seismic energy waves allow us to essentially x-ray the Earth’s interior. To do this, we use the inverse theory method. For this method, we must: Dig trenches and pits, and look at sediments for evidence of ancient tsunamis Study seismic records to determine the recurrence interval of earthquakes Make a computer model of the Earth and see if the travel-time measured at the seismic stations fit the model Locate and determine the nature of faults by the technique of seismic topography Determine the epicenters of the Earthquakes on a map of the world

Determine the epicenters of the Earthquakes on a map of the world
Seismic energy waves allow us to essentially x-ray the Earth’s interior. To do this, we use the inverse theory method. For this method, we must: Dig trenches and pits, and look at sediments for evidence of ancient tsunamis Study seismic records to determine the recurrence interval of earthquakes Make a computer model of the Earth and see if the travel-time measured at the seismic stations fit the model Locate and determine the nature of faults by the technique of seismic topography Determine the epicenters of the Earthquakes on a map of the world

Various studies have shown that Earth consists of layers that differ from each other. These are either differences in physical properties, or differences in chemical composition. For the boundaries between layers that are listed below, only one is a boundary across which there is ONLY a change in physical properties. Which one? Mantle/outer core crust/mantle Continental crust/oceanic crust Crust/atmosphere Lithosphere/asthenosphere

Various studies have shown that Earth consists of layers that differ from each other. These are either differences in physical properties, or differences in chemical composition. For the boundaries between layers that are listed below, only one is a boundary across which there is ONLY a change in physical properties. Which one? Mantle/outer core crust/mantle Continental crust/oceanic crust Crust/atmosphere Lithosphere/asthenosphere

Calcite Fe + Ni Pyrite Feldspar + Quartz Olivine +Pyroxene
Which of the following mineral/element pairs is closest in composition of the continental crust? Calcite Fe + Ni Pyrite Feldspar + Quartz Olivine +Pyroxene

Calcite Fe + Ni Pyrite Feldspar + Quartz Olivine +Pyroxene
Which of the following mineral/element pairs is closest in composition of the continental crust? Calcite Fe + Ni Pyrite Feldspar + Quartz Olivine +Pyroxene

W can sample rocks at the surface of Earth to determine their density, but to place limits on the nature of materials deeper in the Earth, we need to determine the AVERAGE density of the Earth. We can do that by studying the interaction of the Earth with the Moon. In doing that determination, you would need all but one of the following. Which one don’t you need? Earth’s moment of inertia The radius of the Earth The Gravitational constant (G) The orbital velocity of the moon The distance from the Earth to the Moon

W can sample rocks at the surface of Earth to determine their density, but to place limits on the nature of materials deeper in the Earth, we need to determine the AVERAGE density of the Earth. We can do that by studying the interaction of the Earth with the Moon. In doing that determination, you would need all but one of the following. Which one don’t you need? Earth’s moment of inertia The radius of the Earth The Gravitational constant (G) The orbital velocity of the moon The distance from the Earth to the Moon

Living plants and animals
In the carbon cycle, which of the following reservoirs in the Earth system contains the most Carbon? Crustal rocks Living plants and animals The oceans Oil and gas The atmosphere

Living plants and animals
In the carbon cycle, which of the following reservoirs in the Earth system contains the most Carbon? Crustal rocks Living plants and animals The oceans Oil and gas The atmosphere

Laterite Pedalfer Pedocal Permafrost Lahar
Which of the following soil types is generally the most suitable one for agriculture? Laterite Pedalfer Pedocal Permafrost Lahar

Laterite Pedalfer Pedocal Permafrost Lahar
Which of the following soil types is generally the most suitable one for agriculture? Laterite Pedalfer Pedocal Permafrost Lahar

For which group do both minerals have a sheet structure?
Muscovite, clay Feldspar, Quartz Hornblende, Pyroxene Plagioclase, Pyroxene Olivine , Hornblende

For which group do both minerals have a sheet structure?
Muscovite, clay Feldspar, Quartz Hornblende, Pyroxene Plagioclase, Pyroxene Olivine , Hornblende

Magmas contain dissolved volatiles
Magmas contain dissolved volatiles. Which of the following places are you most likely to experience a Lahar? The Andes Mountains The Red Sea Along the San Andres Fault The South Nation River, Ontario Iceland

Magmas contain dissolved volatiles
Magmas contain dissolved volatiles. Which of the following places are you most likely to experience a Lahar? The Andes Mountains The Red Sea Along the San Andres Fault The South Nation River, Ontario Iceland

Marble Gabbro Syenite Ultramafic Sandstone
A bauxite ore deposit would be most likely to occur over which of the following rocks? Marble Gabbro Syenite Ultramafic Sandstone

Marble Gabbro Syenite Ultramafic Sandstone
A bauxite ore deposit would be most likely to occur over which of the following rocks? Marble Gabbro Syenite Ultramafic Sandstone

Granite Porphyry Quartz Sandstone Shale/Mudstone Salt Dome Greywacke
One of the following rock types is most likely to be a trap (i.e reservoir) rock for trapping oil and gas underground. Which of the following is it? Granite Porphyry Quartz Sandstone Shale/Mudstone Salt Dome Greywacke

Granite Porphyry Quartz Sandstone Shale/Mudstone Salt Dome Greywacke
One of the following rock types is most likely to be a trap (i.e reservoir) rock for trapping oil and gas underground. Which of the following is it? Granite Porphyry Quartz Sandstone Shale/Mudstone Salt Dome Greywacke

Which of the following lists magma types in order of increasing velocity?
Basaltic, andesitic, granitic Basaltic, granitic, andesitic Andesitic, granitic, basaltic Granitic, basaltic, andesitic Granitic, andesitic, basaltic

Which of the following lists magma types in order of increasing velocity?
Basaltic, andesitic, granitic Basaltic, granitic, andesitic Andesitic, granitic, basaltic Granitic, basaltic, andesitic Granitic, andesitic, basaltic

Biotite mica Pyroxene Quartz Na-rich Plagioclase Olivine
As a magma of diorite composition cools down from 1500° C, which of the following minerals would crystallize first? Biotite mica Pyroxene Quartz Na-rich Plagioclase Olivine

Biotite mica Pyroxene Quartz Na-rich Plagioclase Olivine
As a magma of diorite composition cools down from 1500° C, which of the following minerals would crystallize first? Biotite mica Pyroxene Quartz Na-rich Plagioclase Olivine

What is the main factor that controls the rate of weathering of rocks?

What is the main factor that controls the rate of weathering of rocks?

Viscosity Elasticity Inverse Modulus Shear Modulus Density
The velocity of seismic S-waves is inversely proportional to which of the following parameters of the material they are passing through? Viscosity Elasticity Inverse Modulus Shear Modulus Density

Viscosity Elasticity Inverse Modulus Shear Modulus Density
The velocity of seismic S-waves is inversely proportional to which of the following parameters of the material they are passing through? Viscosity Elasticity Inverse Modulus Shear Modulus Density

P-wave Velocity Temperature Density Iron content Proportion of Liquid
Which of the following decreases in going from the mantle into the outer core? P-wave Velocity Temperature Density Iron content Proportion of Liquid

P-wave Velocity Temperature Density Iron content Proportion of Liquid
Which of the following decreases in going from the mantle into the outer core? P-wave Velocity Temperature Density Iron content Proportion of Liquid

Which of the following is most likely to have the lowest porosity?
Quartz Sandstone Reef Limestone Conglomerate Greywacke Pumice

Which of the following is most likely to have the lowest porosity?
Quartz Sandstone Reef Limestone Conglomerate Greywacke Pumice

Very deep (i.e greater than 200 km) earthquakes occur only at:
Transform faults Hot spots Constructive plate margins Accreting Plate Margins Destructive Plate Margins

Very deep (i.e greater than 200 km) earthquakes occur only at:
Transform faults Hot spots Constructive plate margins Accreting Plate Margins Destructive Plate Margins

Lahar Pedocal Laterite Pedoxylite Pedalfer
Which type of soil may eventually develop in a very hot, wet region, such as the Amazon River Bason? Lahar Pedocal Laterite Pedoxylite Pedalfer

Lahar Pedocal Laterite Pedoxylite Pedalfer
Which type of soil may eventually develop in a very hot, wet region, such as the Amazon River Bason? Lahar Pedocal Laterite Pedoxylite Pedalfer

The Hawaiian Islands are located where the Pacific plate is:
Separating from the North American plate Diving under Japan Diving under the North American Plate Migrating over a hot spot Being thrust over the North American Plate

The Hawaiian Islands are located where the Pacific plate is:
Separating from the North American plate Diving under Japan Diving under the North American Plate Migrating over a hot spot Being thrust over the North American Plate

In which of these settings would one most likely find a pyroclastic flow?
At the site of a fissure eruption At a constructive plate boundary In Hawaii At a transform plate boundary At a destructive plate boundary

In which of these settings would one most likely find a pyroclastic flow?
At the site of a fissure eruption At a constructive plate boundary In Hawaii At a transform plate boundary At a destructive plate boundary

Clay Granite Sand and Gravel Peat and Muck Mud
On which material is damage to buildings from seismic vibrations likely to be the least? Clay Granite Sand and Gravel Peat and Muck Mud

Clay Granite Sand and Gravel Peat and Muck Mud
On which material is damage to buildings from seismic vibrations likely to be the least? Clay Granite Sand and Gravel Peat and Muck Mud

Which of the following rocks is most immature?
Shale Breccia Siltstone Quartz Sandstone Conglomerate

Which of the following rocks is most immature?
Shale Breccia Siltstone Quartz Sandstone Conglomerate

Which of these minerals is made up entirely of covalent bonds?
Clay Quartz Halite Diamond Pure Copper

Which of these minerals is made up entirely of covalent bonds?
Clay Quartz Halite Diamond Pure Copper

Gabbroic Dioritic Ultramafic Granodioritic Granitic
If you begin to partially melt a shale, the liquid produced would have what composition? Gabbroic Dioritic Ultramafic Granodioritic Granitic

Gabbroic Dioritic Ultramafic Granodioritic Granitic
If you begin to partially melt a shale, the liquid produced would have what composition? Gabbroic Dioritic Ultramafic Granodioritic Granitic

The Atlantic Ocean is opening up at a rate closest to:
0.05 cm/year 5 cm/year 50 cm/year 5 metres/year 50 metres/year

The Atlantic Ocean is opening up at a rate closest to:
0.05 cm/year 5 cm/year 50 cm/year 5 metres/year 50 metres/year

Which of the following approaches would be least likely to provide us with information to help predict, on both the short and long term, the eruption of a stratovolcano? Look for seismic gaps Set up seismometers to detect earthquakes Measure ground tilt Determine recurrence intervals Monitor Gas release

Which of the following approaches would be least likely to provide us with information to help predict, on both the short and long term, the eruption of a stratovolcano? Look for seismic gaps Set up seismometers to detect earthquakes Measure ground tilt Determine recurrence intervals Monitor Gas release

Unlike most other bodies in the Solar System, the Earth has a strong magnetic field. Which of the following features of the Earth is responsible for the Earth having such a magnetic field? Flattening along the rotation axis A convection mantle A liquid outer core of iron An axial dipole magnet An iron-rich inner core

Unlike most other bodies in the Solar System, the Earth has a strong magnetic field. Which of the following features of the Earth is responsible for the Earth having such a magnetic field? Flattening along the rotation axis A convection mantle A liquid outer core of iron An axial dipole magnet An iron-rich inner core

Pyrite Magnetite Chromite Galena Chalcopyrite
I have hired you to explore for ore deposits that would provide us with the metal copper (Cu). Which of the following minerals should you be looking for? Pyrite Magnetite Chromite Galena Chalcopyrite

Pyrite Magnetite Chromite Galena Chalcopyrite
I have hired you to explore for ore deposits that would provide us with the metal copper (Cu). Which of the following minerals should you be looking for? Pyrite Magnetite Chromite Galena Chalcopyrite

The mantle convection cell
In the sea floor spreading hypothesis of Harry Hess, the conveyor belt carrying the continental crust was thought to be: The asthenosphere The mantle convection cell The ocean crust The tectonic plate The lithosphere

The mantle convection cell
In the sea floor spreading hypothesis of Harry Hess, the conveyor belt carrying the continental crust was thought to be: The asthenosphere The mantle convection cell The ocean crust The tectonic plate The lithosphere

The definition of the “resource” of a commodity is:
The economic amount of the commodity discovered but not yet extracted A local accumulation of a specific mineral that contains that commodity The total number of mineral deposits of that commodity The estimated total amount of that commodity that is ultimately economically recoverable The amount of the commodity that exists in the Earth

The definition of the “resource” of a commodity is:
The economic amount of the commodity discovered but not yet extracted A local accumulation of a specific mineral that contains that commodity The total number of mineral deposits of that commodity The estimated total amount of that commodity that is ultimately economically recoverable The amount of the commodity that exists in the Earth

Stromatolites Migmatite Glacial Grooves Mud Cracks Cross Beds
Which of the following pieces of evidence from the geology around the Kingston area is evidence for a former mountain-building event? Stromatolites Migmatite Glacial Grooves Mud Cracks Cross Beds

Stromatolites Migmatite Glacial Grooves Mud Cracks Cross Beds
Which of the following pieces of evidence from the geology around the Kingston area is evidence for a former mountain-building event? Stromatolites Migmatite Glacial Grooves Mud Cracks Cross Beds

The Earth’s magnetic field has been shown to reverse itself on average about every:
5000 years 0.5 million years 10 million years 100 million years 1 billion years

The Earth’s magnetic field has been shown to reverse itself on average about every:
5000 years 0.5 million years 10 million years 100 million years 1 billion years

pressure Silicon content Density Temperature P-wave Velocity
Which one of the following DECREASES in going from the oceanic crust to the mantle of the Earth? pressure Silicon content Density Temperature P-wave Velocity

pressure Silicon content Density Temperature P-wave Velocity
Which one of the following DECREASES in going from the oceanic crust to the mantle of the Earth? pressure Silicon content Density Temperature P-wave Velocity

Compression-Rarefaction
Which of the following is used to describe what occurs to produce an earthquake? Elastic Rebound Polymerization Liquefaction Compression-Rarefaction Plastic Deformation

Compression-Rarefaction
Which of the following is used to describe what occurs to produce an earthquake? Elastic Rebound Polymerization Liquefaction Compression-Rarefaction Plastic Deformation

What are the two elements that can replace one another in the olivine solid solution?
Ca, Na Si, Al K, Na Mg, Fe Si, O

What are the two elements that can replace one another in the olivine solid solution?
Ca, Na Si, Al K, Na Mg, Fe Si, O

With which one of the following will Lahars most likely be associated?
Earthquakes Layered intrusions Felsic volcanoes Tsunamis Open-Pit Mines

With which one of the following will Lahars most likely be associated?
Earthquakes Layered intrusions Felsic volcanoes Tsunamis Open-Pit Mines

What percentage of the Earth’s crust is composed of non-silicate minerals?
3% 10% 20% 75% 97%

What percentage of the Earth’s crust is composed of non-silicate minerals?
3% 10% 20% 75% 97%

Following a very shallow earthquake, as seismic P and S waves go deeper into the Earth and cross the MOHO: The S-Waves stop and P-Waves continue The waves speed up The waves increase in amplitude The waves refract towards the normal The P-waves stop and S-waves continue

Following a very shallow earthquake, as seismic P and S waves go deeper into the Earth and cross the MOHO: The S-Waves stop and P-Waves continue The waves speed up The waves increase in amplitude The waves refract towards the normal The P-waves stop and S-waves continue

Which of the following is true about Tsunamis?
They seldom cause damage when they reach the shore They have wavelengths of a few metres They have amplitudes of 50 metres or more in deep ocean water They are most commonly generated by earthquakes under the continents They travel at speeds of 500 to 800 kilometres per hour

Which of the following is true about Tsunamis?
They seldom cause damage when they reach the shore They have wavelengths of a few metres They have amplitudes of 50 metres or more in deep ocean water They are most commonly generated by earthquakes under the continents They travel at speeds of 500 to 800 kilometres per hour

The oldest ocean crust in the ocean basin is found closest to:
Iceland Western United States The Red Sea Japan The East Pacific Mid-Ocean Ridge

The oldest ocean crust in the ocean basin is found closest to:
Iceland Western United States The Red Sea Japan The East Pacific Mid-Ocean Ridge

What kind of fault is illustrated in the diagram below?
Normal Dip-Slip Reverse Dip-Slip Transform Thrust Strike-Slip

What kind of fault is illustrated in the diagram below?
Normal Dip-Slip Reverse Dip-Slip Transform Thrust Strike-Slip

The most important factor controlling slope stability, of the ones listed below, is:
Weight of material on the slope Cohesion on the potential failure plane Hydraulic equivalence of the slope The angle of potential failure plane Angle of the slope wall

The most important factor controlling slope stability, of the ones listed below, is:
Weight of material on the slope Cohesion on the potential failure plane Hydraulic equivalence of the slope The angle of potential failure plane Angle of the slope wall

Quartz content Si content Density Potassium content Feldspar content
You have carried out a careful chemical analysis of three rocks: granite, granodiorite and gabbro. Which of the following increases? Quartz content Si content Density Potassium content Feldspar content

Quartz content Si content Density Potassium content Feldspar content
You have carried out a careful chemical analysis of three rocks: granite, granodiorite and gabbro. Which of the following increases? Quartz content Si content Density Potassium content Feldspar content

Potassium Sodium Aluminum Calcium Silicon
Which of the following elements is NOT found as an essential constituent of plagioclase feldspar? Potassium Sodium Aluminum Calcium Silicon

Potassium Sodium Aluminum Calcium Silicon
Which of the following elements is NOT found as an essential constituent of plagioclase feldspar? Potassium Sodium Aluminum Calcium Silicon

All earthquakes occur in the:
Mantle Continental Crust Asthenosphere Lithosphere Ocean crust

All earthquakes occur in the:
Mantle Continental Crust Asthenosphere Lithosphere Ocean crust

Bauxite Chromite Porphyry Copper Ni-Cu Sulfide Banded Iron Formation
Which ore deposit type results from the development in a magma chamber of a liquid that is immiscible with the silicate liquid? Bauxite Chromite Porphyry Copper Ni-Cu Sulfide Banded Iron Formation

Bauxite Chromite Porphyry Copper Ni-Cu Sulfide Banded Iron Formation
Which ore deposit type results from the development in a magma chamber of a liquid that is immiscible with the silicate liquid? Bauxite Chromite Porphyry Copper Ni-Cu Sulfide Banded Iron Formation

Mudstones Glacial Deposits Swamps Deltas Mid-Ocean Ridges
Which of the following is a highly favourable site for oil formation and accumulation? Mudstones Glacial Deposits Swamps Deltas Mid-Ocean Ridges

Mudstones Glacial Deposits Swamps Deltas Mid-Ocean Ridges
Which of the following is a highly favourable site for oil formation and accumulation? Mudstones Glacial Deposits Swamps Deltas Mid-Ocean Ridges

Symmetrical sand ripples are most likely produced by:
Wind Ocean Waves Stream Flow Slope Instability Turbidity Currents

Symmetrical sand ripples are most likely produced by:
Wind Ocean Waves Stream Flow Slope Instability Turbidity Currents

K-rich Feldspar Muscovite Mica Na-rich Plagioclase Quartz Olivine
Which one of the following minerals would be LEAST likely to occur in a granite? K-rich Feldspar Muscovite Mica Na-rich Plagioclase Quartz Olivine

K-rich Feldspar Muscovite Mica Na-rich Plagioclase Quartz Olivine
Which one of the following minerals would be LEAST likely to occur in a granite? K-rich Feldspar Muscovite Mica Na-rich Plagioclase Quartz Olivine

Porphyry copper Bauxite Iron Formation Placer Gold Chromite
A chemical analysis has been conducted on an intrusive igneous rock, and the rock was found to have an SiO2 content of approximately 45%. Which one of the following types of ore deposit has the most chance of being found in this rock? Porphyry copper Bauxite Iron Formation Placer Gold Chromite

Porphyry copper Bauxite Iron Formation Placer Gold Chromite
A chemical analysis has been conducted on an intrusive igneous rock, and the rock was found to have an SiO2 content of approximately 45%. Which one of the following types of ore deposit has the most chance of being found in this rock? Porphyry copper Bauxite Iron Formation Placer Gold Chromite

Steel Stucco Masonry Unreinforced Concrete Adobe
One way to minimize damage from earthquakes is to build structures with appropriate building materials. Which of the following is the best material to build a structure with in order to minimize potential damage from ground shaking during an earthquake? Steel Stucco Masonry Unreinforced Concrete Adobe

Steel Stucco Masonry Unreinforced Concrete Adobe
One way to minimize damage from earthquakes is to build structures with appropriate building materials. Which of the following is the best material to build a structure with in order to minimize potential damage from ground shaking during an earthquake? Steel Stucco Masonry Unreinforced Concrete Adobe

The sedimentary rocks immediately below and above an angular unconformity record a history of:
Erosion-folding-deposition-erosion Folding-erosion-deposition-folding Deposition-erosion-deposition-folding Erosion-deposition-folding-erosion Deposition-folding-erosion-deposition

The sedimentary rocks immediately below and above an angular unconformity record a history of:
Erosion-folding-deposition-erosion Folding-erosion-deposition-folding Deposition-erosion-deposition-folding Erosion-deposition-folding-erosion Deposition-folding-erosion-deposition

For a mass of rock on a potential failure plane, which of the following terms in the safety factor equation will DECREASE the safety factor it is decreased? Weight of potential failure block Angle of internal friction Angle of potential failure plane Water content None of the above, they all increase it

For a mass of rock on a potential failure plane, which of the following terms in the safety factor equation will DECREASE the safety factor it is decreased? Weight of potential failure block Angle of internal friction Angle of potential failure plane Water content None of the above, they all increase it

Limestone Sandstone Shale Conglomerate Banded Iron Formation
Which of the following is the most abundant sedimentary rock in the Earth’s crust? Limestone Sandstone Shale Conglomerate Banded Iron Formation

Limestone Sandstone Shale Conglomerate Banded Iron Formation
Which of the following is the most abundant sedimentary rock in the Earth’s crust? Limestone Sandstone Shale Conglomerate Banded Iron Formation

A porphyritic igneous rock indicates:
The presence of an ore deposit A two-stage cooling history A felsic composition Cooling deep in the Earth A high content of dissolved volatiles in the magma

A porphyritic igneous rock indicates:
The presence of an ore deposit A two-stage cooling history A felsic composition Cooling deep in the Earth A high content of dissolved volatiles in the magma

The age of the solar system and the Earth is closest to:
500 million years 1000 million years 2500 million years 4500 million years 13000 million years

The age of the solar system and the Earth is closest to:
500 million years 1000 million years 2500 million years 4500 million years 13000 million years

Gypsum Halite Potash Limestone Chert
If a litre of sea water is evaporated, which of the following evaporites that precipitated will occur in the greatest amount? Gypsum Halite Potash Limestone Chert

Gypsum Halite Potash Limestone Chert
If a litre of sea water is evaporated, which of the following evaporites that precipitated will occur in the greatest amount? Gypsum Halite Potash Limestone Chert

In which of these settings would one most likely find a nuee ardente?
At the site of a fissure eruption At a constructive plate boundary In Hawaii At a destructive plate boundary At a transform plate boundary

In which of these settings would one most likely find a nuee ardente?
At the site of a fissure eruption At a constructive plate boundary In Hawaii At a destructive plate boundary At a transform plate boundary

How many earthquakes of Richter magnitude 5 would it take to equal the output of energy from a single earthquake of Richter magnitude 7? 2 30 60 900 27 000

How many earthquakes of Richter magnitude 5 would it take to equal the output of energy from a single earthquake of Richter magnitude 7? 2 30 60 900 27 000

In order to determine the seismic risk of an area, we need to determine the Richter magnitude of earthquakes that occur in that region. The Richter magnitude is determined by: Measuring the amount of movement on the fault that caused the earthquake Measuring the intensity of earthquake damage Measuring the length of time of the ground-shaking event Measuring the time between the first arrival of S waves and the first arrival of surface waves on the seismogram Measuring the amplitude of the seismic waves on a seismogram

In order to determine the seismic risk of an area, we need to determine the Richter magnitude of earthquakes that occur in that region. The Richter magnitude is determined by: Measuring the amount of movement on the fault that caused the earthquake Measuring the intensity of earthquake damage Measuring the length of time of the ground-shaking event Measuring the time between the first arrival of S waves and the first arrival of surface waves on the seismogram Measuring the amplitude of the seismic waves on a seismogram

For seismic P and S waves received by seismographs at various distances from an earthquake focus, a plot of first arrival times against distance would look like:

For seismic P and S waves received by seismographs at various distances from an earthquake focus, a plot of first arrival times against distance would look like:

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