Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The production of a commodity has been growing exponentially with time at a rate of 5% per year. The time required to QUADRUPLE the annual production at.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The production of a commodity has been growing exponentially with time at a rate of 5% per year. The time required to QUADRUPLE the annual production at."— Presentation transcript:

1 The production of a commodity has been growing exponentially with time at a rate of 5% per year. The time required to QUADRUPLE the annual production at this growth rate is closest to: a)5 years b)14 years c)20 years d)28 years e)50 years * The percentage growth rate value changes from year to year. *

2 The production of a commodity has been growing exponentially with time at a rate of 5% per year. The time required to QUADRUPLE the annual production at this growth rate is closest to: a)5 years b)14 years c)20 years d)28 years e)50 years * The percentage growth rate value changes from year to year. *

3 Although it is probably impossible to predict precisely when an earthquake will occur, one of the following features may indicate that an area is at high risk of a major earthquake: a)A seismic gap along an active fault zone b)aftershocks c)Ground subsidence d)Electrical storms e)Low levels of radon in wells

4 Although it is probably impossible to predict precisely when an earthquake will occur, one of the following features may indicate that an area is at high risk of a major earthquake: a)A seismic gap along an active fault zone b)aftershocks c)Ground subsidence d)Electrical storms e)Low levels of radon in wells

5 We can sample rocks at the surface of the Earth to determine their density, but to place limits on the nature of materials deeper in the Earth, we need to determine the AVERAGE density of Earth. We can do that by studying the interaction of the Earth with the moon. In doing that determination, you would need all but one of the following. Which one don’t you need? a)The Earth’s moment of inertia b)The radius of the Earth c)The gravitational constant (G) d)The orbital velocity of the moon e)The distance from the Earth to the Moon

6 We can sample rocks at the surface of the Earth to determine their density, but to place limits on the nature of materials deeper in the Earth, we need to determine the AVERAGE density of Earth. We can do that by studying the interaction of the Earth with the moon. In doing that determination, you would need all but one of the following. Which one don’t you need? a)The Earth’s moment of inertia b)The radius of the Earth c)The gravitational constant (G) d)The orbital velocity of the moon e)The distance from the Earth to the Moon

7 There are over 100 elements in the Earth, but amazingly, only four elements constitute, in total 90% (by weight) of the entire Earth. These four elements are: a)Fe, O, Si, Mg b)Fe, Mg, Ni, O c)O, Si, Al, Fe d)O, Fe, Si, Ni e)Fe, Ni, S, O

8 There are over 100 elements in the Earth, but amazingly, only four elements constitute, in total 90% (by weight) of the entire Earth. These four elements are: a)Fe, O, Si, Mg b)Fe, Mg, Ni, O c)O, Si, Al, Fe d)O, Fe, Si, Ni e)Fe, Ni, S, O

9 The Earth’s crust includes the following five minerals. If you could mine every last crystal of these five minerals from the crust, which one would end up providing the most lead? a)pyrite b)Potassium Feldspar c)Chalcopyrite d)Magnetite e)Galena

10 The Earth’s crust includes the following five minerals. If you could mine every last crystal of these five minerals from the crust, which one would end up providing the most lead? a)pyrite b)Potassium Feldspar c)Chalcopyrite d)Magnetite e)Galena

11 Four of the five main structural groups of silicate minerals involve polymerization. The polymerization is achieved by: a)The covalent bonding of oxygen with positive cations b)The joining of single chains with positive cations c)The sharing of oxygen atoms between silica tetrahedra d)The replacement of some silicon atoms with aluminum e)The sharing of silicon atoms with aluminum atoms

12 Four of the five main structural groups of silicate minerals involve polymerization. The polymerization is achieved by: a)The covalent bonding of oxygen with positive cations b)The joining of single chains with positive cations c)The sharing of oxygen atoms between silica tetrahedra d)The replacement of some silicon atoms with aluminum e)The sharing of silicon atoms with aluminum atoms

13 As seismic energy waves travel deeper and deeper in the lower mantle of the Earth, the P-wave velocity increases with depth because: a)The compressibility modulus decreases with depth in the mantle b)The chemical composition of the mantle changes with depth c)The density increases with depth in the mantle d)The elasticity increases more rapidly than the density with increase in depth e)The lower mantle becomes more plastic

14 As seismic energy waves travel deeper and deeper in the lower mantle of the Earth, the P-wave velocity increases with depth because: a)The compressibility modulus decreases with depth in the mantle b)The chemical composition of the mantle changes with depth c)The density increases with depth in the mantle d)The elasticity increases more rapidly than the density with increase in depth e)The lower mantle becomes more plastic

15 The sketch below is a plan map view of a series of sedimentary strata which have been folded and eroded to the horizontal. Strike and dip directions are shown. Which way does the fold plunge? a)west b)South c)north d)east e)It does not plunge

16 The sketch below is a plan map view of a series of sedimentary strata which have been folded and eroded to the horizontal. Strike and dip directions are shown. Which way does the fold plunge? a)west b)South c)north d)east e)It does not plunge

17 Weathering produces minerals that are more stable at the Earth’s surface. Which of the following is the most abundant product of the weathering process? a)clay b)hematite c)limonite d)quartz e)feldspar

18 Weathering produces minerals that are more stable at the Earth’s surface. Which of the following is the most abundant product of the weathering process? a)clay b)hematite c)limonite d)quartz e)feldspar

19 Which of the following features is most likely to be associated with a palco-placer gold deposit? a)Submarine lava flows b)Granite porphyry c)Cross bedding d)Igneous layering e)Vesicularity

20 Which of the following features is most likely to be associated with a palco-placer gold deposit? a)Submarine lava flows b)Granite porphyry c)Cross bedding d)Igneous layering e)Vesicularity

21 To generate a computer model of Earth, we must specify two things to the computer. Which of the following are they? 1. the compressibility moduli of the different materials in Earth 2. the distribution of the different materials in the model Earth 3. the densities of the different materials in the model Earth 4. the shear moduli of the different materials in the model Earth 5. the seismic velocities within the different materials in the model Earth a)5 and 2 b)4 and 2 c)1 and 2 d)3 and 2 e)4 and 5

22 To generate a computer model of Earth, we must specify two things to the computer. Which of the following are they? 1. the compressibility moduli of the different materials in Earth 2. the distribution of the different materials in the model Earth 3. the densities of the different materials in the model Earth 4. the shear moduli of the different materials in the model Earth 5. the seismic velocities within the different materials in the model Earth a)5 and 2 b)4 and 2 c)1 and 2 d)3 and 2 e)4 and 5

23 If you were in the Kingston area about 450 million years ago, what would you have seen? a)Desert sands b)Ice sheets like in Greenland c)An oceanic island-arc d)A Himalayan-like mountain range e)Shallow seas

24 If you were in the Kingston area about 450 million years ago, what would you have seen? a)Desert sands b)Ice sheets like in Greenland c)An oceanic island-arc d)A Himalayan-like mountain range e)Shallow seas

25 Of the following five rocks, which one can best neutralize acid rain? a)Rock salt b)A sulfide deposit c)A granite d)A sandstone e)A limestone

26 Of the following five rocks, which one can best neutralize acid rain? a)Rock salt b)A sulfide deposit c)A granite d)A sandstone e)A limestone

27 On a semi-log plot of annual production of a commodity versus time, the plot for the commodity that is being produced at an exponential rate is:

28

29 In carrying out a risk assessment and risk management process, we calculate the risk by multiplying the probability of the hazard occurring by: a)The type of risk b)The frequency of the risk c)The severity of the risk d)The length of the hazard e)The proximity of the hazard

30 In carrying out a risk assessment and risk management process, we calculate the risk by multiplying the probability of the hazard occurring by: a)The type of risk b)The frequency of the risk c)The severity of the risk d)The length of the hazard e)The proximity of the hazard

31 What is the major danger from fissure eruptions? a)Release of sulfur dioxide gas b)tsunami c)earthquakes d)mudflows e)solifluction

32 What is the major danger from fissure eruptions? a)Release of sulfur dioxide gas b)tsunami c)earthquakes d)mudflows e)solifluction

33 When exploring for oil, seismic reflection studies provide the most effective way to search for suitable sedimentary rock structures that might host the oil. What kind of structure is most likely to be a prime target for oil? a)An up-arch antiform b)A moraine c)An unconformity d)A strike-slip fault e)Mud-cracks

34 When exploring for oil, seismic reflection studies provide the most effective way to search for suitable sedimentary rock structures that might host the oil. What kind of structure is most likely to be a prime target for oil? a)An up-arch antiform b)A moraine c)An unconformity d)A strike-slip fault e)Mud-cracks

35 If we want to determine whether humans have been responsible for dramatically changing the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution, we need to know what their values were before that time. Which of the following approaches can give us that information? a)Drilling and analyzing ice cores from glaciers b)Analyzing the composition of gas in mud layers on the ocean floor c)Analyzing atmospheric gas collected in Hawaii d)Analyzing the carbonates in fossil shells e)Analyzing the tree rings in bristlecone pines

36 If we want to determine whether humans have been responsible for dramatically changing the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution, we need to know what their values were before that time. Which of the following approaches can give us that information? a)Drilling and analyzing ice cores from glaciers b)Analyzing the composition of gas in mud layers on the ocean floor c)Analyzing atmospheric gas collected in Hawaii d)Analyzing the carbonates in fossil shells e)Analyzing the tree rings in bristlecone pines

37 Roughly what percentage of the world’s human population currently lives in urban areas? a)10% b)25% c)50% d)75% e)90%

38 Roughly what percentage of the world’s human population currently lives in urban areas? a)10% b)25% c)50% d)75% e)90%

39 San Francisco, California, sits right on the San Andreas fault. This fault marks a tectonic plate boundary. At this plate boundary: a)Plates are moving towards each other b)One plate is sliding under another plate c)Plates are moving away from one another d)Continents are colliding e)Plates are sliding past each other

40 San Francisco, California, sits right on the San Andreas fault. This fault marks a tectonic plate boundary. At this plate boundary: a)Plates are moving towards each other b)One plate is sliding under another plate c)Plates are moving away from one another d)Continents are colliding e)Plates are sliding past each other

41 If the Earth’s magnetic field did not occasionally reverse polarity: a)Polar-wander curves would not exist b)Compasses would not work c)Paleomagnetic analysis of a rock would not give the direction of the pole d)The sea floor would not produce linear magnetic anomalies e)Continental drift would not have occurred

42 If the Earth’s magnetic field did not occasionally reverse polarity: a)Polar-wander curves would not exist b)Compasses would not work c)Paleomagnetic analysis of a rock would not give the direction of the pole d)The sea floor would not produce linear magnetic anomalies e)Continental drift would not have occurred

43 What is the main control on the size of crystals produced in igneous rocks? a)Viscosity of the magma b)Volatile content c)Temperature of the magma d)Shape of the igneous body e)Rate of cooling

44 What is the main control on the size of crystals produced in igneous rocks? a)Viscosity of the magma b)Volatile content c)Temperature of the magma d)Shape of the igneous body e)Rate of cooling

45 What type of fault is most likely to be associated with a constructive plate margin? a)Reverse dip-slip b)Normal dip-slip c)Nobody’s d)strike-slip e)Transverse

46 What type of fault is most likely to be associated with a constructive plate margin? a)Reverse dip-slip b)Normal dip-slip c)Nobody’s d)strike-slip e)Transverse

47 Magmas contain dissolved volatiles. Which of the following magmas will generally be the riches in water? a)mafic b)ultramafic c)granite d)dioritic e)porphyrytic

48 Magmas contain dissolved volatiles. Which of the following magmas will generally be the riches in water? a)mafic b)ultramafic c)granite d)dioritic e)porphyrytic

49 There is no single “one-model-fits-all” solution to problems of population growth rates that are too high. However, one of the following is MOST directly linked to a reduction in the population growth rate of countries. Which one is it? a)Economic incentives b)Use of contraceptives c)industrialization d)Decrease in per capita consumption e)Education of men

50 There is no single “one-model-fits-all” solution to problems of population growth rates that are too high. However, one of the following is MOST directly linked to a reduction in the population growth rate of countries. Which one is it? a)Economic incentives b)Use of contraceptives c)industrialization d)Decrease in per capita consumption e)Education of men

51 I have hired you to help my exploration company find a vein- type Cu-Mo-Ag-Au porphyry deposit. Where, of the following possibilities, is the best place to look for such a deposit? a)Shield volcanoes in the middles of plates b)Destructive plate margins c)Constructive plate margins d)Transform plate margins e)Kimberlite pipes in the middle of plates

52 I have hired you to help my exploration company find a vein- type Cu-Mo-Ag-Au porphyry deposit. Where, of the following possibilities, is the best place to look for such a deposit? a)Shield volcanoes in the middles of plates b)Destructive plate margins c)Constructive plate margins d)Transform plate margins e)Kimberlite pipes in the middle of plates

53 Of the following rock types, which is the most likely to be a trap rock for trapping oil and gas underground? a)Granite porphyry b)greywacke c)Shale/mudstone d)Salt dome e)Quartz sandstone

54 Of the following rock types, which is the most likely to be a trap rock for trapping oil and gas underground? a)Granite porphyry b)greywacke c)Shale/mudstone d)Salt dome e)Quartz sandstone

55 Which strike and dip symbol best represents the orientation of the coal bed in space? Note: the orientation and numbers in the diagram are known to change

56 Which strike and dip symbol best represents the orientation of the coal bed in space? Note: the orientation and numbers in the diagram are known to change

57 In determining the recurrence interval for large earthquakes along faults, we make use of the “Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships”. This law is related to: a)The fact that pieces of the Earth’s crust are constantly moving up and down b)The order in which sediments are deposited c)The fact that the focus Is always above the epicenter of the earthquake d)The fact that, as a result of a tsunami, a peat layer is thrown on top of a sand layer e)The fact that layers are shifted when a fault motion takes place

58 In determining the recurrence interval for large earthquakes along faults, we make use of the “Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships”. This law is related to: a)The fact that pieces of the Earth’s crust are constantly moving up and down b)The order in which sediments are deposited c)The fact that the focus Is always above the epicenter of the earthquake d)The fact that, as a result of a tsunami, a peat layer is thrown on top of a sand layer e)The fact that layers are shifted when a fault motion takes place

59 Which meteorite type is a best approximation to the AVERAGE composition of the Earth? a)A basaltic achondrite meteorite b)A Leonid meteorite c)A chondrite meteorite d)An ultramafic meteorite e)An iron meteorite

60 Which meteorite type is a best approximation to the AVERAGE composition of the Earth? a)A basaltic achondrite meteorite b)A Leonid meteorite c)A chondrite meteorite d)An ultramafic meteorite e)An iron meteorite

61 As a magma of Granodiorite composition cools down from 1500 ° C, which of the following minerals would crystalize first? a)Biotite mica b)Pyroxene c)Olivine d)Na-rich Plagioclase e)Quartz

62 As a magma of Granodiorite composition cools down from 1500 ° C, which of the following minerals would crystalize first? a)Biotite mica b)Pyroxene c)Olivine d)Na-rich Plagioclase e)Quartz

63 The Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock deals with: a)The development of the hydrological cycle b)The Plate Tectonic cycle c)The formation of the Solar System d)The “physiology” of the Earth e)The Rock Cycle

64 The Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock deals with: a)The development of the hydrological cycle b)The Plate Tectonic cycle c)The formation of the Solar System d)The “physiology” of the Earth e)The Rock Cycle

65 Which of the following rocks would be most likely to contain feldspar grains? a)Greywacke b)Banded Iron Formation c)Quartz Sandstone d)Limestone e)Mudstone

66 Which of the following rocks would be most likely to contain feldspar grains? a)Greywacke b)Banded Iron Formation c)Quartz Sandstone d)Limestone e)Mudstone

67 Water wells have been sunk in the region shown in the plan map. The height of the water table is indicated. Which way is the ground water dominantly flowing in the region? a)East to west b)West to East c)North to South d)South to North e)Up and Down like a yo-yo, and circling like a tornado Note: the numbers on the diagram are known to vary from year to year

68 Water wells have been sunk in the region shown in the plan map. The height of the water table is indicated. Which way is the ground water dominantly flowing in the region? a)East to west b)West to East c)North to South d)South to North e)Up and Down like a yo-yo, and circling like a tornado Note: the numbers on the diagram are known to vary from year to year

69 Which of the following rocks would be most likely to contain feldspar grains? a)Greywacke b)Banded Iron Formation c)Quartz Sandstone d)Limestone e)Mudstone

70 Which of the following rocks would be most likely to contain feldspar grains? a)Greywacke b)Banded Iron Formation c)Quartz Sandstone d)Limestone e)Mudstone

71 From the sketch below showing a cross-section of cross- bedding sandstone layers, which way was the water that produced them moving? a)Uni-directionally, from left to right b)Bi-directionally, back and forth c)From up to down d)Uni-directionally from right to left e)From down to up Note: the direction of the asymmetrical wave pattern is known to vary from year to year

72 From the sketch below showing a cross-section of cross- bedding sandstone layers, which way was the water that produced them moving? a)Uni-directionally, from left to right b)Bi-directionally, back and forth c)From up to down d)Uni-directionally from right to left e)From down to up Note: the direction of the asymmetrical wave pattern is known to vary from year to year

73 A silicate mineral that is not in the presence of water is most likely to be above its melting point at: a)A low temperature and a high pressure b)A high temperature and high pressure c)A low temperature and low pressure d)A high temperature and low pressure e)The surface of the Earth

74 A silicate mineral that is not in the presence of water is most likely to be above its melting point at: a)A low temperature and a high pressure b)A high temperature and high pressure c)A low temperature and low pressure d)A high temperature and low pressure e)The surface of the Earth

75 The average temperature at the surface of the Earth is currently approximately 16 ° centigrade. However, what would the average surface temperature of the Earth be if the Earth had no atmosphere. a)Greater than 100 ° C b)50 ° C c)15 ° C d)0 ° C e)- 20 ° C

76 The average temperature at the surface of the Earth is currently approximately 16 ° centigrade. However, what would the average surface temperature of the Earth be if the Earth had no atmosphere. a)Greater than 100 ° C b)50 ° C c)15 ° C d)0 ° C e)- 20 ° C

77 Which of the following rock types would tend to chemically weather LEAST rapidly? a)Diorite b)Gabbro c)Limestone d)Granite e)Rock Salt

78 Which of the following rock types would tend to chemically weather LEAST rapidly? a)Diorite b)Gabbro c)Limestone d)Granite e)Rock Salt

79 Differentiation of igneous rocks by partial melting can only occur if: a)There is convection in the magma chamber b)The magma becomes less viscous during crystallization c)The magma contains water d)Early-formed liquids are separated from the remaining rock e)As crystals form, they react with the liquid.

80 Differentiation of igneous rocks by partial melting can only occur if: a)There is convection in the magma chamber b)The magma becomes less viscous during crystallization c)The magma contains water d)Early-formed liquids are separated from the remaining rock e)As crystals form, they react with the liquid.

81 Brad R. Allenby, in his paper on Earth-Systems Engineering, argues that the desired goal, or end point, of Earth Systems Engineering should be: a)Economic growth b)Sustainability c)Climate change d)Equity e)Decreased population

82 Brad R. Allenby, in his paper on Earth-Systems Engineering, argues that the desired goal, or end point, of Earth Systems Engineering should be: a)Economic growth b)Sustainability c)Climate change d)Equity e)Decreased population

83 Which of the following features of an igneous rock can be used to get an idea of its chemical composition? a)Size b)Type of rock structure c)Proximity to Earth’s surface d)Colour e)All of the above

84 Which of the following features of an igneous rock can be used to get an idea of its chemical composition? a)Size b)Type of rock structure c)Proximity to Earth’s surface d)Colour e)All of the above

85 Which of the following rock types is most likely to be well-sorted? a)Greywacke b)Limestone c)Quartz Sandstone d)Glacial till e)Arkose

86 Which of the following rock types is most likely to be well-sorted? a)Greywacke b)Limestone c)Quartz Sandstone d)Glacial till e)Arkose

87 Quartz and Feldspar are minerals that belong to the same silicate structural type. Their compositional difference is due to the replacement of some silicon atoms by another element to form the feldspars. What is the element that replaces silicon? a)Aluminum b)Sodium c)Calcium d)Iron e)Potassium

88 Quartz and Feldspar are minerals that belong to the same silicate structural type. Their compositional difference is due to the replacement of some silicon atoms by another element to form the feldspars. What is the element that replaces silicon? a)Aluminum b)Sodium c)Calcium d)Iron e)Potassium

89 A mafic dyke would most likely be associated with: a)A pyroclastic flow b)A fissure eruption c)A strike-slip fault d)A tsunami e)A translation slip

90 A mafic dyke would most likely be associated with: a)A pyroclastic flow b)A fissure eruption c)A strike-slip fault d)A tsunami e)A translation slip

91 Hubbert’s Peak refers to: a)The first site, in the early 1950’s, for measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide b)The total resource of a commodity c)The highest average global population growth rate in the 20 th century d)The highest global production of crude oil e)The highest continental mountain

92 Hubbert’s Peak refers to: a)The first site, in the early 1950’s, for measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide b)The total resource of a commodity c)The highest average global population growth rate in the 20 th century d)The highest global production of crude oil e)The highest continental mountain

93 Absolute ages have been attached to the Relative Time Scale by determination of: a)The nature of superposition of the sedimentary layers b)Radiometric ages of igneous rocks younger and older than sedimentary formations c)Radiometric ages of fossil skeletons d)The nature of the biotic succession of rocks e)The cross-cutting relationships of igneous rocks and faults

94 Absolute ages have been attached to the Relative Time Scale by determination of: a)The nature of superposition of the sedimentary layers b)Radiometric ages of igneous rocks younger and older than sedimentary formations c)Radiometric ages of fossil skeletons d)The nature of the biotic succession of rocks e)The cross-cutting relationships of igneous rocks and faults

95 Which of the following types of mass movement generally has the highest velocity? a)Earthflow b)Mudflow c)Solifluction d)Creep e)Translational rock slip

96 Which of the following types of mass movement generally has the highest velocity? a)Earthflow b)Mudflow c)Solifluction d)Creep e)Translational rock slip

97 Limonite can form by the chemical weathering of which of the following minerals? a)Quartz b)Olivine c)Potassium-rich Clay d)Feldspar e)Muscovite Mica

98 Limonite can form by the chemical weathering of which of the following minerals? a)Quartz b)Olivine c)Potassium-rich Clay d)Feldspar e)Muscovite Mica

99 Salt Domes are important for oil exploration because: a)They form antiformal fold structures about them b)Salt is the source rock for oil c)Salt rock squeezes oil out of the source rocks d)Oil is trapped in the salt dome e)Water flowing out from the salt carries oil

100 Salt Domes are important for oil exploration because: a)They form antiformal fold structures about them b)Salt is the source rock for oil c)Salt rock squeezes oil out of the source rocks d)Oil is trapped in the salt dome e)Water flowing out from the salt carries oil

101 In an attempt to model the composition of the deep layers of the interior of the Earth we re-create conditions deep in the Earth’s interior using: a)A smelting furnace b)A diamond anvil press c)A seismometer d)The mineral composition of metamorphic rock e)The inverse theory approach

102 In an attempt to model the composition of the deep layers of the interior of the Earth we re-create conditions deep in the Earth’s interior using: a)A smelting furnace b)A diamond anvil press c)A seismometer d)The mineral composition of metamorphic rock e)The inverse theory approach

103 The texture and structures of sedimentary rocks can yield information on the conditions of their deposition. Just by looking at the grain size of a sandstone at an outcrop, one can infer: a)The number of times the sand has been reworked by successive currents b)The grain size of the rocks from which the sane weathered c)The distance over which the sand has been transported d)The composition of the rock from which the sand weathered e)The velocity of the current by which it was deposited

104 The texture and structures of sedimentary rocks can yield information on the conditions of their deposition. Just by looking at the grain size of a sandstone at an outcrop, one can infer: a)The number of times the sand has been reworked by successive currents b)The grain size of the rocks from which the sane weathered c)The distance over which the sand has been transported d)The composition of the rock from which the sand weathered e)The velocity of the current by which it was deposited

105 Which of the following diagrams is the most probable description of the future production of a non-renewable resource that has been produced exponentially up to the present time?

106

107 The Earth’s carrying capacity refers to: a)The number of “sinks” available for human needs b)The fact that humans move more material annually than all other Earth processes c)The ultimate total amount of a non-renewable resource available to us d)How large a human population the Earth can sustainably support e)The level of overshoot and oscillation

108 The Earth’s carrying capacity refers to: a)The number of “sinks” available for human needs b)The fact that humans move more material annually than all other Earth processes c)The ultimate total amount of a non-renewable resource available to us d)How large a human population the Earth can sustainably support e)The level of overshoot and oscillation

109 The thickness of the lithospheric plates was determined by: a)Discovering the low-velocity zone b)Detecting an increase in seismic velocity of seismic waves crossing the MOHO c)Detecting the shadow zone for seismic P and S-Waves d)Noting that seismic S-waves are stopped at the base of the plates e)Noting the refraction of seismic P-waves at the mantle-core boundary

110 The thickness of the lithospheric plates was determined by: a)Discovering the low-velocity zone b)Detecting an increase in seismic velocity of seismic waves crossing the MOHO c)Detecting the shadow zone for seismic P and S-Waves d)Noting that seismic S-waves are stopped at the base of the plates e)Noting the refraction of seismic P-waves at the mantle-core boundary

111 When seismologists try to find ways to predict earthquakes, they are faced with the fact that earthquake behavior follows a Power Law relationship. Which of the graphs below shows the correct relationship between the number of earthquakes as a function of the Richter magnitude?

112

113 When we are assessing the future of a commodity, we refer to the reserves and resources of that commodity. The definition of a reserve of a commodity is: a)The amount of the commodity already removed from the ground but not sold b)The estimated total amount of the commodity in the whole Earth c)The economic amount of the commodity discovered but not yet extracted d)The estimated total amount of the commodity that is ultimately economically available to us from the Earth’s crust e)The shyness of commodity experts when bidding on the stock-market

114 When we are assessing the future of a commodity, we refer to the reserves and resources of that commodity. The definition of a reserve of a commodity is: a)The amount of the commodity already removed from the ground but not sold b)The estimated total amount of the commodity in the whole Earth c)The economic amount of the commodity discovered but not yet extracted d)The estimated total amount of the commodity that is ultimately economically available to us from the Earth’s crust e)The shyness of commodity experts when bidding on the stock-market

115 In February 2008, S. Self and S. Blake called one of the following “probably the greatest natural hazard of mankind in terms of the severity and longevity of impact – the ultimate geologic hazard”. Which one were they referring to? a)A caldera collapse and super-eruption b)A Richter-magnitude nine earthquake c)A mega-landslide in the Himalayas d)An earthquake-generated tsunami e)Enhanced global warming and resultant climate change

116 In February 2008, S. Self and S. Blake called one of the following “probably the greatest natural hazard of mankind in terms of the severity and longevity of impact – the ultimate geologic hazard”. Which one were they referring to? a)A caldera collapse and super-eruption b)A Richter-magnitude nine earthquake c)A mega-landslide in the Himalayas d)An earthquake-generated tsunami e)Enhanced global warming and resultant climate change

117 Which of the following minerals is closest to the AVERAGE composition of the Earth? a)Pyrite b)Feldspar c)Quartz d)Calcite e)Olivine

118 Which of the following minerals is closest to the AVERAGE composition of the Earth? a)Pyrite b)Feldspar c)Quartz d)Calcite e)Olivine

119 Which of the following rocks is least likely to have a foliation? a)Schist b)Slate c)Gneiss d)Migmatite e)Quartzite

120 Which of the following rocks is least likely to have a foliation? a)Schist b)Slate c)Gneiss d)Migmatite e)Quartzite

121 An unconformity, like the one in the Kingston area, is best defined as: a)A gap in the rock record b)A basal conglomerate c)A layer of sedimentary rocks d)A thin, tabular or sheet-like, igneous intrusion e)A layer of rocks with very unusual fossils

122 An unconformity, like the one in the Kingston area, is best defined as: a)A gap in the rock record b)A basal conglomerate c)A layer of sedimentary rocks d)A thin, tabular or sheet-like, igneous intrusion e)A layer of rocks with very unusual fossils

123 For an exponential equation of the form y=-e kt, where “y” is growing as a function of time, the “k” term is: a)The growth rate of quantity “y” in percent b)One one-hundredth of the growth rate of quantity “y” in percent c)A constant whose value is the base of the natural logarithm d)The doubling time e)One one-hundredth of the doubling time

124 For an exponential equation of the form y=-e kt, where “y” is growing as a function of time, the “k” term is: a)The growth rate of quantity “y” in percent b)One one-hundredth of the growth rate of quantity “y” in percent c)A constant whose value is the base of the natural logarithm d)The doubling time e)One one-hundredth of the doubling time

125 When determining the risk of a “landslide” in a particular region, which of the following will provide the most valuable information? a)Installation of seismometers b)The tracing out of faults c)Carbon-14 dating peat layers d)Analysis of air photographs e)Measurement of acceleration due to gravity

126 When determining the risk of a “landslide” in a particular region, which of the following will provide the most valuable information? a)Installation of seismometers b)The tracing out of faults c)Carbon-14 dating peat layers d)Analysis of air photographs e)Measurement of acceleration due to gravity

127 The MOHO is a boundary in the Earth across which, as one goes deeper in the Earth, a number of changes occur. Only one of the five changes listed below is correct. Which one is it? a)The Fe content goes down b)The temperature goes down c)The density goes down d)The Si content goes down e)The seismic velocity goes down

128 The MOHO is a boundary in the Earth across which, as one goes deeper in the Earth, a number of changes occur. Only one of the five changes listed below is correct. Which one is it? a)The Fe content goes down b)The temperature goes down c)The density goes down d)The Si content goes down e)The seismic velocity goes down

129 Evidence of abundant fossils of life-forms that made hard protective shells did not appear in the geological record until how long ago? a)3.5 billion years ago b)5 billion years ago c)65 million years ago d)600 million years ago e)300 million years ago

130 Evidence of abundant fossils of life-forms that made hard protective shells did not appear in the geological record until how long ago? a)3.5 billion years ago b)5 billion years ago c)65 million years ago d)600 million years ago e)300 million years ago

131 Which of the following will NOT help to determine the recurrence history of large (greater than magnitude 7.5) earthquakes in a region? a)Looking for evidence of ancient tsunamis in the soil record b)Determining the age of peat layers c)Studying human historical records of the region d)Digging trenches and pits around the faults e)Setting up seismic stations to record the foci of earthquakes over a 20 year period

132 Which of the following will NOT help to determine the recurrence history of large (greater than magnitude 7.5) earthquakes in a region? a)Looking for evidence of ancient tsunamis in the soil record b)Determining the age of peat layers c)Studying human historical records of the region d)Digging trenches and pits around the faults e)Setting up seismic stations to record the foci of earthquakes over a 20 year period

133 The process of unloading can produce: a)Amygdules b)Mud cracks c)Joints d)Cross-bedding e)Leaching

134 The process of unloading can produce: a)Amygdules b)Mud cracks c)Joints d)Cross-bedding e)Leaching

135 The three most abundant elements in the continental crust are: a)O, Al, Fe b)O, Si, Fe c)O, Fe, Mg d)O, Si, Al e)K, Ca, Na

136 The three most abundant elements in the continental crust are: a)O, Al, Fe b)O, Si, Fe c)O, Fe, Mg d)O, Si, Al e)K, Ca, Na

137 A crystal of Potassium Feldspar from a granite has been analyzed by the K-Ar method of geochronology. The ratio in the crystal of the number of 40K atoms to the number of 40Ar atoms is 1 to 3. Given that the half life for the decay of parent to daughter is 1.3 billion years, which of the following values is closest to the age of formation of the granite? a)0.30 billion years b)0.65 billion years c)1.3 billion years d)2.0 billion years e)2.6 billion years

138 A crystal of Potassium Feldspar from a granite has been analyzed by the K-Ar method of geochronology. The ratio in the crystal of the number of 40K atoms to the number of 40Ar atoms is 1 to 3. Given that the half life for the decay of parent to daughter is 1.3 billion years, which of the following values is closest to the age of formation of the granite? a)0.30 billion years b)0.65 billion years c)1.3 billion years d)2.0 billion years e)2.6 billion years

139 A sample of basalt in which the remnant magnetic field is oriented vertically probably formed and cooled: a)At the azimuth b)Under sea water c)Near the equator d)At 45 degrees north or south latitude e)Near the north or south pole

140 A sample of basalt in which the remnant magnetic field is oriented vertically probably formed and cooled: a)At the azimuth b)Under sea water c)Near the equator d)At 45 degrees north or south latitude e)Near the north or south pole

141 You are in Iceland, witnessing a lava flow. What is most likely to be the colour of the rock formed when the lava has crystallized and cooled? a)pink b)yellow c)black d)white e)green

142 You are in Iceland, witnessing a lava flow. What is most likely to be the colour of the rock formed when the lava has crystallized and cooled? a)pink b)yellow c)black d)white e)green

143 The fact that, over time in the sedimentary rock record, fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order is the basis for: a)The principle of original horizontality b)The principle of biotic succession c)The Law of Superposition d)The doctrine catastrophism e)The principle of cross-cutting relationships

144 The fact that, over time in the sedimentary rock record, fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order is the basis for: a)The principle of original horizontality b)The principle of biotic succession c)The Law of Superposition d)The doctrine catastrophism e)The principle of cross-cutting relationships

145 We wish to put the foundations of our building into solid rock, but we need to know the thickness of the soil layer sitting above the rock. We can carry out a seismic refraction study, but this requires the knowledge of the velocity of the seismic P-waves in the soil and in the rock. We obtain these by: a)Taking the inverse of the slopes on the travel-time curves b)Measuring the critical distance c)Calculating the path taken by the seismic waves d)Determining the difference between the focus and epicenter of the earthquake e)Measuring the difference in arrival time of the first P and the first S seismic wave

146 We wish to put the foundations of our building into solid rock, but we need to know the thickness of the soil layer sitting above the rock. We can carry out a seismic refraction study, but this requires the knowledge of the velocity of the seismic P-waves in the soil and in the rock. We obtain these by: a)Taking the inverse of the slopes on the travel-time curves b)Measuring the critical distance c)Calculating the path taken by the seismic waves d)Determining the difference between the focus and epicenter of the earthquake e)Measuring the difference in arrival time of the first P and the first S seismic wave

147 If you are exploring for a bauxite ore deposit, which of the following is most likely to be associated with it? a)A laterite b)A porphyritic rock c) an ultramafic rock d)A salt dome e)Sandstone

148 If you are exploring for a bauxite ore deposit, which of the following is most likely to be associated with it? a)A laterite b)A porphyritic rock c) an ultramafic rock d)A salt dome e)Sandstone

149 In carrying out a risk analysis and risk management plan to minimize damage from a natural or anthropogenic hazard, which of the following is a step that needs to be done after we assess the risk from the hazard in the are under consideration, but before we undertake any risk-control solutions? a)A poll to determine the wishes of the public b)Further collection of scientific data over a sufficiently long time period c)Refinement of the emergency measures organizations d)Public education e)A cost-benefit analysis

150 In carrying out a risk analysis and risk management plan to minimize damage from a natural or anthropogenic hazard, which of the following is a step that needs to be done after we assess the risk from the hazard in the are under consideration, but before we undertake any risk-control solutions? a)A poll to determine the wishes of the public b)Further collection of scientific data over a sufficiently long time period c)Refinement of the emergency measures organizations d)Public education e)A cost-benefit analysis

151 In order to have an ore deposit, you need: a)An accumulation of a mineral that you can extract and make money from b)A local accumulation of metal c)A porphyry-copper deposit d)A mineral deposit of non-silicate minerals e) A mineral deposit that is close to market

152 In order to have an ore deposit, you need: a)An accumulation of a mineral that you can extract and make money from b)A local accumulation of metal c)A porphyry-copper deposit d)A mineral deposit of non-silicate minerals e) A mineral deposit that is close to market

153 At which of these locations are fissure eruptions most prominent? a)Subduction zones b)Central Canada c)Mid-ocean ridges d)The Andes Mountains e)Mount Pinatubo

154 At which of these locations are fissure eruptions most prominent? a)Subduction zones b)Central Canada c)Mid-ocean ridges d)The Andes Mountains e)Mount Pinatubo

155 In carrying out seismic modeling to determine the structure of the Earth, we make use of the “Ocean’s Razor”. With this, we: a)Obtain a measure of the difference in arrival times of seismic waves b)Determine the refraction patterns of seismic waves c)Locate the focus of the earthquake d)Determine the magnitude of the earthquake e)Choose the simples solution that fits the data

156 In carrying out seismic modeling to determine the structure of the Earth, we make use of the “Ocean’s Razor”. With this, we: a)Obtain a measure of the difference in arrival times of seismic waves b)Determine the refraction patterns of seismic waves c)Locate the focus of the earthquake d)Determine the magnitude of the earthquake e)Choose the simples solution that fits the data

157 Which of the following types of seismic waves arrives first at a seismic station following an earthquake 500 kilometres away from the seismic station? a)Love Waves b)Rayleigh Waves c)Tsunami Waves d)Shear Waves e)Compression-rarefaction Waves

158 Which of the following types of seismic waves arrives first at a seismic station following an earthquake 500 kilometres away from the seismic station? a)Love Waves b)Rayleigh Waves c)Tsunami Waves d)Shear Waves e)Compression-rarefaction Waves

159 Which of the following lists is in correct order going from lower to higher grade of regional metamorphism? a)Slate, gneiss, mica schist b)Slate, mica schist, gneiss c)Mica schist, gneiss, slate d)Gneiss, slate, mica schist e)Mica schist, slate, gneiss

160 Which of the following lists is in correct order going from lower to higher grade of regional metamorphism? a)Slate, gneiss, mica schist b)Slate, mica schist, gneiss c)Mica schist, gneiss, slate d)Gneiss, slate, mica schist e)Mica schist, slate, gneiss

161 Which of the following materials best represents the behavior of the mantle of the earth? a)Water b)Wood c)An India Rubber Ball d)Silly Putty e)Plasticene

162 Which of the following materials best represents the behavior of the mantle of the earth? a)Water b)Wood c)An India Rubber Ball d)Silly Putty e)Plasticene

163 What is the basic building block in the silicate minerals? a)(SiO 4 ) 4- b)(SiO 2 ) 2- c)SiO 4 d)SiO 2 e)(SiO 4 ) 2-

164 What is the basic building block in the silicate minerals? a)(SiO 4 ) 4- b)(SiO 2 ) 2- c)SiO 4 d)SiO 2 e)(SiO 4 ) 2-

165 Which of the following rock types has provided evidence for a change over Earth history in the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere? a)Greywacke b)Rhyolite c)Chert d)Iron formation e)Rock Salt

166 Which of the following rock types has provided evidence for a change over Earth history in the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere? a)Greywacke b)Rhyolite c)Chert d)Iron formation e)Rock Salt

167 When most rocks experience partial melting, the melted part is: a)Denser than the original rock b)More felsic than the original rock c)Poorer in water than the original rock d)Darker in colour than the original rock e)Concentrated in iron compared to the original rock

168 When most rocks experience partial melting, the melted part is: a)Denser than the original rock b)More felsic than the original rock c)Poorer in water than the original rock d)Darker in colour than the original rock e)Concentrated in iron compared to the original rock

169 In a layered intrusion, which igneous rock type is most likely to be at the top of the intrusion? a)Gabbro b)Granite c)Ultramafic Rock d)Basalt e)Granodiorite

170 In a layered intrusion, which igneous rock type is most likely to be at the top of the intrusion? a)Gabbro b)Granite c)Ultramafic Rock d)Basalt e)Granodiorite

171 If the current rate of exponential growth of human population were to continue in the future, the Earth’s human population will have doubled in about how many years? a)5 years b)10 years c)30 years d)60 years e)90 years

172 If the current rate of exponential growth of human population were to continue in the future, the Earth’s human population will have doubled in about how many years? a)5 years b)10 years c)30 years d)60 years e)90 years

173 Which of the following types of faults is likely to be connected with the most dangerous earthquakes? a)Nobody’s b)Transform c)Strike slip d)Reverse Dip-Slip e)Normal Dip-Slip

174 Which of the following types of faults is likely to be connected with the most dangerous earthquakes? a)Nobody’s b)Transform c)Strike slip d)Reverse Dip-Slip e)Normal Dip-Slip

175 Very deep (greater than 200 km) earthquakes occur a)5 years b)14 years c)20 years d)28 years e)50 years

176 Very deep (greater than 200 km) earthquakes occur a)5 years b)14 years c)20 years d)28 years e)50 years

177 Which of the following ore-deposit types would be most likely to generate acid mine-tailings? a)Iron formation b)bauxite c)Porphyry copper d)chromite e)petroleum

178 Which of the following ore-deposit types would be most likely to generate acid mine-tailings? a)Iron formation b)bauxite c)Porphyry copper d)chromite e)petroleum

179 It is only in the last 40 years that geologists have developed the Plate tectonic theory. One of the most important consequences of this theory is that it has provided an explanation of how continental mountain ranges are formed. In the framework of the Plate Tectonic Theory, where are the major continental mountain ranges produced? a)Constructive plate boundaries b)Destructive plate boundaries c)Strike-slip boundaries d)Conductive plate boundaries e)Transform plate boundaries

180 It is only in the last 40 years that geologists have developed the Plate tectonic theory. One of the most important consequences of this theory is that it has provided an explanation of how continental mountain ranges are formed. In the framework of the Plate Tectonic Theory, where are the major continental mountain ranges produced? a)Constructive plate boundaries b)Destructive plate boundaries c)Strike-slip boundaries d)Conductive plate boundaries e)Transform plate boundaries

181 The development of the Himalayas was probably partly responsible for a cooling of the Earth’s climate that led us into the recent Ice Ages over the last 2 million years. Which of the following best explains this effect of the Himalayas on the climate. a)The energy used to uplift the mountains led to atmospheric cooling b)The uplift of the mountains shut off the ocean “conveyor belt” c)The uplifted mountains absorbed most of the solar radiation, thus cooling the atmosphere d)The uplifted mountains experienced an increased rate of erosion, and that increased weathering process extracted carbon dioxide from the atmosphere e)Uplifting of the mountains changed the tilt

182 The development of the Himalayas was probably partly responsible for a cooling of the Earth’s climate that led us into the recent Ice Ages over the last 2 million years. Which of the following best explains this effect of the Himalayas on the climate. a)The energy used to uplift the mountains led to atmospheric cooling b)The uplift of the mountains shut off the ocean “conveyor belt” c)The uplifted mountains absorbed most of the solar radiation, thus cooling the atmosphere d)The uplifted mountains experienced an increased rate of erosion, and that increased weathering process extracted carbon dioxide from the atmosphere e)Uplifting of the mountains changed the tilt

183 Seismic energy waves allow us to essentially x-ray the Earth’s interior. To do this, we use the inverse theory method. For this method, we must: a)Dig trenches and pits, and look at sediments for evidence of ancient tsunamis b)Study seismic records to determine the recurrence interval of earthquakes c)Make a computer model of the Earth and see if the travel-time measured at the seismic stations fit the model d)Locate and determine the nature of faults by the technique of seismic topography e)Determine the epicenters of the Earthquakes on a map of the world

184 Seismic energy waves allow us to essentially x-ray the Earth’s interior. To do this, we use the inverse theory method. For this method, we must: a)Dig trenches and pits, and look at sediments for evidence of ancient tsunamis b)Study seismic records to determine the recurrence interval of earthquakes c)Make a computer model of the Earth and see if the travel-time measured at the seismic stations fit the model d)Locate and determine the nature of faults by the technique of seismic topography e)Determine the epicenters of the Earthquakes on a map of the world

185 Various studies have shown that Earth consists of layers that differ from each other. These are either differences in physical properties, or differences in chemical composition. For the boundaries between layers that are listed below, only one is a boundary across which there is ONLY a change in physical properties. Which one? a)Mantle/outer core b)crust/mantle c)Continental crust/oceanic crust d)Crust/atmosphere e)Lithosphere/asthenosphere

186 Various studies have shown that Earth consists of layers that differ from each other. These are either differences in physical properties, or differences in chemical composition. For the boundaries between layers that are listed below, only one is a boundary across which there is ONLY a change in physical properties. Which one? a)Mantle/outer core b)crust/mantle c)Continental crust/oceanic crust d)Crust/atmosphere e)Lithosphere/asthenosphere

187 Which of the following mineral/element pairs is closest in composition of the continental crust? a)Calcite b)Fe + Ni c)Pyrite d)Feldspar + Quartz e)Olivine +Pyroxene

188 Which of the following mineral/element pairs is closest in composition of the continental crust? a)Calcite b)Fe + Ni c)Pyrite d)Feldspar + Quartz e)Olivine +Pyroxene

189 W can sample rocks at the surface of Earth to determine their density, but to place limits on the nature of materials deeper in the Earth, we need to determine the AVERAGE density of the Earth. We can do that by studying the interaction of the Earth with the Moon. In doing that determination, you would need all but one of the following. Which one don’t you need? a)Earth’s moment of inertia b)The radius of the Earth c)The Gravitational constant (G) d)The orbital velocity of the moon e)The distance from the Earth to the Moon

190 W can sample rocks at the surface of Earth to determine their density, but to place limits on the nature of materials deeper in the Earth, we need to determine the AVERAGE density of the Earth. We can do that by studying the interaction of the Earth with the Moon. In doing that determination, you would need all but one of the following. Which one don’t you need? a)Earth’s moment of inertia b)The radius of the Earth c)The Gravitational constant (G) d)The orbital velocity of the moon e)The distance from the Earth to the Moon

191 In the carbon cycle, which of the following reservoirs in the Earth system contains the most Carbon? a)Crustal rocks b)Living plants and animals c)The oceans d)Oil and gas e)The atmosphere

192 In the carbon cycle, which of the following reservoirs in the Earth system contains the most Carbon? a)Crustal rocks b)Living plants and animals c)The oceans d)Oil and gas e)The atmosphere

193 Which of the following soil types is generally the most suitable one for agriculture? a)Laterite b)Pedalfer c)Pedocal d)Permafrost e)Lahar

194 Which of the following soil types is generally the most suitable one for agriculture? a)Laterite b)Pedalfer c)Pedocal d)Permafrost e)Lahar

195 For which group do both minerals have a sheet structure? a)Muscovite, clay b)Feldspar, Quartz c)Hornblende, Pyroxene d)Plagioclase, Pyroxene e)Olivine, Hornblende

196 For which group do both minerals have a sheet structure? a)Muscovite, clay b)Feldspar, Quartz c)Hornblende, Pyroxene d)Plagioclase, Pyroxene e)Olivine, Hornblende

197 Magmas contain dissolved volatiles. Which of the following places are you most likely to experience a Lahar? a)The Andes Mountains b)The Red Sea c)Along the San Andres Fault d)The South Nation River, Ontario e)Iceland

198 Magmas contain dissolved volatiles. Which of the following places are you most likely to experience a Lahar? a)The Andes Mountains b)The Red Sea c)Along the San Andres Fault d)The South Nation River, Ontario e)Iceland

199 A bauxite ore deposit would be most likely to occur over which of the following rocks? a)Marble b)Gabbro c)Syenite d)Ultramafic e)Sandstone

200 A bauxite ore deposit would be most likely to occur over which of the following rocks? a)Marble b)Gabbro c)Syenite d)Ultramafic e)Sandstone

201 One of the following rock types is most likely to be a trap (i.e reservoir) rock for trapping oil and gas underground. Which of the following is it? a)Granite Porphyry b)Quartz Sandstone c)Shale/Mudstone d)Salt Dome e)Greywacke

202 One of the following rock types is most likely to be a trap (i.e reservoir) rock for trapping oil and gas underground. Which of the following is it? a)Granite Porphyry b)Quartz Sandstone c)Shale/Mudstone d)Salt Dome e)Greywacke

203 Which of the following lists magma types in order of increasing velocity? a)Basaltic, andesitic, granitic b)Basaltic, granitic, andesitic c)Andesitic, granitic, basaltic d)Granitic, basaltic, andesitic e)Granitic, andesitic, basaltic

204 Which of the following lists magma types in order of increasing velocity? a)Basaltic, andesitic, granitic b)Basaltic, granitic, andesitic c)Andesitic, granitic, basaltic d)Granitic, basaltic, andesitic e)Granitic, andesitic, basaltic

205 As a magma of diorite composition cools down from 1500 ° C, which of the following minerals would crystallize first? a)Biotite mica b)Pyroxene c)Quartz d)Na-rich Plagioclase e)Olivine

206 As a magma of diorite composition cools down from 1500 ° C, which of the following minerals would crystallize first? a)Biotite mica b)Pyroxene c)Quartz d)Na-rich Plagioclase e)Olivine

207 What is the main factor that controls the rate of weathering of rocks? a)Grain size of rock b)Degree of unloading c)Topography d)Rock Type e)Climate

208 What is the main factor that controls the rate of weathering of rocks? a)Grain size of rock b)Degree of unloading c)Topography d)Rock Type e)Climate

209 The velocity of seismic S-waves is inversely proportional to which of the following parameters of the material they are passing through? a)Viscosity b)Elasticity c)Inverse Modulus d)Shear Modulus e)Density

210 The velocity of seismic S-waves is inversely proportional to which of the following parameters of the material they are passing through? a)Viscosity b)Elasticity c)Inverse Modulus d)Shear Modulus e)Density

211 Which of the following decreases in going from the mantle into the outer core? a)P-wave Velocity b)Temperature c)Density d)Iron content e)Proportion of Liquid

212 Which of the following decreases in going from the mantle into the outer core? a)P-wave Velocity b)Temperature c)Density d)Iron content e)Proportion of Liquid

213 Which of the following is most likely to have the lowest porosity? a)Quartz Sandstone b)Reef Limestone c)Conglomerate d)Greywacke e)Pumice

214 Which of the following is most likely to have the lowest porosity? a)Quartz Sandstone b)Reef Limestone c)Conglomerate d)Greywacke e)Pumice

215 Very deep (i.e greater than 200 km) earthquakes occur only at: a)Transform faults b)Hot spots c)Constructive plate margins d)Accreting Plate Margins e)Destructive Plate Margins

216 Very deep (i.e greater than 200 km) earthquakes occur only at: a)Transform faults b)Hot spots c)Constructive plate margins d)Accreting Plate Margins e)Destructive Plate Margins

217 Which type of soil may eventually develop in a very hot, wet region, such as the Amazon River Bason? a)Lahar b)Pedocal c)Laterite d)Pedoxylite e)Pedalfer

218 Which type of soil may eventually develop in a very hot, wet region, such as the Amazon River Bason? a)Lahar b)Pedocal c)Laterite d)Pedoxylite e)Pedalfer

219 The Hawaiian Islands are located where the Pacific plate is: a)Separating from the North American plate b)Diving under Japan c)Diving under the North American Plate d)Migrating over a hot spot e)Being thrust over the North American Plate

220 The Hawaiian Islands are located where the Pacific plate is: a)Separating from the North American plate b)Diving under Japan c)Diving under the North American Plate d)Migrating over a hot spot e)Being thrust over the North American Plate

221 In which of these settings would one most likely find a pyroclastic flow? a)At the site of a fissure eruption b)At a constructive plate boundary c)In Hawaii d)At a transform plate boundary e)At a destructive plate boundary

222 In which of these settings would one most likely find a pyroclastic flow? a)At the site of a fissure eruption b)At a constructive plate boundary c)In Hawaii d)At a transform plate boundary e)At a destructive plate boundary

223 On which material is damage to buildings from seismic vibrations likely to be the least? a)Clay b)Granite c)Sand and Gravel d)Peat and Muck e)Mud

224 On which material is damage to buildings from seismic vibrations likely to be the least? a)Clay b)Granite c)Sand and Gravel d)Peat and Muck e)Mud

225 Which of the following rocks is most immature? a)Shale b)Breccia c)Siltstone d)Quartz Sandstone e)Conglomerate

226 Which of the following rocks is most immature? a)Shale b)Breccia c)Siltstone d)Quartz Sandstone e)Conglomerate

227 Which of these minerals is made up entirely of covalent bonds? a)Clay b)Quartz c)Halite d)Diamond e)Pure Copper

228 Which of these minerals is made up entirely of covalent bonds? a)Clay b)Quartz c)Halite d)Diamond e)Pure Copper

229 If you begin to partially melt a shale, the liquid produced would have what composition? a)Gabbroic b)Dioritic c)Ultramafic d)Granodioritic e)Granitic

230 If you begin to partially melt a shale, the liquid produced would have what composition? a)Gabbroic b)Dioritic c)Ultramafic d)Granodioritic e)Granitic

231 The Atlantic Ocean is opening up at a rate closest to: a)0.05 cm/year b)5 cm/year c)50 cm/year d)5 metres/year e)50 metres/year

232 The Atlantic Ocean is opening up at a rate closest to: a)0.05 cm/year b)5 cm/year c)50 cm/year d)5 metres/year e)50 metres/year

233 Which of the following approaches would be least likely to provide us with information to help predict, on both the short and long term, the eruption of a stratovolcano? a)Look for seismic gaps b)Set up seismometers to detect earthquakes c)Measure ground tilt d)Determine recurrence intervals e)Monitor Gas release

234 Which of the following approaches would be least likely to provide us with information to help predict, on both the short and long term, the eruption of a stratovolcano? a)Look for seismic gaps b)Set up seismometers to detect earthquakes c)Measure ground tilt d)Determine recurrence intervals e)Monitor Gas release

235 Unlike most other bodies in the Solar System, the Earth has a strong magnetic field. Which of the following features of the Earth is responsible for the Earth having such a magnetic field? a)Flattening along the rotation axis b)A convection mantle c)A liquid outer core of iron d)An axial dipole magnet e)An iron-rich inner core

236 Unlike most other bodies in the Solar System, the Earth has a strong magnetic field. Which of the following features of the Earth is responsible for the Earth having such a magnetic field? a)Flattening along the rotation axis b)A convection mantle c)A liquid outer core of iron d)An axial dipole magnet e)An iron-rich inner core

237 I have hired you to explore for ore deposits that would provide us with the metal copper (Cu). Which of the following minerals should you be looking for? a)Pyrite b)Magnetite c)Chromite d)Galena e)Chalcopyrite

238 I have hired you to explore for ore deposits that would provide us with the metal copper (Cu). Which of the following minerals should you be looking for? a)Pyrite b)Magnetite c)Chromite d)Galena e)Chalcopyrite

239 In the sea floor spreading hypothesis of Harry Hess, the conveyor belt carrying the continental crust was thought to be: a)The asthenosphere b)The mantle convection cell c)The ocean crust d)The tectonic plate e)The lithosphere

240 In the sea floor spreading hypothesis of Harry Hess, the conveyor belt carrying the continental crust was thought to be: a)The asthenosphere b)The mantle convection cell c)The ocean crust d)The tectonic plate e)The lithosphere

241 The definition of the “resource” of a commodity is: a)The economic amount of the commodity discovered but not yet extracted b)A local accumulation of a specific mineral that contains that commodity c)The total number of mineral deposits of that commodity d)The estimated total amount of that commodity that is ultimately economically recoverable e)The amount of the commodity that exists in the Earth

242 The definition of the “resource” of a commodity is: a)The economic amount of the commodity discovered but not yet extracted b)A local accumulation of a specific mineral that contains that commodity c)The total number of mineral deposits of that commodity d)The estimated total amount of that commodity that is ultimately economically recoverable e)The amount of the commodity that exists in the Earth

243 Which of the following pieces of evidence from the geology around the Kingston area is evidence for a former mountain- building event? a)Stromatolites b)Migmatite c)Glacial Grooves d)Mud Cracks e)Cross Beds

244 Which of the following pieces of evidence from the geology around the Kingston area is evidence for a former mountain- building event? a)Stromatolites b)Migmatite c)Glacial Grooves d)Mud Cracks e)Cross Beds

245 The Earth’s magnetic field has been shown to reverse itself on average about every: a)5000 years b)0.5 million years c)10 million years d)100 million years e)1 billion years

246 The Earth’s magnetic field has been shown to reverse itself on average about every: a)5000 years b)0.5 million years c)10 million years d)100 million years e)1 billion years

247 Which one of the following DECREASES in going from the oceanic crust to the mantle of the Earth? a)pressure b)Silicon content c)Density d)Temperature e)P-wave Velocity

248 Which one of the following DECREASES in going from the oceanic crust to the mantle of the Earth? a)pressure b)Silicon content c)Density d)Temperature e)P-wave Velocity

249 Which of the following is used to describe what occurs to produce an earthquake? a)Elastic Rebound b)Polymerization c)Liquefaction d)Compression-Rarefaction e)Plastic Deformation

250 Which of the following is used to describe what occurs to produce an earthquake? a)Elastic Rebound b)Polymerization c)Liquefaction d)Compression-Rarefaction e)Plastic Deformation

251 What are the two elements that can replace one another in the olivine solid solution? a)Ca, Na b)Si, Al c)K, Na d)Mg, Fe e)Si, O

252 What are the two elements that can replace one another in the olivine solid solution? a)Ca, Na b)Si, Al c)K, Na d)Mg, Fe e)Si, O

253 With which one of the following will Lahars most likely be associated? a)Earthquakes b)Layered intrusions c)Felsic volcanoes d)Tsunamis e)Open-Pit Mines

254 With which one of the following will Lahars most likely be associated? a)Earthquakes b)Layered intrusions c)Felsic volcanoes d)Tsunamis e)Open-Pit Mines

255 What percentage of the Earth’s crust is composed of non- silicate minerals? a)3% b)10% c)20% d)75% e)97%

256 What percentage of the Earth’s crust is composed of non- silicate minerals? a)3% b)10% c)20% d)75% e)97%

257 Following a very shallow earthquake, as seismic P and S waves go deeper into the Earth and cross the MOHO: a)The S-Waves stop and P-Waves continue b)The waves speed up c)The waves increase in amplitude d)The waves refract towards the normal e)The P-waves stop and S-waves continue

258 Following a very shallow earthquake, as seismic P and S waves go deeper into the Earth and cross the MOHO: a)The S-Waves stop and P-Waves continue b)The waves speed up c)The waves increase in amplitude d)The waves refract towards the normal e)The P-waves stop and S-waves continue

259 Which of the following is true about Tsunamis? a)They seldom cause damage when they reach the shore b)They have wavelengths of a few metres c)They have amplitudes of 50 metres or more in deep ocean water d)They are most commonly generated by earthquakes under the continents e)They travel at speeds of 500 to 800 kilometres per hour

260 Which of the following is true about Tsunamis? a)They seldom cause damage when they reach the shore b)They have wavelengths of a few metres c)They have amplitudes of 50 metres or more in deep ocean water d)They are most commonly generated by earthquakes under the continents e)They travel at speeds of 500 to 800 kilometres per hour

261 The oldest ocean crust in the ocean basin is found closest to: a)Iceland b)Western United States c)The Red Sea d)Japan e)The East Pacific Mid-Ocean Ridge

262 The oldest ocean crust in the ocean basin is found closest to: a)Iceland b)Western United States c)The Red Sea d)Japan e)The East Pacific Mid-Ocean Ridge

263 What kind of fault is illustrated in the diagram below? a)Normal Dip-Slip b)Reverse Dip-Slip c)Transform d)Thrust e)Strike-Slip

264 What kind of fault is illustrated in the diagram below? a)Normal Dip-Slip b)Reverse Dip-Slip c)Transform d)Thrust e)Strike-Slip

265 The most important factor controlling slope stability, of the ones listed below, is: a)Weight of material on the slope b)Cohesion on the potential failure plane c)Hydraulic equivalence of the slope d)The angle of potential failure plane e)Angle of the slope wall

266 The most important factor controlling slope stability, of the ones listed below, is: a)Weight of material on the slope b)Cohesion on the potential failure plane c)Hydraulic equivalence of the slope d)The angle of potential failure plane e)Angle of the slope wall

267 You have carried out a careful chemical analysis of three rocks: granite, granodiorite and gabbro. Which of the following increases? a)Quartz content b)Si content c)Density d)Potassium content e)Feldspar content

268 You have carried out a careful chemical analysis of three rocks: granite, granodiorite and gabbro. Which of the following increases? a)Quartz content b)Si content c)Density d)Potassium content e)Feldspar content

269 Which of the following elements is NOT found as an essential constituent of plagioclase feldspar? a)Potassium b)Sodium c)Aluminum d)Calcium e)Silicon

270 Which of the following elements is NOT found as an essential constituent of plagioclase feldspar? a)Potassium b)Sodium c)Aluminum d)Calcium e)Silicon

271 All earthquakes occur in the: a)Mantle b)Continental Crust c)Asthenosphere d)Lithosphere e)Ocean crust

272 All earthquakes occur in the: a)Mantle b)Continental Crust c)Asthenosphere d)Lithosphere e)Ocean crust

273 Which ore deposit type results from the development in a magma chamber of a liquid that is immiscible with the silicate liquid? a)Bauxite b)Chromite c)Porphyry Copper d)Ni-Cu Sulfide e)Banded Iron Formation

274 Which ore deposit type results from the development in a magma chamber of a liquid that is immiscible with the silicate liquid? a)Bauxite b)Chromite c)Porphyry Copper d)Ni-Cu Sulfide e)Banded Iron Formation

275 Which of the following is a highly favourable site for oil formation and accumulation? a)Mudstones b)Glacial Deposits c)Swamps d)Deltas e)Mid-Ocean Ridges

276 Which of the following is a highly favourable site for oil formation and accumulation? a)Mudstones b)Glacial Deposits c)Swamps d)Deltas e)Mid-Ocean Ridges

277 Symmetrical sand ripples are most likely produced by: a)Wind b)Ocean Waves c)Stream Flow d)Slope Instability e)Turbidity Currents

278 Symmetrical sand ripples are most likely produced by: a)Wind b)Ocean Waves c)Stream Flow d)Slope Instability e)Turbidity Currents

279 Which one of the following minerals would be LEAST likely to occur in a granite? a)K-rich Feldspar b)Muscovite Mica c)Na-rich Plagioclase d)Quartz e)Olivine

280 Which one of the following minerals would be LEAST likely to occur in a granite? a)K-rich Feldspar b)Muscovite Mica c)Na-rich Plagioclase d)Quartz e)Olivine

281 A chemical analysis has been conducted on an intrusive igneous rock, and the rock was found to have an SiO 2 content of approximately 45%. Which one of the following types of ore deposit has the most chance of being found in this rock? a)Porphyry copper b)Bauxite c)Iron Formation d)Placer Gold e)Chromite

282 A chemical analysis has been conducted on an intrusive igneous rock, and the rock was found to have an SiO 2 content of approximately 45%. Which one of the following types of ore deposit has the most chance of being found in this rock? a)Porphyry copper b)Bauxite c)Iron Formation d)Placer Gold e)Chromite

283 One way to minimize damage from earthquakes is to build structures with appropriate building materials. Which of the following is the best material to build a structure with in order to minimize potential damage from ground shaking during an earthquake? a)Steel b)Stucco c)Masonry d)Unreinforced Concrete e)Adobe

284 One way to minimize damage from earthquakes is to build structures with appropriate building materials. Which of the following is the best material to build a structure with in order to minimize potential damage from ground shaking during an earthquake? a)Steel b)Stucco c)Masonry d)Unreinforced Concrete e)Adobe

285 The sedimentary rocks immediately below and above an angular unconformity record a history of: a)Erosion-folding-deposition-erosion b)Folding-erosion-deposition-folding c)Deposition-erosion-deposition-folding d)Erosion-deposition-folding-erosion e)Deposition-folding-erosion-deposition

286 The sedimentary rocks immediately below and above an angular unconformity record a history of: a)Erosion-folding-deposition-erosion b)Folding-erosion-deposition-folding c)Deposition-erosion-deposition-folding d)Erosion-deposition-folding-erosion e)Deposition-folding-erosion-deposition

287 For a mass of rock on a potential failure plane, which of the following terms in the safety factor equation will DECREASE the safety factor it is decreased? a)Weight of potential failure block b)Angle of internal friction c)Angle of potential failure plane d)Water content e)None of the above, they all increase it

288 For a mass of rock on a potential failure plane, which of the following terms in the safety factor equation will DECREASE the safety factor it is decreased? a)Weight of potential failure block b)Angle of internal friction c)Angle of potential failure plane d)Water content e)None of the above, they all increase it

289 Which of the following is the most abundant sedimentary rock in the Earth’s crust? a)Limestone b)Sandstone c)Shale d)Conglomerate e)Banded Iron Formation

290 Which of the following is the most abundant sedimentary rock in the Earth’s crust? a)Limestone b)Sandstone c)Shale d)Conglomerate e)Banded Iron Formation

291 A porphyritic igneous rock indicates: a)The presence of an ore deposit b)A two-stage cooling history c)A felsic composition d)Cooling deep in the Earth e)A high content of dissolved volatiles in the magma

292 A porphyritic igneous rock indicates: a)The presence of an ore deposit b)A two-stage cooling history c)A felsic composition d)Cooling deep in the Earth e)A high content of dissolved volatiles in the magma

293 The age of the solar system and the Earth is closest to: a)500 million years b)1000 million years c)2500 million years d)4500 million years e)13000 million years

294 The age of the solar system and the Earth is closest to: a)500 million years b)1000 million years c)2500 million years d)4500 million years e)13000 million years

295 If a litre of sea water is evaporated, which of the following evaporites that precipitated will occur in the greatest amount? a)Gypsum b)Halite c)Potash d)Limestone e)Chert

296 If a litre of sea water is evaporated, which of the following evaporites that precipitated will occur in the greatest amount? a)Gypsum b)Halite c)Potash d)Limestone e)Chert

297 In which of these settings would one most likely find a nuee ardente? a)At the site of a fissure eruption b)At a constructive plate boundary c)In Hawaii d)At a destructive plate boundary e)At a transform plate boundary

298 In which of these settings would one most likely find a nuee ardente? a)At the site of a fissure eruption b)At a constructive plate boundary c)In Hawaii d)At a destructive plate boundary e)At a transform plate boundary

299 How many earthquakes of Richter magnitude 5 would it take to equal the output of energy from a single earthquake of Richter magnitude 7? a)2 b)30 c)60 d)900 e)27 000

300 How many earthquakes of Richter magnitude 5 would it take to equal the output of energy from a single earthquake of Richter magnitude 7? a)2 b)30 c)60 d)900 e)27 000

301 In order to determine the seismic risk of an area, we need to determine the Richter magnitude of earthquakes that occur in that region. The Richter magnitude is determined by: a)Measuring the amount of movement on the fault that caused the earthquake b)Measuring the intensity of earthquake damage c)Measuring the length of time of the ground-shaking event d)Measuring the time between the first arrival of S waves and the first arrival of surface waves on the seismogram e)Measuring the amplitude of the seismic waves on a seismogram

302 In order to determine the seismic risk of an area, we need to determine the Richter magnitude of earthquakes that occur in that region. The Richter magnitude is determined by: a)Measuring the amount of movement on the fault that caused the earthquake b)Measuring the intensity of earthquake damage c)Measuring the length of time of the ground-shaking event d)Measuring the time between the first arrival of S waves and the first arrival of surface waves on the seismogram e)Measuring the amplitude of the seismic waves on a seismogram

303 For seismic P and S waves received by seismographs at various distances from an earthquake focus, a plot of first arrival times against distance would look like:

304


Download ppt "The production of a commodity has been growing exponentially with time at a rate of 5% per year. The time required to QUADRUPLE the annual production at."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google