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Chapter 10: The Age of Jackson

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1 Chapter 10: The Age of Jackson

2 Argument The Era of Jacksonian Democracy can be characterized by democratic reform for the “common man”, economic changes caused by this reform, and the effects of government corruption on a President’s public view.

3 Rise of Democratic Society
1830’s- foreigners could not distinguish between classes in America because all men dressed the same and sat together at dining tables and on transportation Equality was becoming the governing principle of American Society Really only for white men though -equality of opportunity for white men allowed them to rise as far as their talent and industry would take them

4 The Common Man White males of lower/middle classes began to vote in larger numbers Reasons: new state suffrage laws, changes in political parties and campaign methods, improved education, and increases in newspaper circulation

5 Important Political Changes and Reforms
Universal male suffrage-all white males could vote regardless of social class and religion and political offices could be held by people In lower and middle ranks of society Party nominating conventions -originally candidates for office were nominated by state legislators or by “King Caucus” -1830’s: caucuses were replaced by nominating conventions

6 Cont. Popular election of the president- voter’s choose state’s slate of presidential electors. Two-party system- campaigns for president now had to be conducted on a national scale, therefore, large political parties were needed Rise of Third parties -only national parties had hope of winning, but others emerged ex. Anti-Masonic party and Workingmen’s party

7 Cont. More elected offices- during Jacksonian era more state and local officials were elected to office, instead of being appointed. -gave voters more say in their government and increased interest in elections Popular campaigning -directed towards interests of common people -politics became new form of local entertainment -1830’s/1840’s: parades with floats, marching bands, free food and drinks -negative: personal attacks and downplay of real issues Can anybody see what’s wrong with this method of campaigning?

8 Jackson’s Reform Spoils system
-federal jobs based on democratic campaigning -non democrats replaced with democrats -promoted government corruption Rotation of office holders -wanted maximum number of Democrats in office -limit person’s tenure to just one term and appoint another Democrat in his place he believed ordinary Americans were capable of holding any govt. office

9 In memoriam--our civil service as it was, a  political cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly, 1877 April 28, p. 325.

10 The Election of 1824 Marked end of the Era of Good Feelings
Old congressional caucus system for choosing presidential candidates had broken down -result: four candidates of the same party (Republican party) campaigned for presidency who were John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William Crawford, and Andrew Jackson What went wrong?

11 Jackson versus Adams Jackson won most popular votes, but lacked majority in electoral college as required by the Constitution House of Representatives had to choose from the top three candidates Henry Clay used his influence in the House to provide Adams with enough votes to win. -Pres. Adams then appointed Clay his secretary of state, and the two were accused of “corrupt bargain” by supporters of Jackson

12  David Claypool Johnston, 1824.

13 President John Quincy Adams
-Alienated followers of Jackson, by asking Congress for money for internal improvement, aid to manufacturing, and a national university/astronomical observatory -Jacksonians saw this as a waste of money/violation of Constitution

14 The Revolution of 1828 Jackson sought reelection in 1828
his party resorted to smearing the president/accusing Adams’ wife of being born out of wedlock. -Adams’ supporters retaliated by accusing Jackson’s wife of adultery. Attracted a lot of interest Jackson won, his reputation as a war hero/man of the western frontier assisted this win

15 The Presidency of Andrew Jackson
strong leader, symbol for emerging working class/middle class (the common man), a lot of support fame/fortune as a military man (victor of Battle of New Orleans) first president since Washington to be w/out a college education, he was an extraordinary ordinary man

16 Role of President according to Jackson
representative of all the people protector of the common man against the abuses of power by rich/privileged Jeffersonian, opposed increasing federal spending and national debt interpreted powers of Congress narrowly and vetoed many bills -example: Maysville Road

17 President Jackson’s Veto of the Maysville Road Bill, 27 May 1830

18 Peggy Eaton affair Peggy O’Neale Eaton was the wife of Jackson’s secretary of war -target of gossip by other cabinet wives, not invited to parties because she was suspected of adultery Jackson tried to force them to accept her - most resigned along with Vice President John C. Calhoun, -Martin Van Buren was chosen as the next VP because he was loyal to Jackson during the crisis

19 Rats Leaving a Falling House
Unknown author, 1831

20 Nullification Crisis 1828-SC legislature declared increased tariff of 1828, Tariff of Abominations, unconstitutional. confirmed John C. Calhoun’s nullification theory; each state had the right to decide whether to obey a federal law or to declare it null and void. 1830- David Webster of MA debated Robert Hayne of SC on nature of federal Union under Constitution. -after, Jackson declared the federal union must be preserved SC convention passed resolution forbidding collection of tariffs within the state -Jackson threatened to use force, but then came to a compromise where Congress would lower the tariff Results: advocates of states’ rights retreated and militant southerners won Jackson’s support.

21 Bank Veto Jackson believed the Bank of the U.S. was unconstitutional because of the banks president, Nicholas Biddle’s arrogance towards running it. Henry Clay, Jackson’s enemy, favored the bank 1832- Clay challenged Jackson in election year by persuading most of Congress to pass a bank-recharter bill, Jackson vetoed it, and Jackson won reelection.

22 President Andrew Jackson’s Veto Of The Bank Bill
10 July 1832

23 Jackson’s Second Term Created pet banks in which he took federal funds out of the national bank and transferred them into various state banks prices for land/goods became inflated Issued Specie Circular-required all future purchases of federal lands to be made in gold and silver rather than in paper bank notes -led to Panic of 1837

24 The Election of 1836 Jackson persuaded Dem. Party to nominate loyal VP, Martin Van Buren, while Whig party (fearing defeat) nominated three ppl. from three different regions, but failedBuren won President Van Buren and the Panic of 1837-Democrats blamed for laissez-faire economics (little federal involvement)

25 Conclusion The period from 1824 to 1840 is often referred to as the Era of Jacksonian Democracy because during this time Andrew Jackson fought strong for democracy that would benefit all classes in an American society and was willing to use whatever political techniques necessary to achieve this.

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