Presentation on theme: "What is Psychology?. What movies have you seen with professional psychologists as characters? kind of work done? area of specialty? how realistic was."— Presentation transcript:
What is Psychology?
What movies have you seen with professional psychologists as characters? kind of work done? area of specialty? how realistic was characterization?
Exercise: Psychologist as Scientist List three adjectives that describe a typical psychologist. List three adjectives that describe a typical scientist.
art chemistry ___1_________2_________3_________4_________5_________6_________7___ philosophy physics Science: Where is Psychology?
Roots of Psychology – Pre-scientific Dualism – Mind/Body are separate and interact Monism – Mind/Body are parts of the same thing. Hippocrates- mind/soul reside in the brain but not a physical substance. Plato – used self examination(introspection) and concluded knowledge is Innate Descartes – “I think, therefore I am” Aristotle – mind/soul are a result of our anatomy and physiology. Knowledge is acquired by experience. Locke – we are born a “blank slate” (tabula rasa) and experience fills the slate.
Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science is Born Wilhelm Wundt (1879) Founder of scientific psychology Set up first lab in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany Focused on structure of the mind and indentifying basic elements of consciousness using introspection.
Psychology developed into three different branches, or schools of thought structuralism (structural elements) functionalism (functions) behaviorism (observable behavior)
Structuralism Thinking About the Mind’s STRUCTURE Emphasizes consciousness and identification of elements of thought using introspection. Wilhelm Wundt - studied consciousness using introspection. G. Stanley Hall – brought introspection to U.S. at John Hopkins University, First President of American Psychological Association (A.P.A). Edward Titchener – studied elements of consiousness at Cornell University. Margaret Washburn – First woman to complete her Ph.D. in psychology
Functionalism – Thinking about the mind’s Function Emphasizes how organisms uses its perceptual abilities to adapt to its environment. Want to EXPLAIN behavior by OBSERVING behavior. William James – wrote Principles of Psychology. Mary Whiton Calkins – first woman president of the A.P.A. Functionalism paved the way for behaviorism and applied subfields of psychology.
Unit 1 Pop Quiz Unit 1 Pop Quiz (get a piece of paper) A test of how you react to unexpected situations Q#1: What did you experience when you learned of the “pop” quiz? (introspection) Q#2: Which thoughts and emotions were Expressed by the class? (observable) Q#3: What steps might you take to overcome anxiety when faced with unexpected situations?(applied)
Psychological Science Develops (1920s) Sigmund Freud (childhood experiences and unconscious thought processes affect behavior) LO #3 Sex Violence Unconscious Mind
Psychological Science Develops (1960s) Behaviorism John B. Watson B.F. Skinner (reinforcement theory) “study of observable behavior” Fidgeting Crying trembling
GET + GET something REMOVE - REMOVE something
“you be the parent” (1. You caught your son/daughter sneaking out the window on Sat night…..) (2. You want your son/daughter to study at least 1 hour every night….) Behavior EncouragedBehavior Suppressed Stimulus presented + (get) Stimulus removed or withheld – (remove)
Psychological Science Develops 1960s Humanistic psychology Carl Rogers (environmental influences, need for love and acceptance) Abraham Maslow (hierarchy of needs)
Psychological Science Develops 1960s Cognitive Neuroscience (study of brain functioning) Cognitive Neuroscience examples... What part of brain is working when we do arithmetic? What chemical allows us to react to physical excitement or danger? And Cognitive-Behavioral theory. How do my thoughts affect my behaviors?
Think / Feel / Do StressfulPeaceful Example: Cut off by speeding, reckless motorist! Wronged Anger Horn & Finger! Accepting Peaceful Smile or a Shrug ThoughtFeelingAction Sinful (Old Adam) Godly ( New Man )
Assignment: Recall two occurrences when you recognize and then intentionally restructure your emotional response to a cognitive event. Prepare to share one in class.
Psychological Science Develops Psychology- Psychology Defined as: The Scientific study of Behavior and Mental processes. 3 parts Scientific study – collection and examination of data to prove or support hypotheses. Behavior – anything observable. Mental Processes – thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions. (unobservable)
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
Psychological Approaches/Perspectives biological evolutionary psychodynamic behavioral cognitive humanistic social-cultural physiological and bio-chemical factors that determine behavior and mental processes. physiological and bio-chemical factors that determine behavior and mental processes. how the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of the human species how the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of the human species how behavior is influenced by unconscious drives and conflicts how behavior is influenced by unconscious drives and conflicts how organisms react to stimuli, learning as a result of experience. how organisms react to stimuli, learning as a result of experience. how we encode, process, store and retrieve information how we encode, process, store and retrieve information how we meet our needs for love and acceptance, and achieve self-fulfillment how we meet our needs for love and acceptance, and achieve self-fulfillment how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultureshow behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
Psychology’s Subfields psychometrics difference between basic and applied research? LO #6
FIELDS: Biological psychology Developmental psychology Educational psychology Personality psychology Social psychology basic research investigates persistent traits investigates persistent traits studies changing abilities throughout the life span studies changing abilities throughout the life span explores how we view and affect one another explores how we view and affect one another studies influences on teaching and learning studies influences on teaching and learning explores link between brain and behavior explores link between brain and behavior
FIELDS: Industrial/organizational psychology Counseling psychology Clinical psychology psychiatry applied research helps people cope with adjustments, challenges, and crises used in the workplace to help companies select and train employees used in the workplace to help companies select and train employees medical doctors who may prescribe drugs in treatment medical doctors who may prescribe drugs in treatment assesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavior disorders assesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavior disorders focuses on interaction of people, machines, and physical environments focuses on interaction of people, machines, and physical environments
Psychology’s Biggest Question Nature-Nurture Issue biology vs. experience Are we a product of how we are born, biologically predisposed, DNA, etc.. OR are we a result of our experiences?
What is Structuralisms goal and method? What is Functionalisms goal and method? What is the difference between Introspection and Observation? Which modern approaches fit with Structuralism? Which modern approaches fit with Functionalism? Unit 1 Review
Who said: “the mind is a tabula rasa” “I think, therefore I am” “We learn from experience” “Knowledge is Innate” Unit 1 Review
What is Structuralisms goal and method? Emphasizes consciousness and identification of elements of thought using introspection. What is Functionalisms goal and method? Emphasizes how organisms uses its perceptual abilities to adapt to its environment. Want to EXPLAIN behavior by OBSERVING behavior. What is the difference between Introspection and Observation? Introspection is looking within and self reporting, while observation is reporting what behaviors you and others can see and measure. Which modern approaches fit with Structuralism? Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Evolutionary, Social Cultural Which modern approaches fit with Functionalism? Behavioral, Biological, cognitive Unit 1 Review
Who said: “the mind is a tabula rasa” - Locke - Monism “I think, therefore I am” – Descartes - Dualism “We learn from experience” – Aristotle - Monism “Knowledge is Innate” - Plato - Dualism Unit 1 Review
Video: Vol. 1, DVD2, Psychological Disorders #2 Postpartum Psychosis: The Case of Andrea Yates (7:00)