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Rocks Chapter 4 in Orange Glencoe Book

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1 Rocks Chapter 4 in Orange Glencoe Book

2 Rocks Minerals Elements

3 Chapter 4, Section1 Rock: a mixture of minerals, volcanic glass, organic matter or other materials. Display the physical and chemical properties of the minerals that make them up. Now, could organic materials be rocks? Rock Cycle shows us that rocks constantly, yet slowly, change into different types. Page 91. Matter can never be created or destroyed, only changed (Law of Conservation of Matter)

4 Rock Cycle James Hutton – 1788 Must memorize the Rocks, Stages and Processes SOON!
Insert Picture Here

5 What process forms: 1. Igneous rocks? Melting * and Cooling 2. Sedimentary rocks? Weathering, Erosion, * Compaction and Cementation 3. Metamorphic rocks? Heat and Pressure

6 Is there a definite pattern that the rock cycle follows? Name some.
Let’s Review: What is the model called that shows how rocks constantly, yet slowly, change into different types The Rock Cycle (Page 91) Is there a definite pattern that the rock cycle follows? Name some. BTW, My fav. Is S,I,I,M,S,I,I,S Who recognized/discovered the rock cycle? When? James Hutton – “The founder of modern geology” What are the three types of rocks? Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic What are the processes that form each type of rock? Igneous? Metamorphic? Sedimentary?

7 Chapter 4, Section 2: Igneous rocks
Form by lava or magma cooling Both are melted rock, so what is the difference? Two main types of igneous rocks: Intrusive - rocks formed slowly by magma inside the Earth - large crystals (grains) Name one: Extrusive rocks formed quickly from lava outside of the Earth - - smaller crystal (grains)

8 Earth’s Heat The heat that produces magma comes from the radioactive decay of elements in the core of the Earth!!!

9 Crystal Size? Name a rock for each.

10 Extrusive vs. Intrusive

11 Magma versus lava: ` Found where: Cools how fast: Crystal size:
Forms what kind of igneous rock:

12 Three types of igneous rocks: based on the type of magma/lava
Basaltic: Dense and dark colored High in Iron and magnesium Andesitic Medium Granitic: Less dense and light colored High in Silicon and oxygen

13 What elements in a basaltic and granitic igneous rocks make the densities different?
Basaltic: High in Iron and Magnesium, low in silicate minerals. Granitic: High in Oxygen and Silicon, low in iron and magnesium. VERY important to understand the chart on page 96!!!


15 Chart on p. 96 Questions – Be able to EXPLAIN
very similar to your quiz – Ooops, did I say that? Which cooled faster? Diorite or Andesite? What do Granite and Rhyolite have in common? What makes them different? Would you expect Gabbro or Granite to be more dense? Based only on color, how could you know that Pumice is granitic and Scoria basaltic? What elements are probably in Basalt? NOW can you Friday’s question of which is more dense, basalt or granite? Remember that later this year.

16 Chapter 4 Section 3 Metamorphic rocks
Meta – Greek for “form”; Morph – “to change” Rocks that are changed by: 1. heat and pressure (but were never melted) 2. the presence of hot fluids. Metamorphic rocks form from already existing Sed., Ig. or Met. rocks. The preexisting rock is called the parent rock.

17 Insert Pic of heated fluid

18 Metamorphic rocks come in two types: examples on page 101-102.
Foliated (layered or banded) like slate and gneiss Nonfoliated (no layers or bands) like marble or quartzite


20 Gneiss Parent rock was granite.

21 Marble Parent rock was Limestone.

22 Quartzite Parent rock was Sandstone.

23 Slate Parent rock was Shale.

24 Schist Foliated rock that also forms from shale
Huh? I though shale became slate, Mr. Hayden?


26 Chapter 4, Section 2 Review
What makes a metamorphic rock? (two things) Name a foliated rock, describe its appearance and its parent rock. Name a nonfoliated rock, describe its appearance and its parent rock.

27 Chapter 4, Section 4 Sedimentary rocks
Most likely to contain fossils and organic material. Why? Sedimentary rocks are broken down into three types.

28 1. Detrital Sedimentary Rocks (Clastic)
These rocks are made of previously existing rocks. The process that creates detrital sedimentary rocks is weathering, erosion, compaction, cementation Order important!!! Examples include shale, siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate Named based on the sediment SIZE. (105)

29 Detrital Rock Classification


31 The Sediment Size in rocks tells about the environment they were deposited, and the velocity of the water that deposited them. Sandstone – beaches or deserts Shale - deep, calm water Limestone - very deep ocean water Conglomerate – rivers (mixed velocities)

32 Stacked rocks Law of Superposition
In an undisturbed layer of stacked rocks, the oldest rocks are found at the bottom and youngest at top.

33 2. Organic Sedimentary Rocks
Organic rocks are made of once-living things Examples of once living things are shells, dead plants, etc. Examples of organic rocks are: Coal Chalk Coquina

34 3. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
Formed from dissolved minerals in solution Examples include limestone (contains CaCO3) and rock salt

35 Very important review:
List Example of Each and which of the three types Organic Foliated Chemical: Intrusive Basaltic Nonfoliated Granitic: Detrital: Extrusive

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