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Chapter 23 Clickers Conceptual Integrated Science Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Rocks and Minerals.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23 Clickers Conceptual Integrated Science Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Rocks and Minerals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23 Clickers Conceptual Integrated Science Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Rocks and Minerals

2 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is NOT part of the definition of a mineral? a)It is naturally occurring. b)It is a solid. c)It has a definite color. d)It has a definite chemical composition.

3 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is NOT part of the definition of a mineral? a)It is naturally occurring. b)It is a solid. c)It has a definite color. d)It has a definite chemical composition. Explanation: Color is not a useful property for identifying minerals. Many minerals, quartz for example, occur in many different colors.

4 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Why is glass is NOT classified as a mineral? a)It is a solid. b)It has an amorphous, rather than crystalline molecular structure. c)It is inorganic. d)It is never naturally occurring—it can only be manufactured by people.

5 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Why is glass is NOT classified as a mineral? a)It is a solid. b)It has an amorphous, rather than crystalline molecular structure. c)It is inorganic. d)It is never naturally occurring—it can only be manufactured by people. Explanation: One of the five basic characteristics of a mineral is that it has a crystal structure, which means the particles making it up are arranged in a regular geometric lattice. Glass, on the other hand, is an amorphous solid. The particles making it up are not held rigidly in place in a crystal lattice.

6 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The difference between cleavage and fracture is a)cleavage occurs at planes of weakness, and fractures are random breaks. b)cleavage relates to the arrangement of atoms, and fractures are random breaks. c)cleavage relates to the arrangement of atoms, and fractures occur at planes of weakness. d)cleavage is a random break, and fractures occur at planes of weakness.

7 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The difference between cleavage and fracture is a)cleavage occurs at planes of weakness, and fractures are random breaks. b)cleavage relates to the arrangement of atoms, and fractures are random breaks. c)cleavage relates to the arrangement of atoms, and fractures occur at planes of weakness. d)cleavage is a random break, and fractures occur at planes of weakness. Explanation: Both cleavage and fracture become visible when a mineral breaks. Planes of weakness depend on crystal structure.

8 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The difference between cleavage and crystal form is a)cleavage represents how a mineral grows, and crystal form represents how a mineral breaks. b)cleavage and crystal form describe the same thing. c)cleavage represents how a mineral breaks, and crystal form represents how a mineral grows. d)cleavage is a random break, and crystal form occurs at planes of weakness.

9 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The difference between cleavage and crystal form is a)cleavage represents how a mineral grows, and crystal form represents how a mineral breaks. b)cleavage and crystal form describe the same thing. c)cleavage represents how a mineral breaks, and crystal form represents how a mineral grows. d)cleavage is a random break, and crystal form occurs at planes of weakness.

10 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. A mineral's hardness describes a)resistance to breakage along a plane of weakness. b)resistance to breakage along a crystal face. c)its tenacity. d)resistance to scratching.

11 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. A mineral's hardness describes a)resistance to breakage along a plane of weakness. b)resistance to breakage along a crystal face. c)its tenacity. d)resistance to scratching.

12 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. What most strongly influences a mineral's hardness? a)The geometry of a mineral's atomic structure. b)The strength of a mineral's chemical bonds. c)The color imparted by smaller atomic radii. d)The number of planes of weakness.

13 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. What most strongly influences a mineral's hardness? a)The geometry of a mineral's atomic structure. b)The strength of a mineral's chemical bonds. c)The color imparted by smaller atomic radii. d)The number of planes of weakness. Explanation: The stronger a mineral's chemical bonds, the harder the mineral. The factors that influence bond strength are ionic charge, atom (or ion) size, and atomic/ionic packing.

14 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following pairs of elements makes up over 75% of the Earth's crust? a)Carbon and oxygen. b)Oxygen and silicon. c)Silicon and carbon. d)Carbon and hydrogen.

15 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following pairs of elements makes up over 75% of the Earth's crust? a)Carbon and oxygen. b)Oxygen and silicon. c)Silicon and carbon. d)Carbon and hydrogen.

16 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Earth's crust is mostly comprised of minerals from which class? a)Silicates. b)Carbonates. c)Sulfates. d)Oxides.

17 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Earth's crust is mostly comprised of minerals from which class? a)Silicates. b)Carbonates. c)Sulfates. d)Oxides. Explanation: Silicates are minerals containing silicon and oxygen. They are the most common mineral class, constituting 92% of the Earth's crust.

18 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the most abundant mineral in Earth's crust? a)Quartz. b)Calcite. c)Mica. d)Feldspar.

19 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the most abundant mineral in Earth's crust? a)Quartz. b)Calcite. c)Mica. d)Feldspar. Explanation: Feldspars are a group of nonferromagnesian silicates that come in many varieties. But taken in all its varieties, feldspars make up about 50% of Earth's crust.

20 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the silicate tetrahedron? a)The building block of all silicate minerals. b)An ion common to most of the minerals found in Earth's crust. c)A silicon atom bonded to four oxygen atoms in the shape of a tetrahedron. d)All of these.

21 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the silicate tetrahedron? a)The building block of all silicate minerals. b)An ion common to most of the minerals found in Earth's crust. c)A silicon atom bonded to four oxygen atoms in the shape of a tetrahedron. d)All of these. Explanation: Just as the carbon atom's valence structure enables it to bond with other carbon atoms to build complex organic molecules, the ionic structure of the silicate tetrahedron allows it to link in various ways to build a huge variety of minerals.

22 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The mineral that crystallizes first from a cooling magma is the one with the a)highest solubility. b)lowest solubility. c)highest melting point. d)lowest melting point.

23 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The mineral that crystallizes first from a cooling magma is the one with the a)highest solubility. b)lowest solubility. c)highest melting point. d)lowest melting point. Explanation: Minerals with higher melting point crystallize first and melt last. Solubility has to do with crystallizing from and dissolving in water.

24 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. What produces mineral gold? a)Crystallization from cooling magma b)Precipitation from hydrothermal solutions. c)Evaporation of surface water. d)Pressure and temperature changes to preexisting rock.

25 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. What produces mineral gold? a)Crystallization from cooling magma b)Precipitation from hydrothermal solutions. c)Evaporation of surface water. d)Pressure and temperature changes to preexisting rock. Explanation: When a hydrothermal solution becomes saturated in a certain substance, that substance crystallizes out of it—this chemical process is called precipitation.

26 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following best describes the difference between rocks and chemical compounds? a)Rocks are chemical mixtures. b)Rocks are solid, chemical mixtures. c)Rocks are physical mixtures. d)Rocks are solid, physical mixtures.

27 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following best describes the difference between rocks and chemical compounds? a)Rocks are chemical mixtures. b)Rocks are solid, chemical mixtures. c)Rocks are physical mixtures. d)Rocks are solid, physical mixtures. Explanation: Because rocks are aggregates of minerals, they must be solid.

28 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is NOT considered igneous intrusive? a)Dike. b)Lava. c)Batholith. d)Pluton.

29 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is NOT considered igneous intrusive? a)Dike. b)Lava. c)Batholith. d)Pluton. Explanation: Lava is magma that erupted at Earth's surface. It is also used to describe the rock that forms from molten lava. Therefore, lava is extrusive.

30 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Coarse-grained igneous rocks occur because a)lava intruded deep in Earth's interior. b)minerals cooled and grew quickly. c)minerals cooled and grew over long periods of time. d)some minerals are bigger than others.

31 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Coarse-grained igneous rocks occur because a)lava intruded deep in Earth's interior. b)minerals cooled and grew quickly. c)minerals cooled and grew over long periods of time. d)some minerals are bigger than others. Explanation: The more time available for crystal growth, the bigger the crystals.

32 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary rocks cover what percentage of the continental crust? a)75% b)5% c)67% d)33%

33 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Sedimentary rocks cover what percentage of the continental crust? a)75% b)5% c)67% d)33% Explanation: Although sedimentary rocks make up only 5% of Earth's crust, the continental crust is 75% covered with them.

34 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is that they a)are observed in great thicknesses. b)are formed in layered sequences—strata. c)contain fossils. d)are made from unconsolidated sediments.

35 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is that they a)are observed in great thicknesses. b)are formed in layered sequences—strata. c)contain fossils. d)are made from unconsolidated sediments. Explanation: Sediments—rock fragments, chemical sediments, or otherwise—are always deposited layer upon layer, eventually forming layered sequences.

36 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Rock breaks down to form sediment via a)erosion. b)transportation. c)sedimentation. d)weathering.

37 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Rock breaks down to form sediment via a)erosion. b)transportation. c)sedimentation. d)weathering.

38 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. How is erosion different from weathering? a)Erosion is the process of removing sediment from weathered rock. b)Erosion produces more sediment than weathering. c)Erosion produces less sediment than weathering. d)Erosion and weathering are different ways of saying the same thing.

39 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. How is erosion different from weathering? a)Erosion is the process of removing sediment from weathered rock. b)Erosion produces more sediment than weathering. c)Erosion produces less sediment than weathering. d)Erosion and weathering are different ways of saying the same thing. Explanation: Erosion is a removal process and involves transportation. Weathering occurs in situ (in place).

40 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is NOT associated with the formation of sedimentary rock? a)Compaction. b)Cementation. c)Crystallization. d)Lithification.

41 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is NOT associated with the formation of sedimentary rock? a)Compaction. b)Cementation. c)Crystallization. d)Lithification.

42 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Coal is a sedimentary rock. What is the source of its sediments? a)Ancient marine organisms b)Ancient land-dwelling reptiles c)Shale d)Ancient plants that grew in swamps and bogs.

43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Coal is a sedimentary rock. What is the source of its sediments? a)Ancient marine organisms b)Ancient land-dwelling reptiles c)Shale d)Ancient plants that grew in swamps and bogs. Explanation: Most of Earth's coal was formed about 300 million years ago when swamps covered much of the planet. Coal is derived from plants growing in those swamps.

44 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All of the following occur during metamorphism EXCEPT a)melting. b)recrystallization. c)interaction with chemical fluids. d)Changes in composition.

45 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All of the following occur during metamorphism EXCEPT a)melting. b)recrystallization. c)interaction with chemical fluids. d)Changes in composition. Explanation: Once melting takes place, igneous rocks form, not metamorphic.

46 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Metamorphic foliation is a)the same as sedimentary layering. b)the perpendicular orientation of recrystallized minerals. c)caused by the interaction with chemical fluids. d)a layered appearance caused by minerals that grew in a preferred orientation.

47 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Metamorphic foliation is a)the same as sedimentary layering. b)the perpendicular orientation of recrystallized minerals. c)caused by the interaction with chemical fluids. d)a layered appearance caused by minerals that grew in a preferred orientation. Explanation: The preferred orientation occurs perpendicular to the prevailing direction of applied pressure and can cut across or obliterate sedimentary layering.

48 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which sequence of metamorphic rocks is listed in the order of increasing metamorphism? a)Slate, schist, gneiss, marble. b)Shale, slate, schist, gneiss. c)Slate, schist, gneiss, migmatite. d)Marble, shale, gneiss, schist.

49 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which sequence of metamorphic rocks is listed in the order of increasing metamorphism? a)Slate, schist, gneiss, marble. b)Shale, slate, schist, gneiss. c)Slate, schist, gneiss, migmatite. d)Marble, shale, gneiss, schist.

50 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The rock cycle describes a)the natural recycling of rock from one rock type to another. b)the change from rock by weathering, erosion, and deposition. c)the crystallization of minerals from magma to an igneous rock. d)the movement of rock and sediment through the hydrologic cycle.

51 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The rock cycle describes a)the natural recycling of rock from one rock type to another. b)the change from rock by weathering, erosion, and deposition. c)the crystallization of minerals from magma to an igneous rock. d)the movement of rock and sediment through the hydrologic cycle. Explanation: B and C describe individual aspects of the rock cycle. The only part of the hydrologic cycle capable of moving sediment (only one part of the rock cycle) is surface flow in liquid water or ice.

52 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of these is evidence for the Impact Hypothesis? a)A large coal seam b)An iridium layer dating to the Cretaceous c)The Redwall Limestone d)Dinosaur fossils

53 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of these is evidence for the Impact Hypothesis? a)A large coal seam b)An iridium layer dating to the Cretaceous c)The Redwall Limestone d)Dinosaur fossils


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