3 General Problems (1) Network detection NIC needs to be active Example #1: WiFineeds to be active How to detect an alternative network while a connection is active? Depends on technology
4 General Problems (2) Network subscription Networks needs to be preconfigured WiFi: al lot of different authentication methods, access data for each network (Key, Password, Certificate) 3G: SIM card (Multi-SIM solutions) Usually, contract with provider(s) required Quality evaluation of connected and unconnected networks
5 General Problems (3) Seamless handover? Fast intra-technology or inter-technology handover “Make-before-Break”scenarios Mobility solution (e.g. MIPv4/v6, SIP etc.)
9 Quality Evaluation Depends on many factors Signal strength and noise level SNR, related to channel coding Radio propagation and channel multiplexing Moving speed Network interferences (e.g. different WiFinetworks on the same channel) Collisions (e.g. in WiFi“hidden node problem”) Network load
10 FLASH-OFDM Fast low-latency access with seamless handoff orthogonal frequency division multiplexing F-OFDM, is a system that is based on OFDM and specifies also higher protocol layersprotocol layers
11 Digita’s @450 service delivers wireless broadband right where it is needed. @450 is the only broadband solution that you can take with you wherever you go. @450 utilises the NMT network frequency range released from mobile phone use. @450 network on 1 April 2007
IEEE 802.21 == 802.21 is an IEEE emerging standard. The standard supports algorithms enabling seamless handover between networks of the same type as well as handover between different network types also called Media independent handover (MIH) or vertical handover. The standard provides information to allow handing over to and from cellular, GSM, GPRS, WiFi, Bluetooth, 802.11 and 802.16 networks through different handover mechanismsIEEEhandoverMedia independent handovercellular GSMGPRSWiFiBluetooth802.11 802.16 networks
13 “Clean slate approach” Redesigning the Internet in “Clean slate approach” has attractedconsiderable attention. In clean slate approach, several network architectures are proposed, which are not based on the layered model.
14 Cross-layer collaboration Layered model with cross-layer collaboration and split of the data plane and the control plane
15 Cross-layer collaboration (1) introducing the layer-5 to provide the applications with more abstract communication paths, (2) Introducing cross-layer collaboration for efficient processing in each layer, (3) splitting the node identifier and the node locator for mobility, multihoming and security, (4) splitting the data plane and the control plane for manageability (5) introducing a recursive layered model to support network virtualization
16 Media Independent Handover (MIH) is a standard being developed by IEEE 802.21 to enable the handover of IP sessions from one layer 2 access technology to another, to achieve mobility of end user devices.802.21handover
19 IEEE 802.22 IEEE 802.22 is a standard for Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) using white spaces in the TV frequency spectrum.standard white spaces
20 March 2009 Slide 20 3GPP/3GPP2 Network MIH Function 802 Network MIH Function MIH Users 802 Interface DATA MIH Function 3GPP/ 3GPP2 Interface MIH Users Higher Layer Transport MIH Users Higher Layer Transport Higher Layer Transport Legend MIH Message Transport MIH Local Interface DATA MGMT Information Repository Existing : 802.21 Handover Services Zuniga/Kwak, InterDigital Higher Layer Transport Higher Layer Transport Higher Layer Transport Multi RAT Mobile Node
21 March 2009 Slide 21 non-802 Network 802 Network MIC Users 802 Interface Multi RAT Mobile Node 802 Interface DATA MIC Function MIC Users Higher Layer Transport MIC Users Higher Layer Transport Legend MIC Message Transport MIC Local Interface DATA MGMT Information Repository Zuniga/Kwak, InterDigital Proposed : 802.21 MI Coexistence Services Higher Layer Transport Higher Layer Transport Higher Layer Transport MIC Function (i.e. Spectrum Mgr) MIC Function (i.e. Spectrum Mgr) Could be colocated into single network server non-802 Interface
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