Presentation on theme: "SHORT TITLES ABOVE NEWSPAPER REPORTS Headline language can be very difficult to understand; it is a special style with special vocabulary and grammar."— Presentation transcript:
Headline language can be very difficult to understand; it is a special style with special vocabulary and grammar.
Special vocabulary : Alert = alarm, warning “Flood alert on east coast” Appear = appear in court, accused of crime “MP to appear on drugs charge” Axe = Abolish, close down “Country bus services axed Back = support “ America backs British peace move” Bar= refuse/refusal to allow entry “Hotel bars football hooligans
Special vocabulary (2) Bid= attempt “Japanese women in new Everest bid” Block = attempt to stop Blow= unexpected setback Bolster=encourage Call= demand Chop= end. abolishment
Abbreviations, common usage : PM, UK, US, VAT, UN, TORY, PC, LORDS, MP COMMONS. Also : Currently well known names and ideas: e.g. Obama, Thatcher, Blair, Browne, security, Asange, Wikileaks etc (These names and ideas will disappear as headline shorthand as time passes)
Headlines are not always complete sentences. Many headlines consist of noun phrases with no verb. MORE WAGE CUTS;HOLIDAY HOTEL DEATH; EXETER MANS DOUBLE MARRIAGE BID.
Headlines often contain strings of three, four or more nouns. FURNITURE FACTORY PAY CUT ROW
Headlines often leave out articles and the verb be. SHAKESPEARE PLAY IMMORAL SAYS HEADMASTER ; SCHOOLBOY WALKS IN SPACE NEWSPAPER HEADLINES GRAMMAR
In headlines, simple tenses are often used instead of progressive or perfect forms. The simple present is used for both present and past events. BLIND GIRL CLIMBS EVEREST (=. -.. has climbed...) STUDENTS FIGHT FOR COURSE CHANGES (=... are fighting) NEWSPAPER HEADLINES GRAMMAR
The present progressive is used to talk about changes. Be is usually dropped. BRITAIN GETTING WARMER, SAY SCIENTISTS TRADE FIGURES IMPROVING
Many headline words are used as both nouns and verbs, and nouns are often used to modify other nouns US CUTS AID TO THIRD WORLD (= The US reduces its help.. CUTS is a verb, AID is a noun)
Headlines often use infinitives to refer to the future. PM TO VISIT AUSTRALIA HOSPITALS TO TAKE FEWER PATIENTS For is also used to refer to future movements or plans TROOPS FOR GLASGOW? (= Are soldiers going to be sent to Glasgow?)
Auxiliary verbs are usually dropped from passive structures. MURDER HUNT: MAN HELD (=... a man is being held by police.) SIX KILLED IN EXPLOSION (= Six people have been killed...) Note that forms like HELD, ATTACKED are usually past participles with passive meanings Compare: AID ROW: PRESIDENT ATTACKED (=... the President has been attacked.) AID ROW: PRESIDENT ATTACKS CRITICS the President has attacked her critics.) BOY FOUND SAFE (= The missing boy has been found safe; he is safe.) BOY FINDS SAFE (= A boy has found a safe.)
Note that forms like HELD, ATTACKED are usually past participles with passive meanings AID ROW: PRESIDENT ATTACKED (=... the President has been attacked.) AID ROW: PRESIDENT ATTACKS CRITICS (…the President has attacked her critics.) BOY FOUND SAFE (= The missing boy has been found safe; he is safe.) BOY FINDS SAFE (= A boy has found a safe.)
As and in are often used instead of longer connecting expressions. HOSPITAL BOSS AXED AS PATIENTS DIE (... because patients die.) FOOTBALL MANAGER IN CAR CRASH
A colon (:) is often used to separate the subject of a headline from what is said about it. STRIKES: PM TO ACT MOTORWAY CRASH: DEATH TOLL RISES