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Metamorphism and metamorphic rocks. the rock cycle.

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Presentation on theme: "Metamorphism and metamorphic rocks. the rock cycle."— Presentation transcript:

1 metamorphism and metamorphic rocks

2 the rock cycle

3 metamorphism high enough temperature & pressure to “change” rocks but not high enough to melt rocks …changes to rocks occur in the solid-state… hot, reactive fluids also contribute old minerals, unstable under new P, T conditions, re-crystallize into new minerals metamorphism occurs at depth; cannot see metamorphic rocks unless they are uplifted new rocks are metamorphic rocks

4 metamorphic rocks: controlling factors parent rock composition (also called protolith) temperature and pressure during metamorphism tectonic forces fluids

5 no new material is added to rock during metamorphism if parent material contains only one mineral limestone marble (CaCO 3 ) limestone (CaCO 3 ) parent rock composition metamorphic rock will have similar composition to parent rock resultant metamorphic rock will only have one mineral --mineral will be recrystallized (texture changes)--

6 limestone under microscope (stained) (note fragments of shells) marble under microscope (note interconnecting grains) texture changes

7 if parent material contains many minerals… garnet growinggarnet schist (metamorphic rock) …old minerals will recombine to form new minerals clay, quartz, mica, and volcanic fragments in a sandstone will combine to form new metamorphic minerals example is garnet: which grows during metamorphism

8 heat is essential temperature during metamorphism heat from Earth’s deep interior all minerals stable over finite temperature range higher temperatures than range cause melting (and therefore generates igneous rocks) think about mixing flour, yeast, water, salt…. ….nothing happens until they have a heat source and then they make bread

9 pressure in the Earth acts the same in all directions pressure is proportional to depth in the Earth look at example with deep water pressure increases with depth volume decreases with depth pressure during metamorphism increases at ~1 kilobar per 3.3 km high pressure minerals: more compact and dense --grains pack together-- consequence on cube is squeezing into smaller cube

10 tectonic forces - driven by plate motion! lead to forces that are not equal in all directions (differential stress) compressive stress (hands squeeze together) causes flattening at 90° to stress shearing (hands rubbing together) causes flattening parallel to stress

11 flattened pebbles in metamorphic rock

12 fluids hot water (water vapor) most important heat causes unstable minerals to release water water reacts with surrounding rocks and transports dissolved material and ions time metamorphism may take millions of years longer times allow new minerals to grow larger --coarser grained rocks

13 metamorphic rocks: basic classification foliated (layered) non-foliated (non-layered) type of foliation -- e.g. slaty composition -- e.g. marble based on rock texture

14 foliation foliated (layered) metamorphic rocks results from differential stress (not equal in all directions)

15 non-foliatedfoliated appearance under microscope

16 foliated metamorphic rock: slate


18 foliated metamorphic rock: phyllite (higher T, P than slate)

19 garnet foliated metamorphic rock: schist (higher T, P than phyllite) …new minerals grow -- garnet (large, roundish grains)

20 schist under microscope garnet

21 banding of quartz/feldspar and ferromagnesian minerals foliated metamorphic rock: gneiss (higher T, P than schist)

22 non-foliated (non-layered) metamorphic rocks results from pressure: equal in all directions named on the basis of their composition limestone (CaCO 3 ) marble (CaCO 3 )

23 Carrara Marble Quarry Michelangelo’s David

24 non-foliated metamorphic rocks: quartzite metamorphosed quartz sandstone

25 Photo credit: R. Weller non-foliated metamorphic rocks: hornfels metamorphosed basalt

26 types of metamorphism contact metamorphism occurs adjacent to magma bodies intruding cooler country rock -- “contact” produces non-foliated metamorphic rocks happens in a narrow zone of contact (~1 to 100 m wide) known as aureole forms fine-grained (e.g. hornfels) or coarse-grained (e.g. marble) rocks

27 types of metamorphism regional metamorphism occurs over wide region and mostly in deformed mountain ranges produces foliated metamorphic rocks happens at high pressures and over a range of temperature increases in pressures and temperatures forms rocks of higher metamorphic grade

28 other types of metamorphism (less common) produces migmatites, which have both intrusive and metamorphic textures occurs during impact events partial melting during metamorphism shock metamorphism yields very high pressures forms “shocked” rocks around impact craters

29 migmatite igneous and metamorphic textures

30 hydrothermal alteration along mid-ocean ridge cold sea water encounters hot basalt, forms steam, alters minerals

31 black smoker offshore Pacific Northwest hot steam/sea water cools as it emerges into ocean and precipitates metals

32 temperatures cooler in down-going (subducting) plate (dashed purple line is isotherm -- line of equal T) plate tectonics and metamorphism regional metamorphism associated with convergent boundaries pressure increases with depth temperature varies laterally different P, T conditions yield different degrees of metamorphism

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