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1 rock forming minerals quartz feldspar amphibole pyroxene mica clay calcite gypsum
2 distinguishing qualities color luster hardness density cleavage crystalline system
3 Formation name – rock mass Type of rock = limestone Rock mass quality = Formation Name –fractures –hydrology –etc “Data Base” - Based on past experience and registering the quality of the rock
4 Rock mass Usages: tunneling mining aggregate in concrete aggregate in asphalt dimension stone foundation rock Good rock “Bra berg” For what???
5 Geological classification Three main rock groups –Igneous rocks (magmatiska) –Sedimentary rocks (sedimentära) –Metamorphic rocks (metamorfa)
6 Igneous rocks (magmatiska)
7 Sedimentary rocks (sedimentära)
8 Metamorphic rocks (metamorfa)
9 Igneous Rocks = hard rocks extrusive – lava intrusive or plutonic (50 km or more) serpentinites – altered igneous rocks
10 Igneous Rocks extrusive – lava
11 Igneous Rocks intrusive or plutonic (50 km or more) joints common, sheet joints high in-situ stress
12 Igneous Rocks highly susceptible to weathering
13 Igneous Rocks serpentinites – altered igneous rocks broken and crushed seams of serpentine-rich clay shear easily
14 common igneous rocks intrusive –granite –diorite –gabbros –diabase or dolerite –pegmatite extrusive –basalt –andesite –rhyolite
15 Sedimentary rocks = Soft rocks 1.clastic 2.chemical 3.biochemical
16 Sedimentary rocks 1.clastic 2.chemical 3.biochemical composed of pieces of pre existing rocks and minerals
17 Sedimentary rocks 1.clastic 2.chemical 3.biochemical precipitate of a mass, such as silica or calcium carbonate wandering of a substance in the rocks
18 Sedimentary rocks 1.clastic 2.chemical 3.biochemical composed of fragments of plants and animals
19 characteristics of sedimentary rocks bedding and strata –laterally continuous –uniformly thick –originally horizontal
20 characteristics of sedimentary rocks bedding and strata –laterally continuous –uniformly thick –originally horizontal
23 Diagenesis sediment transformed to a sedimentary rocks: compaction cementation low temperatures
24 common sedimentary rocks claystone mudstone siltstone sandstone conglomerate limestone
25 “Rock” according to an engineer is irreversibly cemented and hard – but several sedimentary rocks can loose all resemblance of a rock when soaked in water – these act as engineering“soils ”
26 Metamorphic Rocks – “changed rocks” metamorphism – minerals and structures of rocks are transformed
27 metamorphic textures – highly directional foliation schistosity recrystallized –isotropic –anisotropic
28 metamorphic textures – highly directional foliation schistosity recrystallized –isotropic –anisotropic
29 metamorphic textures – highly directional foliation schistosity recrystallized –isotropic –anisotropic
30 Common metamorphic rock types: slate schist gneiss marble quartzite
31 Common metamorphic rock types: slate schist gneiss marble quartzite
32 Common metamorphic rock types: slate schist gneiss marble quartzite
33 Common metamorphic rock types: slate schist gneiss marble quartzite
35 Common metamorphic rock types: slate schist gneiss marble quartzite
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