Presentation on theme: "The Criminalization of Mental Illness: Crisis & Opportunity for the Justice System Risdon N. Slate, Ph.D. Professor of Criminology Florida Southern College."— Presentation transcript:
The Criminalization of Mental Illness: Crisis & Opportunity for the Justice System Risdon N. Slate, Ph.D. Professor of Criminology Florida Southern College
Prevalence of Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System Jails and prisons in the U.S. hold three times more persons with mental illness than do psychiatric hospitals in America (Human Rights Watch Report, 2003). Jails comprise the 3 largest inpatient psychiatric facilities in the country. Estimates are that around 16 percent of jail and prison populations in the U.S. are comprised of persons with mental illness (Ditton, 1999). (Compare to James & Glaze, 2006 BJS/DOJ study).
“Mental illness is not a choice. It is a medical disease.” (Greenberg, 2001, p. 43).
Source: Munetz, Mark and Griffin, Patricia. “Use of the Sequential Intercept Model as an Approach to Decriminalization of People With Serious Mental Illness.” (2006) Psychiatric Services 57:544-549. The Sequential Intercept Model viewed as a series of filters
Criminal Justice System Responses Law Enforcement (CIT, CSOs and Mobile Crisis) Mental Health Courts Discharge Planning: Diversion & Re-entry
The True Solution Lies In More And Better Mental Health Services Evidence based practices, including: – Assertive Community Treatment (aka FACT) – Integrated mental health/substance abuse treatment. – Supported Employment – Supportive Housing Peer services and supports Acute care beds and/or crisis stabilization services
Does Diversion Work? Does It Save Money? Does it Reduce Crime? Does it Help the People Intended to Benefit?
As noted by Kathryn Power of SAMHSA, Lord Kelvin, a Scottish Mathematician of the 1800s, once said: “When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, then you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind.”
2007 RAND STUDY Allegheny County, PA Total Cost Savings of $9,584.00 per participant for a ½ Million Dollar Savings Over 2 Years
Crises Often Drive Policy In The Justice System Crisis Intervention Training – Memphis PD Eugene Gregory & Alan Singletary Aaron Wynn Brad H. Andrew Goldstein Seung-Hui Cho Emergency Economic Stabilization Act (Parity)