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History and Approaches Prologue History and Approaches (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Monism, Dualism, Empiricism, Wundt, Titchener, Structuralism, Functionalism, Darwin, Calkins, Watson, Freud, 3 Big Issues, 5 Big Perspectives, Basic v Applied Research, Clinical Psychologists v Psychiatrists, G Stanley Hall) 1. Summarize the views of prescientific thinkers regarding the origins of knowledge and how the mind and body relate. 2. Discuss early psychologists’ efforts to understand the structure and function of the mind. 3. Describe psychology’s concerns regarding stability and change, rationality and irrationality, and nature and nurture. 4. Briefly describe the different perspectives from which psychologists examine behavior and mental processes and explain their complementarity. 5. Identify some of the basic and applied research sub-fields of psychology, and differentiate the mental health professions of clinical psychology and psychiatry.
History and Approaches 1-1 Think (15:00)-Pair (15:00)-Share (20:00) > SocratesHallBiopsychosocial Approach Plato BaconDix Aristotle Locke Wertheimer DescartesEmpiricism Galton DualismWundtStructuralism FunctionalismSkinnerTitchener JamesWatsonDarwin CalkinsGallFreud WashburnMonismPsychology Nature v. NurtureRationality v. IrrationalityStability v. Change
Welcome to Psychology! Unit 1: History, Approaches & Methods
History: Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?
7 Prescientific Psychology Socrates ( B.C.) and Plato ( B.C.) Socrates and his student Plato believed the mind was separate from the body (Dualism), the mind continued to exist after death, and ideas were innate. (Nature) Socrates Plato
8 Prescientific Psychology Aristotle ( B.C.) Aristotle suggested that the soul is not separable from the body (Monism) and that knowledge (ideas) grow from experience. (Nurture) “nothing exists in mind that doesn’t come through senses”
9 Prescientific Psychology Rene Descartes ( ) Descartes, like Plato, believed in soul (mind)-body separation (Dualism), but wondered how the immaterial mind and physical body communicated.
10 Prescientific Psychology Francis Bacon ( ) Bacon is one of the founders of modern science, particularly the experimental method.
11 Prescientific Psychology John Locke ( ) Locke held that the mind was a tabula rasa, or blank slate, at birth, and experiences wrote on it. (Empiricism) biografieonline.it/img/bio/John_Locke.jpg
EMPIRICISM empiricism – knowledge originates in experience science should rely on observation and experimentation
13 Prescientific Psychology Mind and body are connected (Monism) Mind and body are distinct (Dualism) The HebrewsSocrates AristotlePlato AugustineDescartes What is the relation of mind to the body?
14 Prescientific Psychology Some ideas are inborn (nature) The mind is a blank slate (nurture) SocratesAristotle PlatoLocke How are ideas formed?
History: Psychology’s Roots Phrenology- we’ll revisit this later in the course 19 th c. – Franz Gall (Ger): Phrenology – scientists analyzed shape of skull lumps liked to certain “faculties of mind”
History: Psych Roots Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Liepzig (c. 1879) -Made Psychology an independent discipline (no longer a stepchild of philosophy or physiology) His student Edward Titchener introduced “Structuralism”
History: Psychology’s Roots Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind -Introspection of consciousness – look inward and report elements of experience systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience Eg. Report sensations, feelings, images when listening to Beethoven issue: requires articulate ind
History: Psychology’s Roots 1890 – William James publishes “Principles of Psychology” (most influential text in history of Psych-1 st psych text) James- Functionalist – belief that psychology should how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
19 Psychological Science is Born The Unconscious Mind Sigmund Freud and his followers emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior. Freud ( )
History: Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science Develops Wundt--German philosopher and physiologist, Father of Psychology James--American philosopher, functionalism, 1 st Psych Textbook, “Principles of Psychology” Pavlov--Russian physiologist, Classical Conditioning Freud--Austrian physician, Psychoanalytic Perspective, focus on unconscious mind Piaget--Swiss biologist, developmental psychologist focused on child cognitive development
History: Psychology’s Roots Others Mary Calkins- 1 st female pres of APA in1905 Margaret Foy Washburn – 1 st female psych Ph.D., 2 nd female pres of APA Francis Galton – Darwin’s Cousin; wrote “Heriditary Genius” in 1869, believed that traits of personality were entirely inherited; used his theories to promote racial seperation and eventually eradication of “lesser races” G Stanley Hall – first president of APA in 1892, described adolescence as “storm & stress” Max Wertheimer ( )—Gestaltist who examined a person’s total experience (whole is more than just accumulation of parts); stroboscopic motion
History: Psychology’s Roots Figure 1- British Psychological Society membership
History: Psychology’s Roots Definition of Psychology The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings) -“Psyche” (mind) - -ology = “study of”
Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s 3 Big Issues Nature v. nurture the relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors Stability v. Change Rationality v. Irrationality
Contemporary Psychology Natural selection (Charles Darwin) principle that those inherited trait variations contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
26 Biopsychosocial approach: Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s Perspectives (Approaches) A lot depends on your viewpoint—eg. Depression, alcoholism, abusive behavior, pathological lying
28 Psychology’s Current Perspectives PerspectiveFocusSample Questions NeuroscienceHow the body and brain enables emotions? How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives? EvolutionaryHow the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes? How does evolution influence behavior tendencies? Behavior geneticsHow much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences? To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?
29 Psychology’s Current Perspectives PerspectiveFocusSample Questions PsychodynamicHow behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts? How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas? BehavioralHow we learn observable responses? How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?
30 Psychology’s Current Perspectives PerspectiveFocusSample Questions CognitiveHow we encode, process, store and retrieve information? How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving? Social-culturalHow behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures? How are we — as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans – alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
31 Psychology’s Subfields: Basic Research PsychologistWhat she does Biological Explore the links between brain and mind. Developmental Study changing abilities from womb to tomb. Cognitive Study how we perceive, think, and solve problems. Personality Investigate our persistent traits. Social Explore how we view and affect one another.
32 Psychology’s Subfields: Basic Research Data: APA 1997
33 Psychology’s Subfields: Applied Research PsychologistWhat she does Clinical Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders Counseling Helps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges. Educational Studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings Industrial/ Organizational Studies and advises on behavior in the workplace.
34 Psychology’s Subfields: Applied Research Data: APA 1997
35 Clinical Psychologist (Ph.D.) Study, assess & treat troubled people Administer & interpret tests Psychotherapy Manage mental health programs Conduct basic & applied research Psychiatrists (M.D.) Treat Physical causes of psychological disorders Prescribe drugs Psychotherapy Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry
36 Survey: What you are about to read, including chapter outlines and section heads. Question: Ask questions. Make notes. Read: Make sure you read outlines, sections and chapters in entirety. Review: Margin definitions. Study learning outcomes. Reflect: On what you learn. Test yourself with quizzes. Close-up Your Study of Psychology Survey, Question, Read, Review and Reflect (SQ3R)