2Learning ObjectivesWhat are the five basic issues in human development?Where does each major theorist – Freud, Erikson, Skinner, Bandura, Piaget, and Gottlieb – stand on each of these issues?
3Theories of Human Development Theory: Ideas proposed to describe/explain certain phenomenaOrganizes facts/observationsGuides collection of new dataShould be internally consistentFalsifiable: Hypothesis can be testedSupported by data
5Other Assumptions About Human Nature Nature/Nurture: Heredity or environment most influential?Is development primarily the product of genes, biology, and maturation – or of experience, learning, and social influences?
6Other Assumptions About Human Nature Goodness/Badness: Underlying good or evilAre humans innately good, innately bad, neither (tabula rasae) or both?Thomas HobbesChildren are inherently selfish and badSociety’s responsibility to teach them to behaveJean Jacques RousseauChildren are inherently goodInnate ability to know right from wrongWould go right as long as society stays out of the wayJohn LockeInfants are tabula rasae or “blank slates”Children are neither either good nor badExperiences determine the direction children take
7Other Assumptions About Human Nature Active/Passive Development: Self determination or by othersDo humans actively shape their own environments and contribute to their own development …– or are they passively shaped by forces beyond their control?
8Other Assumptions About Human Nature Continuity/Discontinuity: Stages or gradual changeDo humans change gradually …Weight gain in childrenOr do they quickly change dramatically into different beings?Adolescent growth spurts
9Other Assumptions About Human Nature Quantitative/Qualitative Changes: Degree or transformationDo humans change in quantitative ways …Gains wrinkles, grows taller, knows more vocabulary wordsOr do they progress through qualitatively different stages?Caterpillar into a butterflyNon-verbal into speaking toddler into prepubertal child into a sexually mature adolescent.
10Other Assumptions About Human Nature Universal or Context Specific DevelopmentIs development similar from person to person and from culture to culture…Or do pathways of development vary considerably depending on the social contexts?In America preschool children sometimes believe their dreams are real but give up this belief as they age; where as, Atayal culture of Taiwan have been observed to become more and more convinced as they get older that dreams are real because that is what most people in their culture believe.
11Learning ObjectivesWhat are the distinct features of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory?What are the strengths and weaknesses of the theory?
12Freud: Psychoanalytic Theory Instincts and unconscious motivationId, Ego, and Superego formed from psychic energy (Libido)Id: Instinctual nature of humansPleasure PrincipalEgo: Rational and objectiveReality PrincipalSuperego: Internalized moral standardsDynamic system: Regular conflicts within
13Freud’s Psychosexual Development Child moves through five stagesOral StageOral receptive vs. Oral aggressiveAnal StageAnal retentive vs. Anal expulsivePhalic StageOedipus & Electra ComplexLatency StageIdentification with same-sex parentGenital StageSatisfy mature sexual instinct
14Freud’s Psychosexual Development Stages result from conflict between Id & SuperegoConflict creates anxietyEgo defends against anxiety with defense mechanismsEarly experiences have long-term effects on personality
15Freud’s Psychosexual Development Emphasized the role of nature over nurtureBelieved humans are basically evilBelieved development has qualitative changesBelieved development was discontinuousBelieved development was passiveBelieved development was universal
16Strengths and Weaknesses of Freud’s Theory Awareness of unconscious motivationEmphasized important early experienceWeaknessesAmbiguous, inconsistent, not testableNot supported by research
17Learning ObjectivesHow does Erikson’s psychoanalytic theory compare to Freud’s theory?What crisis characterizes each of Erikson’s psychosocial stages?
18Erik EriksonMost influential neo-FreudianSome differences with FreudEmphasis on psychosocial stagesLess emphasis on sexual urgesMore emphasis on rational ego (choices)More positive, adaptive view of human natureDevelopment continues through adulthood
19Erikson’s Stages: Approximate Ages Trust vs. Mistrust: Importance of responsive caregiverAutonomy vs. Shame & Doubt: PreschoolInitiative vs. Guilt: PreschoolIndustry vs. Inferiority: School-age childrenIdentity vs. Role Confusion: AdolescenceIntimacy vs. Isolation: Young adultGenerativity vs. Stagnation: Middle ageIntegrity vs. Despair: Old Age
22Strengths and Weaknesses of Erikson Focus on identity crisis of adolescence still most relevantEmphasis on rational and adaptive natureInteraction of biological & social influencesWeaknessesSometimes vague and difficult to testDoes not explain how development comes about
23Learning ObjectivesWhat are the distinct features of the learning theories covered in this chapter: Watson’s classical conditioning, Skinner’s operant conditioning, and Bandura’s social-cognitive theory?What are the strengths and weaknesses of the learning theories?
24Learning Theories: Classical Conditioning Behaviorism: Conclusions should be based on observable behavior onlyTabula Rasa - Environmental viewAssociation LearningUCS: Built-in, unlearned stimulusUCR: Automatic, unlearned responseCS: Stimulus causes learned responseCR: Learned response
26Learning Theories: Operant Conditioning Probability of behavior based on environmental consequencesReinforcementPleasant consequenceIncreases probabilityPunishmentDecreases probabilityUnpleasant, aversive
27Possible consequences of whining behavior. Moosie comes into the TV room and sees his father talking and joking with his sister. Lulu, as the two watch a football game. Soon Moosie begins to whine, louder and louder, that he wants them to turn off the television so he can play Nintendo games. If you were Moosie’s father, how would you react? Here are four possible consequences of Moosie’s behavior. Consider both the type of consequences – whether it is a pleasant or aversive stimulus – and whether it is administered (“added to”) or withdrawn. Notice that reinforcers strengthen whining behavior, or make it more likely in the future, whereas punishers weaken it.
28Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory Formerly called social learning theoryHumans think, anticipate, believe, etc.Cognitive Emphasis: Observational learningBoBo doll studiesModel praised or punishedChild learned to imitate rewarded modelVicarious reinforcement
29Learning Theory: Strengths & Weaknesses Precise and testable theoryCarefully controlled experimentsPractical applications across lifespanWeaknessesInadequate account of lifespan changesIgnored genetic and maturational processes
30Learning ObjectivesWhat is Piaget’s perspective on cognitive development?What are the strengths and weaknesses of Piaget’s theory?
31Piaget: Cognitive Developmental Theory Intelligence: Ability to adapt to environmentConstructivism: Understanding based on experienceInteractionistBoth biological maturation and experience required for developmental progressAt each new stage, children think in a qualitatively different way
33Cognitive Developmental Theory StrengthsWell-accepted by developmentalistsWell-researched, mostly supportedInfluenced education and parentingWeaknessesIgnores motivation and emotionStages not universal especially the last one
34Learning ObjectiveHow do systems theories, in general, conceptualize development?
35Contextual/Systems Theories Lev Vygotsky: Sociocultural perspectiveCognitive development is a social processProblem solving aided by dialoguesGottlieb: Evolutionary/Epigenetic SystemsGenes, neural activity, behavior, and environment mutually influentialNormal genes and normal early experiences most helpful
36Learning ObjectivesWhat are the essential elements of Gottlieb’s epigenetic psychobiological systems perspective of development?What are the strengths and weaknesses of the systems approaches to development?
37Gottlieb – Developmental Psychobiology Interaction: Biological & environmental influencesIndividual programmed through evolutionCurrent behavior results from past adaptationEthology: Behavior adaptive to specific environmentsE.g., food scarcity creates nomadic behaviorsSpecies-specific behavior of animals & humans
38Gottlieb: EpigenesisInstinctual behavior may or may not occurDepends on early physical and social environmentsGenes alone don’t influence behaviorA system of interactionsPeople develop in changing contextsHistoricalCultural
39Strengths and Weaknesses Stresses the interaction of nature and nurtureWeaknessesOnly partially formulated and testedNo coherent developmental theory
40Learning ObjectiveHow can we characterize the theories in general?
41Class Participation Question 1 (from Box 2.1) Directions: Choose one option for each statement and write down the corresponding letter.Biological influences and learning experiences arethought to contribute to development. Overall:a. Biological factors contribute far moreb. Biological factors contribute somewhat morec. Both biological and environmental factorscontribute equallyd. Environmental factors contribute somewhat moree.Environmental factors contribute far more
42Class Participation Question 2 Children are innately:a. Mostly bad; they are born with basically negative, selfish impulsesb. Neither good nor bad; they are tabula rasae (blank slates)c. Both good and bad; they are born with predispositions that are both negative and positived. Mostly good; they are born with many positive tendencies
43Class Participation Question 3 People are basically:a. Active beings who are the prime determiners of their own abilities and traitsb. Passive beings whose characteristics are molded either by social influences (parents, other significant people, and outside events) or by biological changes beyond their control.
44Class Participation Question 4 Development proceeds:a. through stages so that the individual changes rather abruptly into a different kind of person than s/he was in an earlier stageb. In a variety of ways – some stage-like, and some gradual or continuousc. Continuously – in small increments without abrupt changes or distinct stages
45Class Participation Question 5 When you compare the development of different individuals, you see:a. Many similarities: Children and adults develop along universal paths and experience similar changes at similar agesb. Many differences: Different people often undergo different sequences of change and have widely different timetables of development