2 A Look AheadHow much of a person’s personality is shaped by culture as opposed to inborn traits?In what ways does socialization continue into adulthood?Who are the most powerful agents of socialization?
3 Socialization and the Life Course Socialization: Lifelong process in which people learn appropriate attitudes, values, and behaviorsPersonality: Person’s typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior
4 The Role of Socialization SociobiologySociobiology is the systematic study of the biological bases of social behavior.In its extreme form, sociobiology suggests that all behavior is the result of genetic or biological factors and places little emphasis on social interaction.
5 Behaviorism B.F. Skinner, one of the most famous behaviorists. Behaviorists see the individual as a blank slate that could be written upon through socializationBehaviorism asserts that individual behavior is not determined by instincts but rather, all behavior is learned.
6 Instinct – an unlearned, biologically determined behavior pattern common to all members of a species.Reflex - an unlearned, biologically determined, involuntary response to some physical stimuli.Drives – unlearned, biologically determined impulses common to all members of a species that satisfy needs such as sleep, food, water, or sexual gratification.
7 The Role of Socialization The Influence of HeredityStudies of Identical TwinsIntelligence tests show similar scores when twins are reared apart in roughly similar social settings.Intelligence tests show quite different scores when twins are reared apart in dramatically different social settings.
8 Social Environment: The Impact of Isolation Interaction of heredity and environment shape human developmentThe Cases of Isabelle and GenieEmphasizes importance of earliest socialization experiences for childrenEarly socialization experiences in normal environments are important.Primate StudiesHarlow showed isolation had damaging effect on monkeys
9 The Self and Socialization Self: Distinct identity that sets us apart from othersThe self is not a static phenomenonIt continues to develop and change
10 The Self and Socialization Cooley: Looking-Glass Self We learn who we are by interacting with othersLooking-glass self: The self is product of social interactionswith other people
11 Cooley argued that during interaction humans serve as mirrors for one another Our view of ourselves comes from not only our contemplation of personal qualities, but also from our impressions of how others perceive usWe base our perception of who we are on how we think other people see us and on whether this opinion seems good or bad to us
12 George Herbert MeadAccording to Mead, in the early months of life, children do not realize that they are separate from others .Shortly after birth, infants start to notice the faces of those around themGradually, we distinguish ourselves from our care givers and begin to perceive ourselves in contrast to them
13 George Herbert MeadWhen we begin to represent ourselves in our own minds as objects distinct from everything else, our self has been formed.
14 Mead: Stages of the Self Preparatory Stage: Children imitate people around themSymbols: Gestures, objects, and words that form basis of human communication
15 George Herbert Mead Preparatory Stage Up to about the age of 3 kids mimic social roleschildren imitate significant othersThey do not yet have a sense of self separate from others
16 Mead: Stages of the Self from about age 3-5 Play Stage: Children develop skill in communicating through symbols and role taking occursRole taking: Process of mentally assuming perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint
17 George Herbert MeadChildren learn to use language and other symbols which enable them to imitate the actions of othersLearn the roles, not just significant others including parents, teachers, and schoolmates.The child at this stage is capable only of play and cannot yet engage in the organized activity
18 George Herbert Mead begins in the early school years 3. Game Stagebegins in the early school yearschildren understand not only their own social position but also the positions of others around themAt this stage, organized play, or team gamesThe significance for the self is that to play these games the individual must be able to take multiple roles
19 George Herbert MeadGeneralized others: Attitudes, viewpoints, and expectationsof society as a whole that a child takes into accountThey understand the repercussions of their behavior and the effect of them on othersanticipate actions of significant and generalized others
20 Ervin Goffman: Presentation of the Self Impression Management: The individual slants the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiencesDramaturgical Approach: People resemble performers in actionThe goal is to create distinctive appearances and to satisfy particular audiences.
21 Erving Goffmanthis altering of the presentation of the self impression managementGoffman argued that roles in life like those in the theater, have both a stage and a backstage.Face-work is another aspect of the self. Maintaining the proper image can be essential to continued social interaction
22 Psychological Approaches to the Self FreudSelf is a social product, however, natural impulsive instincts in constant conflict with societal constraintsPersonality influenced by others (especially one’s parents)
23 Psychological Approaches to the Self PiagetEmphasized stages that humans progress through as the self developsCognitive theory of development identified 4 stages in development of children’s thought processesSocial interaction key to development
24 Table 4-1: Theoretical Approaches to Development of the Self Scholar Key Concepts and Contributions Major Points of TheoryCharles Horton Cooley Looking-glass self Stages of development not distinct; feelings toward ourselves developed sociobiologist (USA) through interaction with othersGeorge Herbert Mead The self Three distinct stages of development; self Generalized other develops as children grasp the roles of sociobiologist (USA) others in their livesErving Goffman Impression management Self developed through the impressions ( ) Dramaturgical approach we convey to others and to groups sociobiologist (USA) Face-workSigmund Freud Psychoanalysis Self influenced by parents and by inborn ( ) drives, such as the drive for sexual psychotherapist (Austria) gratificationJean Piaget Cognitive theory Four stages of cognitive development; ( ) moral development linked to child psychologist socialization (Switzerland)
25 Socialization and the Life Course The Life Course - Socialization continues throughout our lives. In different cultures stages of development are marked by specific ceremonies.Rites of passage are a means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person’s status.These specific ceremonies mark stages of development in the life course.
26 The Life CourseWe encounter some of the most difficult socialization challenges in later yearsAssessing one’s accomplishmentsCoping with declining physical abilitiesRetirementFacing the inevitability of death
27 Table 4-2: Milestones in the Transition to Adulthood Percentage of People Who View Event as Extremely Live Event Expected Age or Quite ImportantFinancial independence from parents/guardians years %Separate residence from parentsFull-time employmentCompletion of formal schoolingCapability of supporting a familyMarriageParenthoodNote: Based on the 2002 General Social Survey of 1,398 people.Source: T. W. Smith 2003.
28 Socialization and the Life Course Anticipatory Socialization and ResocializationTwo types of socialization occur throughout the life courseAnticipatory Socialization - The processes of socialization in which a person “rehearses” for future occupations and social relationshipsResocialization: The process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life
29 Agents of Socialization FamilyRole of family in socializing a child cannot be overestimatedCultural InfluencesThe Impact of Race and GenderGender Roles: expectation regarding proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
30 Agents of Socialization SchoolSchools teach children the values and customs of the larger society.Schools have traditionally socialized children into conventional gender roles.
31 Agents of Socialization Peer GroupAs children grow older, peer groups increasingly assume the role of Mead’s significant others.Peer groups can ease the transition to adult responsibilities.Peer groups can encourage children to honor or violate cultural norms and values.Peer groups can be a source of harassment as well as support.
32 Agents of Socialization Mass Media and Technology53 percent of all children ages 12 to 18 have their own televisions.Television permits imitation and role playing but does not encourage more complex forms of learning.Technology is socializing families into multitasking as the social norm.
33 Figure 4-2: How Young People Use the Media Note: Based on a national representative sample of 2,032 people surveyed between October 2003 and March 2004.Source: Rideout et al. 2005:7.