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Michael Wilson Hot Topics Next Generation Internet.

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1 Michael Wilson Hot Topics Next Generation Internet

2 2 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Contents Internet Ossification Clean Slate »Clean Slate Project Overlays »Planetlab Underlays/Virtualization »Diversified Internet Architecture GENI »Global Environment for Network Innovation

3 3 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Contents Internet Ossification Clean Slate »Clean Slate Project Overlays »Planetlab Underlays/Virtualization »Diversified Internet Architecture GENI »Global Environment for Network Innovation

4 4 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Internet Ossification A bit of Internet History…. »“...A network of such centers, connected to one another by wide- band communication lines and to individual users by leased-wire services.” – JCR Licklider (1960) »BBN’s IMP »TCP/IP (1978) »DNS (1983) »NSFNet (1987) »WWW (1993) »Google (1998)

5 5 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Internet Ossification Barriers to Innovation »Immense scale of the Internet »Many, many stakeholders »Critical dependencies Tension between innovation and backward compatibility »Incremental changes of limited value »Truly innovative, disruptive changes nearly impossible Downside of Incremental changes »Increased Complexity (bandaids on bandaids on bandaids) »Decreasing opportunity for incremental change »Inability to change underlying assumptions

6 6 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Internet Ossification Approaches to Internet Innovation Clean Slate »Accept that change will be disruptive and redesign from scratch. Eventually, the cost of the status quo will be more than the cost of disruption during migration. Overlays »Create a network on top of today’s Internet, and make your changes there. If it’s a stunning success, downward migration will follow. Underlays »Create a new network platform on top of which many competing overlay networks run, isolated from each other.

7 7 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Contents Internet Ossification Clean Slate »Clean Slate Project Overlays »Planetlab Underlays/Virtualization »Diversified Internet Architecture GENI »Global Environment for Network Innovation

8 8 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Clean Slate Program Program hosted out of Stanford Emphasis on long-term goals and motivated by two questions: »“With what we know today, if we were to start again with a clean slate, how would we design a global communications infrastructure?” »“How should the Internet look in 15 years?” Fairly recent program, September »Results still “half baked or a tenth baked” according to researchers in the program »Some prior work in the older 100x100 program

9 9 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Clean Slate Program Currently 7 major areas of research: »Flow-level Models for the Internet »Wireless Spectrum Usage »Fast Dynamic Optical Light Paths »Enterprise Network Security »Rate Control Protocol »NetFPGA Platform »Web Security Projects

10 10 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Clean Slate Program Flow-level Models for the Internet Motivation: Internet design validation »Simulation more accurate but scales poorly to very large networks. »Theoretical models are lacking in two major ways No end-to-end semantics No flow-level dynamics One of the least developed of the program areas (no publications yet) »Expect to see some in the next few years!

11 11 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Clean Slate Program Wireless Spectrum Usage Motivation: Wireless spectrum use is inefficient »Inefficiency is due to out-dated FCC regulation of the spectrum »New model examines spectrum allocation by way of: Game Theory Distributed Control Current results are in game theory »“Competition in Wireless Systems via Bayesian Interference Games” - Sachin Adlakha, Ramesh Johari, Andrea Goldsmith (still in peer review) »Demonstrates Nash equilibria for “interference games” with incomplete information. Shows a need for a regulatory protocol to avoid a suboptimal equilibrium.

12 12 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Clean Slate Program Fast Dynamic Optical Light Paths Motivation: Internet backbone routers are connected by static circuits »Requires overprovisioning (capacity and computation) »Serious problem with cost, power consumption, heat dissipation Suggestion »Use photonic switching in the core One tenth the cost and power, 10x speed »Make the transport layer aware of switching possibilities Access routers dynamically set up and tear down paths through a core optical mesh

13 13 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Clean Slate Program Enterprise Network Security Motivation: Enterprise network management is complex and error prone »Security is usually dependant on specialized middleboxes »Heterogeneous device management interfaces New management architecture: Ethane »Policy declared over high-level names »Traffic paths determined by policy »Strong binding between packet and origin Published in SigComm 2007 “Ethane: Taking Control of the Enterprise”

14 14 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Clean Slate Program Ethane (cont’d) »Ethane is a real system in use at Stanford »Centralized control architecture Experimental results show management scales to at least 25,000 nodes on a single commodity PC »Low-level switches have flow tables that describe allowable traffic »Traffic not matching any existing flow is forwarded to controller »Controller allows or denies flow, establishes new filters in switches along the path and forwards packet along Ethane switches implemented in: »802.11g wireless (OpenWRT) »NetFPGA Card »Linux PC (for rapid deployment) Ethane switches are simpler than full ethernet switches Figure from SigComm07 Ethane Paper

15 15 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Clean Slate Program Rate Control Protocol (RCP) Motivation: Current congestion control is inefficient for shorter flows »90% of flows never leave Slow Start »STCP/FastTCP/XCP are inefficient for today’s typical flow (1000 packets) RCP – Processor Sharing for rate control »Packets carry rate estimates »Each router estimates number of flows »If fair rate is less than current rate seen in packet, overwrite it »Performs well in tests Published in numerous conferences, including SigComm CCR 06, Hotnets-IV, International Workshop on QoS (IWQoS05), Infocom06 workshop “The Terabits Challenge”, and Dr. Nandita Dukkipati’s Stanford dissertation.

16 16 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Clean Slate Program NetFPGA Platform Motivation: Hardware acceleration of network algorithms »PCI-based FPGA with 4x1Gbps ethernet ports »On-board queuing »3Gbps board-to-board interconnection »Commercially available Published (MSE'2007) Used to teach a class in building Internet Routers From the NetFPGA Infosheet

17 17 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Clean Slate Program Web Security Projects »Loosely affiliated with the Clean Slate Program Motivation: Attackers target web users »Phishing by spoofed sites, context aware phishing, and password theft Browser extensions for anti-phishing »SpoofGuard: detect spoofed sites and warn the user »PwdHash: generate phishing-resistant passwords »SafeCache, SafeHistory : segment browser cache by origin Publications: SpoofGuard [NDSS’04], PwdHash [Usenix Security Symposium ’05], SafeCache/SafeHistory [ACM WWW ’06]

18 18 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Clean Slate Program Personal thoughts Pro: »Well-motivated projects with good contributions »In conjunction with other projects, Clean Slate offers some tremendous resources. Con: »Deployment strategy is weak. Particularly for the more radical suggestions (E.g., RCP) how can we obtain wide deployment? Some of the single-domain projects can be deployed (Ethane, web browser security) »Approach is somewhat scattershot. There is no “big picture.” On the plus side, this allows focus on the most important individual projects.

19 19 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Contents Internet Ossification Clean Slate »Clean Slate Project Overlays »Planetlab Underlays/Virtualization »Diversified Internet Architecture GENI »Global Environment for Network Innovation

20 20 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Overlays PlanetLab »For researchers, this is the most important overlay to know! Overlay network testbed »Researchers can request a slice of the overlay network for experiments with large-scale services. Deployment platform »Once a new service has been created and tested, it can support a client base of actual users. The paradigm: Experiment to Deployment

21 21 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Overlays What is PlanetLab? Planetlab consists of a large number (>800) of nodes distributed around the world. »Nodes are hosted at participating institutions and companies, with peering links on most major backbone providers »Researchers allocate a slice of Planetlab resources A slice: a set of processing nodes communicate with each other over UDP tunnels (transparent to the experimenter) »All nodes are managed by Planetlab Central (Princeton) Imaged-based network boot Uniform administration Thorough logging for accountability

22 22 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Overlays Slices Diagram courtesy Larry Peterson’s Planetlab Presentation

23 23 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Overlays Slices Diagram courtesy Larry Peterson’s Planetlab Presentation

24 24 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Overlays Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) Node Mgr Local Admin VM 1 VM 2 VM n … Per-Node View Diagram courtesy Larry Peterson’s Planetlab Presentation

25 25 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Overlays Uses of PlanetLab »Too many to list, but some of the major services are: Content Nistribution Networks (CDN) (at least 4) Distributed Hash Table (DHT) (2) DHT-based Name Resolution (1) Location Service (1) Anycast network (1) File transfer networks (4, 2 experiments not running) Network diagnostics (5) Routing overlay (4) Anonymous communication overlay (2) PlanetLab lists 54 papers related to or enabled by Planetlab, and 7 PhDs.

26 26 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Overlays Other overlays »Colyseus DHT-based overlay designed to ease latency constraints by leveraging tolerance for weak consistency. “Colyseus: A Distributed Architecture for Online Multiplayer Games” [NSDI ’06] »Bittorrent Peer-to-peer file transfer. Bittorrent was designed pragmatically, with ad hoc principles. Current research is focused on understanding all of the implications, such as impact on ISPs. »Akamai Unquestionably the most successful CDN. Networking researchers study Akamai to determine what makes this CDN so successful. One interesting paper is “Drafting Behind Akamai” [SigComm ’06], which showed how one-hop routing overlays could use Akamai redirections for improved network performance.

27 27 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Overlays Personal thoughts Pro: »Allow for immediate deployment and testing »Allow for application-aware network forwarding Con: »Underneath, it’s still the same old Internet with the same old flaws (No QoS, no network-level security) …but what about dedicated links? »Nothing truly disruptive can be deployed on an overlay without impacting the Internet

28 28 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Overlays Overlay Hosting Services What if we had dedicated bandwidth connecting distributed overlay nodes? »Overcomes the QoS problem! »Last mile could be short-hop IP tunnels Current barrier to innovative networks is deployment cost. »Single organization could implement an overlay hosting service »Entrepreneurs could contract with the hosting service to deploy new overlay networks Who’d want such a thing? GameRail comes to mind…

29 29 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Contents Internet Ossification Clean Slate »Clean Slate Project Overlays »Planetlab Underlays/Virtualization »Diversified Internet Architecture GENI »Global Environment for Network Innovation

30 30 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Underlays/Virtualization Diversified Internet Architecture »Project here at ARL, Washington University General Concept »Provide a common substrate on top of which new networks will run Metanetworks – “Virtual” is so overloaded today that we’ll co-opt a new name. »Today’s Internet would run as an overlay on top of the substrate »Other metanets would share the same infrastructure Strong isolation guarantees Substrate provides only resource provisioning »Substrate platforms host metarouters »Metarouters connected by provisioned metalinks »Metarouters and metalinks dynamically provisioned on request

31 31 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Underlays/Virtualization substrate platform substrate link metalink metanet protocol stack meta router substrate links may run over Ethernet, IP, MPLS,...

32 32 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Underlays/Virtualization ISPs become substrate domains metanets span multiple domains

33 33 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Underlays/Virtualization Minimize the substrate »Substrate will be hard to change »Keep it simple, allow metanets to provide complex services »Provide raw resources to metanets, and nothing else! »Support diversity of resource types Metanets provide all interesting functionality »Host mobility: metanet requests metalink changes as hosts move »Security: substrate enables metanets to provide security Spoofless networks: metalinks provide point-to-point connectivity »End-to-end delivery: metanet handles routing, reliability, etc.

34 34 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Underlays/Virtualization What’s new here? Resource provisioning is a core concept. »All metalinks have performance guarantees, although “Best Effort” is a valid option »Metalinks extend all the way to the network edge »Hosting platforms are open for metarouters »Isolation is strictly enforced …unless a metanet wants to interact with another metanet! Barriers to innovation are reduced »Metanet providers lease resources from substrate providers 12-month lease on 4 metarouters and 50 metalinks: cheaper than running miles of cable! Pay for right now… or make long-term leases for long-term plans

35 35 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Underlays/Virtualization Personal thoughts Pro: »No longer such a thing as a disruptive technology »Denial of Service attacks mitigated – isolation and leased resources »Barriers to innovation reduced »Maintains backward compatibility – today’s Internet makes an acceptable metanet Provides a deployment direction »All of the Clean Slate projects help support a Diversified Internet Con: »Years from development, let alone deployment »Virtualized platforms are always slower or more expensive than native platforms.

36 36 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Contents Internet Ossification Clean Slate »Clean Slate Project Overlays »Planetlab Underlays »Diversified Internet Architecture GENI »Global Environment for Network Innovation

37 37 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 GENI »Global Environment for Network Innovation NSF funded program to develop a large scale experimental facility for network innovation. Compatibility with the Internet is not required. »Many ideas from PlanetLab – virtualization still key »Focus is on the network, not applications »Security, Mobility »Resource control, Isolation »High performance platforms (10Gbps)

38 38 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 GENI Goals: Slices, like PlanetLab Wide deployment, like PlanetLab Experiment to Deployment, like PlanetLab Resource Broker, like the DIA Isolation, like the DIA Enable “Clean Slate” types of experiments Instrumentation / Sensors – to track experiments Is GENI the next Internet? »Maybe, maybe not. GENI is for experimentation. However, the ideas developed in GENI will certainly be a part of it.

39 39 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Conclusions These are some of the approaches to the Next-Gen Internet architecture. »Clean Slate »Overlays »Underlays/Virtualization Right now, PlanetLab gives the best “immediate gratification.” GENI aims to be the next step.

40 40 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Questions?

41 41 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 Supplemental Slides

42 42 - Michael Wilson - 5/4/2015 RCP Algorithm From Nandita Dukkipati’s presentation on RCP


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