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The Rock Cycle in Michigan Prepared by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Office of Geological Survey.

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Presentation on theme: "The Rock Cycle in Michigan Prepared by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Office of Geological Survey."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Rock Cycle in Michigan Prepared by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Office of Geological Survey

3 What is the Rock Cycle ?

4 Rock Cycle RocksNatural Processes The Rock Cycle explains how Rocks and Natural Processes are related weathering melting pressure, heat Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous

5 is a sequence of events involving the formation, alteration, destruction, and reformation of rocks as a result of natural processes... Glossary of Geology, Bates & Jackson, AGI Rock CycleRock CycleRock CycleRock Cycle A more traditional definition is:

6 Rock Cycle. We will use the graphic seen in the background to help represent the Rock Cycle. There are many ways to show the various relationships between the rocks and the related natural processes.

7 let’s review some basic information … Rock Cycle Before we look at the Rock Cycle in detail,

8 Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle involves the recognition of three main classes of rocks. All three types are found in Michigan. The three rock types are …

9 CEMETERY METABOLIC INGENIOUS Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Igneous Rocks Right?

10 James Hutton Rock Cycle The eminent 18th century lawyer, doctor, gentleman farmer and founder of modern geoscience, James Hutton, developed the concept of the Rock Cycle to show how rocks and natural, physical processes are interrelated.

11 The understanding of the world in the 18 th century was different from today …

12 Hutton knew about solar energy and gravity at the surface. He did not know about radioactive heating from inside the earth. Rock Cycle As a result, the Rock Cycle will be self-sustaining for thousands of millions of years. Rock Cycle Solar energy, gravity and radioactive heating are the major forces driving the Rock Cycle.

13 Rock Cycle How does an antique concept like the Rock Cycle hold up in light of contemporary data and scientific thinking?

14 Of special interest is Plate Tectonics.

15 The mantle, crust and surface of the earth can be thought of as a giant recycling machine; rocks are neither created nor destroyed, but redistributed and transformed from one rock type to another. I M S

16 If you were to ask a geologist what the earth is … What do you think the response would be?

17 Diagram of the Interior of the Earth Crust 0 to 40 km 0°C Upper Mantle 40 to 670 km 1,000°C Lower Mantle 670 to 2,890 km 2,000°C Outer Core 2,890 to 5,150 km 3,700°C Inner Core 5,150 to 6,370 km 4,300°C

18 lets move to some of the smallest components of Geology … Now that we better understand the largest components of Geology …

19 . Minerals make up rocks. Natural compounds and elements combine to form minerals. Elements combine to form the natural compounds. Rocks make up the Earth. There is a hierarchy to the elements of Geology Atoms make up elements.

20 Elements can be arranged, based on their identifiable properties, into the Periodic Table Atomic Theory proposes that all matter is composed of the atoms of about 100 different chemical elements. It further proposes that chemical compounds are formed by the combination of the atoms of different chemical elements.

21 eight Only eight elements make up over 98% of the earth’s crust ! MgNa K O SiAl FeCa

22 . Minerals make up rocks. Natural compounds and elements combine to form minerals. Elements combine to form the natural compounds. Rocks make up the Earth. There is a hierarchy to the elements of Geology Atoms make up elements. What are Minerals? How can we tell what they are?

23 The identifiable characteristics of Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic elements or compounds having an orderly internal structure and a characteristic chemical composition and a characteristic chemical composition, crystal form and physical properties of a solid

24 There are over 300 minerals found in Michigan. alunite, amethyst, amphibole, analcite, anatase, andalusite, andesine, andradite, anglesite, anhydrite, ankerite, annabergite, anorthite, anthonyite, anthophyllite, anthraconite, anthraxolite, antigorite, apatite, aphrosiderite, apophyllite, aragonite, ardennite, argentoalgodonite, arsenopyrite, asbestos, atacamite, attapulgite, augite,awarurite, axinite, azurite, babingtonite, baddeleyite, barite, bassetite, bastnaesite, beaconite, beryl, biotite, bismuthinite, blomstrandine, bornite, bowlingite, brannerite, braunite, brochantite, bronzite, brookite, brucite, brunsvigite, buttgenbachite, byssolite, bytownite, calciovolborthite, calcite, calderite, calumetite, carnallite, carnelian, celadonite, celestite, cerargyrite, chabazite, chalcedony, chalcocite, chalconatronite, chalcopyrite, chalcotrichite, chamosite, chert, chloanthite, chlorargyrite, chlorastrolite, chlorite, clinochlore, clino-chrysotile, clinozoisite, collophane, columbite, copiapite, copper, coquimbite, cordierite, corrensite, corundum, covellite, crocidolite, cubanite, cummingtonite, cuprite, dahllite, datolite, daubreelite, delessite, diabantite, diallage, diamond, dickite, digenite, dihydrite, diopside, dioptase, djurleite, dolomite, domeykite, forsterite, francolite, freirinite, fuchsite, fulgurite, galena, garnet, garnierite, gersdorffite, gibbsite, glauconite, goethite, gold, halite, halloysite, halotrichite, harmotome, heterosite, heulandite, hisingerite, hollandite, hornblende, hyacinth, hydrocarbon, hydrohausmannite, hydromica, hydromuscovite, hydrotroilite, hypersthene, iddingsite, illite, ilmenite, isle royale greenstone, jacksonite, jacobsite, jasper, jaspilite, julgoldite, kamacite, kamiokite, kaolinite, kearsargeite, keweenawite, kinoite, koutekite, kupfferite, kutnahorite, kyanite, labradorite, langite, laumontite, lavendulan, lead, lechetelierite, ledouxite, leonhardite, lepidocrocite, lepidolite, manganoan siderite, manganocalcite, marcasite, margarite, marmolite, martite, masonite, maucherite, melaconite, melanochalcite, melanterite, melilite, mercury, mesolite, meta-autunite, metatorbernite, metatyuyamunite, microcline, millerite, minnesotaite, mirabilite, mohawk-algodonite, mohawkite, molybdenite, monazite, montmorillonite, muscovite, nacrite, nantokite, natrojarosite, natrolite, neltnerite, neotocite, niccolite, nontronite, oligoclase, oligonite, olivenite, olivine, orientite, orthoclase, ottrelite, palygorskite, paragonite, paramelaconite, pararammelsbergite, paratacamite, pargasite, patricianite, paxite, pectolite, pennine, pentlandite, peristerite, perthite, pharmacolite, phengite, phillipsite, phlogopite, phosphides, phosphorite, picrolite, picropharmacolite, pigeonite, pistacite, pitchblende, plagioclase, plancheite, plessite, polyhalite, posnjakite, powellite, prehnite, priorite, prochlorite, protolithionite, pyrolusite, pyrope, pyrophyllite, pyrostilpnite, pyroxene, pyrrhotite, quartz, rammelsbergite, rauenthalite, rhodochrosite, rhodonite, riebeckite, ripidolite, roscoelite, rubellan, rutherfordine, rutile, salite, salt, sanidine, saponite, saussurite, scapolite, scheelite, schefferite, schorl, schreibersite, scolectite, seamanite, semi- whitneyite, sericite, serpentine, siderite, silicon, sillimanite, silver, smaltite, smectite, soapstone, specularite, spessartite, sphalerite, sphene, spinel, spodumene, staurolite, steatite, stellerite, stibiodomeykite, stilbite, stilpnomelane, stinkstone, strontianite, sulfur, sussexite, sylvanite, sylvite, synchisite, szaibelyite, taenite, talc, tantalite, tellurium, tenorite, tetrahedrite, thomsonite, thuringite, tirodite, titanite, titanomagnetite, topaz, tourmaline, tremolite, trichalcite, tridymite, troilite, tyrolite, uralite, uraninite, uranothorite, uvarovite, vaterite,, vesuvianite, violarite, viridite, vivianite, vladimirite, wairakite, whitneyite, williamsite, wollastonite, wurtzite, xanthosiderite, xonotlite, zeolite, zircon, zoisite, zonochlorite Each mineral has its own set of uniquely identifiable properties or characteristics

25 Minerals combine to form Rocks

26 Rocks Some Rocks are made up of just one mineral - like the sedimentary rock salt (made up of the mineral halite) that is mined near Detroit. Rocks Others Rocks are made up of many minerals - like the igneous rock granite and the metamorphic rock gneiss, found near Marquette.

27 Now that some of the basics have been covered, lets consider some of the details about the Rock Cycle

28 Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle weathering Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous Rocks are weathered, eroded, transported, deposited,and lithified to form sedimentary rocks

29 The igneous rock granite can be physically weathered to produce clay and sand. Becoming a SEDIMENTARY ROCK … Sand can become sandstone. Clay can become shale These sediments can be transported deposited and lithified to form sedimentary rocks.

30 The metamorphic rock gneiss can be physically weathered to produce clay and sand. Becoming a SEDIMENTARY ROCK … Sand can become sandstone. Clay can become shale These sediments can be transported deposited and lithified to form sedimentary rocks.

31 Sedimentary rocks can be physically weathered to produce sediments that can become other sedimentary rocks. Becoming a SEDIMENTARY ROCK …

32 Chemical weathering dissolves the minerals in rocks. The resulting dissolved compounds could form evaporites like rock salt or rock gypsum or chemical precipitates like some kinds of limestones. What forms depends upon composition and depositional environment factors. H 2 O + CO 2  H 2 CO 3 2KAlSi 3 O 8 + 2H + + H 2 O  Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 + 2K + + 4SiO 2 Becoming a SEDIMENTARY ROCK …

33 Generalized Bedrock Geology of Michigan Igneous and Metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks In Michigan, sedimentary rocks make up the bedrock in the eastern northern, and southern peninsulas.

34 Generalized Bedrock Geology of Michigan Igneous and Metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks Sedimentary rocks found in Michigan include: sandstone, shale, limestone, rock salt, and rock gypsum.

35 Michigan has been sculpted by four major glacial advances in last 1.8 million years during the Pleistocene Epoch. As the ice advances it can scour the bedrock and move a lot of material. When the ice retreats, sediments are deposited and new set of landforms exist.

36 In Michigan, we live on top of a complex group of sediments that were deposited by the Glaciers. Generalized Quaternary Geology of Michigan What will these sediments become?

37 Glacial deposits Let’s look at the Devonian age sedimentary rocks in Michigan. bedrock on which they are resting. are much younger than the

38 The State Stone the ”Petoskey Stone” is a fossil coral (Hexagonaria percarinata) that lived in middle Devonian age seas some 375 million years ago. The rocks that formed in that environment are mostly limestones.

39 Some Devonian life forms that existed were similar, while others were very different from what we know today.

40 This map of the globe shows one possible interpretation of the distribution of land and water during middle Devonian time. MI Do you know where, what is now Michigan, would be?

41 Middle Devonian rocks are made up of many different sedimentary rock formations. These rocks are shown in blue. Middle Devonian Rocks in Michigan

42 Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle melting Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous Igneous Rocks form from molten rock or magma in the subsurface or from lava extruded at the surface

43 Becoming an IGNEOUS ROCK … When magma cools to a solid it becomes an igneous rock. Molten rock is called magma. Any existing rock – igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary - can be subjected to enough heat and or pressure causing it to melt. The kind of igneous rock formed depends on what was melted and how it cooled. Igneous rocks are classified based on their mineral composition and texture.

44 Generalized Bedrock Geology of Michigan Igneous and Metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks In Michigan, igneous rocks make up the bedrock in the western northern peninsula.

45 basaltgranite granodiorite rhyolite pegmatite Igneous rocks found in Michigan include:

46 pressure, heat Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle Pressure, heat and fluids metamorphic rocks Pressure, heat and fluids cause preexisting rocks or sediments to become metamorphic rocks

47 Becoming a METAMORPHIC ROCK … When the prefix meta is applied to a rock name that means that the original rock has been metamorphosed. If the igneous rock basalt is exposed to sufficient heat and or pressure it can be transformed into the metamorphic rock call metabasalt

48 Becoming a METAMORPHIC ROCK … If the sedimentary rock sandstone is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock quartzite. If the sedimentary rock limestone or dolomite is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock marble. If the sedimentary rock shale is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock slate.

49 Becoming a METAMORPHIC ROCK … If the metamorphic rock phyllite is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock schist. If the metamorphic rock slate is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock phyllite If the metamorphic rock schist is metamorphosed it can become the metamorphic rock gneiss.

50 Generalized Bedrock Geology of Michigan Igneous and Metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks In Michigan, metamorphic rocks make up the bedrock in the western northern peninsula. DEQ GSD - The Rock Cycle in Michigan - February 2001

51 Generalized Bedrock Geology of Michigan Igneous and Metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks found in Michigan include: iron ore, schist, slate, quartzite, marble, and gneiss DEQ GSD - The Rock Cycle in Michigan - February 2001

52 Michigan's State Gemstone is chlorastrolite a variety of pumpellyite. Also called greenstone and ‘Isle Royal Greenstone’. It is a metamorphic mineral found in altered igneous rocks (basalts, and diabases). DEQ GSD - The Rock Cycle in Michigan - February 2001

53 weathering melting pressure, heat Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle does not go in just one direction. Any given rock can go through any part of the cycle any number of times. DEQ GSD - The Rock Cycle in Michigan - February 2001

54 weathering melting pressure, heat Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle Rock Cycle I hope you better understand the Rock Cycle and what it means. DEQ GSD - The Rock Cycle in Michigan - February 2001 Please any comments about this program to Steve Wilson: - thanks

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