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Types of Rock There are 3 types of rock: Sedimentary Metamorphic

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Rock There are 3 types of rock: Sedimentary Metamorphic"— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Rock There are 3 types of rock: Sedimentary Metamorphic
Igneous

2 Sedimentary Rock – Deposition
Fast flowing water Slow water Pressure sedimentation cementation Small particles of rock formed by weathering are transported into the sea where they are deposited (sink) and form a sediment. At this stage dead creatures may become trapped within the sediment giving rise to fossils. Over millions of years, the pressure of the layers formed above and the effects of salts cement the sediment together to give sedimentary rocks like sandstone and mudstone.

3 Sedimentary Rock – Sedimentation
Sedimentation + effects of pressure and minerals. Layers of sediments getting older

4 Sedimentary Rock - Evaporation
Some sedimentary rock is formed in a different way. Certain minerals are dissolved in seas and lakes. Over millions of years these seas or lakes have dried up. As the water disappeared the dissolved minerals precipitated. Chalk and limestone, common in the UK, are often formed in this way. Dissolved minerals Precipitation Pressure evaporation

5 Sedimentary Rock - appearance
Sedimentary rocks consist of lots of small particles and may be soft and crumbly They do not normally contain crystals but may have fossils trapped within them. When viewing a whole cliff face of sedimentary rock it is often possible to see layers where slightly different sediments have been deposited. Sedimentary rocks consist of lots of small particles.

6 Sedimentary Rocks sandstone sandstone limestone chalk

7 sandstone orangey coloured rock
looks like lots of sand grains stuck together quite soft

8 limestone grey/white coloured rock mostly made from crushed sea-shells
may contain fossilised shells

9 chalk grey/white coloured rock. mostly made from crushed sea-shells
may contain fossilised shells

10 Match the rock with the description: Rock Picture
Sandstone Limestone Mudstone and shale Chalk

11 Metamorphic Rock - formation
Metamorphic rocks are formed by the effect of extreme pressures and temperatures deep within the Earth. This alters the structure of the existing rock.

12 Metamorphic Rock - properties
They are usually denser and harder than sedimentary rocks. They often have layer structures of crystals caused by the effect of heat and pressure. They sometimes show distortions caused by the movements that led to their formation. This may give rise to wavy or zig-zag patterns within the rock. Regular layers of crystals that sometimes also have a wavy or zig-zag arrangement

13 Metamorphic Rocks marble slate Enlargements on next two slides

14 marble High temperatures cause the shells in limestone to break down into crystals giving a harder smoother rock.

15 slate Pressure and some heat makes the particles in mudstone line up in one direction. This makes a rock that can be split into sheets.

16 Which description goes with the rock?
Dark grey rock used for roofing because it is easily split into thin layers. Marble Smooth, hard white rock often used for kitchen cutting “boards.” Mica Transparent sheets are used as an insulator in some electrical devices. It is also ground up and used as a “filler” in plastics, and cosmetics such as lipsticks. Slate

17 Igneous Rocks - Formation
Deep within the ground is molten rock called magma. Sometimes this bursts through the surface in the form of volcanoes. Igneous rocks are formed when molten magma cools and solidifies. This may happen within the ground, or in the case of volcano lava, above ground. magma intrusive igneous rock extrusive igneous rock

18 Igneous Rocks – Rate of Solidification
The appearance of igneous rocks is affected by how fast they cool. Rocks formed within the ground are known as intrusive igneous rocks . They cool slowly and this gives time for large crystals to grow. Rocks formed once the magma has burst through the surface are called extrusive igneous. They cool quickly. As a result crystals are much smaller.

19 Igneous Rocks - intrusive
granite A hard grey rock consisting of randomly arranged crystals.

20 Igneous Rocks - extrusive
pumice Extrusive igneous rocks, like pumice and basalt, do not have large crystals and tend to be less dense than intrusive rocks like granite.

21 Igneous Rocks - extrusive
basalt - pillars

22 Igneous Rocks – Properties
Igneous rocks are hard. They contain crystals. The the size of the crystals depends on how quickly the rock solidified. The crystals are disordered (unlike some metamorphic rocks.) They never contain fossils. Igneous rocks consist of a disorderly collection of crystals

23 Am I igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic?
I contain many fossils. I am pumice. My particles are arranged in bands that are easily split apart. I contain many small grains “cemented” together. I am mudstone. I contain some really big crystals. I am formed by heat and pressure. Description Type metamorphic igneous (intr) sedimentary sedimentary metamorphic igneous (ext) sedimentary

24 Metamorphic rocks slate and marble
Rock Formation rocks are broken up by the action of weather transportation and deposition volcano rocks rise to surface by uplift and erosion Igneous rocks basalt sea Igneous rocks granites Sedimentary rocks mudstone rises to surface where it cools rapidly high pressure and temperature slow solidification Metamorphic rocks slate and marble melt magma

25 Fill in the gaps in the sentences.
Rocks take part in a rock cycle. Molten ___________ solidifies at or near the surface of the Earth to form ___________ rocks. These undergo ___________ where they are broken up by ___________ and chemical processes. magma igneous weathering physical magma igneous weathering physical sedimentary metamorphic

26 Fill in the gaps in the sentences.
The fragments of rock are carried to the ___________ by rivers. Here they sink and form ___________ rocks. Over millions of years heat, ___________ and movement may change these sedimentary rocks into ___________ rocks. Some of these will sink deep into the Earth and turn into ___________ and the cycle is repeated. sea sedimentary pressure metamorphic magma magma igneous pressure sea sedimentary metamorphic

27 What type of rocks do these diagram represent?
igneous metamorphic sedimentary

28 1. What type of rock is granite?
A Intrusive Igneous B Extrusive Igneous C Metamorphic D Sedimentary

29 2. What type of rock is slate?
A Intrusive Igneous B Extrusive Igneous C Metamorphic D Sedimentary

30 3. What type of rock is limestone?
A Intrusive Igneous B Extrusive Igneous C Metamorphic D Sedimentary

31 4. What type of rocks are pumice and basalt?
A Intrusive Igneous B Extrusive Igneous C Metamorphic D Sedimentary

32 5. What type of rock is mudstone?
A Intrusive Igneous B Extrusive Igneous C Metamorphic D Sedimentary

33 6. What type of rocks is made from mudstone or shale?
A Pumice B Limestone C Slate D Granite

34 7. In this diagram showing a cross section of a volcano, where would granite form?
B 2 1 2


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