2Chapter Preview: We will be looking at: 1. How psychology has developed as a science2. The six major perspectives of psychology3. The three major issues that cut across psychology4. An overview of the major subfields of psychology.
3Chapter Objectives:Lesson 1: Define psychology and trace its historical development.Lesson 2: Explain how psychology’s different perspectives contribute to a complete view of the human form.Lesson 3: Identify the major subfields of psychology.
4History of Psychology: People have been studying human behavior for thousands of years. (Examples: Romans, Egyptians, Indians)This was good, but was not done in an organized manner.Psychology as a science has a very short history.Some scientists still call psychology a “soft” science.
5Roots of Psychology:Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.Let’s break down the definitionBehavior – Anything that you do that can be observed.Mental Processes – Internal experiences such as: thoughts, feelings, sensations, and perceptions.Systematic Study: Systematic collection and examination of data (empirical evidence) to support or disprove hypotheses (predictions) rather than depending on common sense.
6Today, psychology is defined as the: Study of mental phenomenonStudy of conscious and unconscious activityStudy of BehaviorScience of behavior and mental processes
7Key Players in the History of Psychology: Roots of psychology can be traced back 2000 years ago to the early philosophers, biologists, and physiologists of ancient Greece.Hippocrates – Greek Physiologist that thought the mind or soul resided in the brain.He believed that it was not composed of a physical substance.This is called mind-body-dualism – seeing mind and body as two different things that interact.Can anyone lend this guy some facial moisturizer?
8Key Players in the History of Psychology: Plato (350 B.C.) – Greek philosopher that believed that who we are and what we know are innate (inborn).Aristotle – Plato’s student believed that that who we are and what we know are acquired from experience.He also believed in monism – seeing mind and body as different aspects of the same thing.
9Two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of: Philosophy and chemistryPhysiology and chemistryPhilosophy and physiologyPhilosophy and physicsAnswer Now
10Key Players in the History of Psychology: About 2000 yrs. later John Locke and Rene Descartes had a similar argument.John Locke – Believed that knowledge comes from observation, and what we know comes from experience.He coined the term “tabula rasa” – blank slate.“The mind is like a blank slate in which the environment writes upon.”Rene Descartes – Believed that what we know is innate.“I think therefore I am.”
11Plato Aristotle Descartes Locke Answer Now The 17th century philosopher who believed that the mind is blank at birth and that most knowledge comes through sensory experience is:PlatoAristotleDescartesLockeAnswer Now
12Aristotle Plato Descartes Simonides The Greek philosopher who believed that intelligence was inherited was:AristotlePlatoDescartesSimonidesAnswer Now
13Nature vs. Nurture Controversy: The debate about the extent to which our behavior is inborn or learned through experience is called the nature vs. nurture controversy.Nature: Certain elementary ideas are innate to the human mind; not gained through experienceMen are born, not made
14Nature vs. Nurture (cont.) Nurture: Anything that we know, we have learned through experience.Our mind is like a blank slate (tabula rasa; Locke) that the environment writes uponMen are made, not bornWhere do the Spartans fall into this nature vs. nurture controversy?
15Which of the following exemplifies the issue of the relative importance of nature and nurture on our behavior?The issue of the relative influence of biology and experience on behaviorThe issue of the relative influence of rewards and punishments on behaviorThe debate as to the relative importance of heredity and instinct in determining behaviorThe debate as to whether mental processes are a legitimate are of scientific study
16Lesson Two: Approaches and Schools of Psychology: Not all psychologists look at psychology the same way.Some believe that you are who you are purely because of your genetics.Some believe that experiences play a much bigger factor.Psychology is a broad field that aims to answer questions from many different perspectives.We are going to look at the different schools and approaches to psychology.
17Lesson 2: Approaches and Schools of Psychology: By the late 1800’s, psychology was beginning to emerge as a separate scientific discipline.Biologist Charles Darwin came up with the theory of natural selection.Psychology branched into two schools of psychology (structuralism and functionalism) and from there several approaches to psychology.
18Structuralism: Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Wundt – Credited as the founder of scientific psychology because in 1879 he set up a research laboratory in Germany.The lab was dedicated to the scientific study of conscious experiences and sensations.Introspection – the process of looking inward to identify how one feels, thinks, or acts.His research was considered effective because he replicated his studies in different conditions with similar results.Other members of the structuralist movement were: Edward Tichener and G. Stanley Hall (founded the APA)
20Functionalism: William James: William James was a psychologist that felt that Wundt was asking the wrong questions.James was more interested in the function or purpose of behavioral acts.Functionalists – Researchers that focused on how we adapt to our environments. (stream of consciousness)Main Goal: Explain human behavior
21Seven Approaches to Psychology: Behavioral Behavioral Approach – Focuses on measuring and recording observable behavior. (behavior results from learning)Pavlov and his dogs, Watson and Baby Albert, Skinner and his rats. (rewards, punishments, and associations)All these men believed that psychology should be the science of behavior.
22In psychology, “behavior” is best defined as: Anything a person says, does, or feelsAny action we can observe and recordAny action, whether observable or notAnything we can infer from a person’s actions
23Seven Approaches to Psychology: Psychoanalytic / Psychodynamic Psychoanalytic Approach – Focuses on unconscious internal conflicts to explain mental disorders, personality, and motivation.Sigmund Freud developed this approach and focused on unconscious desires (Freudian slips, life and death instincts, libido, early life experiences.Psychodynamic Approach – Those that varied Freud’s ideas but kept with the roots of psychoanalysis.
24Seven Approaches to Psychology: Humanistic Humanistic Approach – Emphases the importance of people’s feelings and view human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking.Abraham Maslow (Hierarchy of Needs) and Carl Rogers (Unconditional Positive Regard) led the charge.This approach came out the 60’s and 70’s.
25According to Maslow, these needs must be met before all others. SafetyLove and BelongingnessPhysiologicalEsteem Needs
26Seven Approaches to Psychology: Biological Biological Approach – Examines how complex chemical and biological processes within the nervous and endocrine systems are related to the behavior of organisms.Much research is being done today using this approach – Brain based research.
27Seven Approaches to Psychology: Cognitive Cognitive Approach – Emphasizes the importance of receiving, storing, and processing information.It also focuses on thinking, reasoning, and using language to understand human behavior.Cognition – thinking and memory.
28Seven Approaches to Psychology: Evolutionary Evolutionary Approach –Attempts to explain behavior patterns as adaptations naturally selected to increase reproductive success.This approach uses Darwin’s theory of natural selection as a basis.Darwin wrote Origin of Species.
29Seven Approaches to Psychology: Socio-cultural As time progressed more people were traveling and visiting other cultures.Psychologists soon recognized the difference in cultural gestures, body language, and spoken language.Socio-cultural Approach – Examines the cultural differences in an attempt to understand, predict, and control behavior.
30Behavioral Socio-Cultural Neuroscience Cognitive This approach to psychology focuses on rewards, punishments, and associations.BehavioralSocio-CulturalNeuroscienceCognitive
31Evolutionary Socio-Cultural Behavioral Cognitive 20 The way the mind processes, stores, and retrieves information is the primary concern of this approach to psychology:EvolutionarySocio-CulturalBehavioralCognitive20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
32Skinner Pavlov Watson Freud Basich This researcher used classical conditioning to make dogs salivate by the sound of a bell.SkinnerPavlovWatsonFreudBasich
33Watson Rogers Skinner Jung This Humanistic psychologist encouraged his clients to always focus on the positive.WatsonRogersSkinnerJung
34Which perspective best explains Andrea Yates? Discuss.
35Lesson 3: Subfields of Psychology: Psychology is a broad fieldThere are many jobs available with a psychology degreeHistorically though, this wasn’t always the case.Psychology saw a huge boom after World War II.Many opportunities arose in clinical and counseling psychology.In addition, school psychology started to become more popular as researchers data indicated that children perform better when they are taught using their respective learning style(s).
36Subfields of Psychology: Clinical Psychologists – Evaluate and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. (OCD, Schizophrenia)Counseling Psychologists – Help people adapt to change or make changes in their lifestyle. (Analyze This)Developmental Psychologists – Study psychological development throughout a lifespan. (Piaget)Engineering Psychologists – Do research on how people function best with machines. (assembly lines)
37Subfields of Psychology: Educational Psychologists – Focus on how effective teaching and learning take place. (consultants)Forensic Psychologists – Apply psychological principles to legal issues. (crimes)Health Psychologists – Concentrate on biological, psychological, and social factors associated with health and illness. (hospitals)Industrial/Organizational Psychologists – Aim to improve productivity and the quality of work life by applying psychological principles and methods to the workplace. (Panera)
38Subfields of Psychology: Neuro-psychologists – Explore the relationship between brain/nervous systems and behavior. (Laboratory research)Psychometricians – Focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data. (research based)Rehabilitation Psychologists – Help clients with mental retardation, developmental disabilities, and disabilities resulting from neurological injury. (stroke)School Psychologists – Assess and counsel students, consult with educators and parents, and perform behavioral intervention when necessary. (Mrs. Waikem)
39Subfields of Psychology: Social Psychologists – Focus on how a person’s mental life and behavior are shaped by interactions with other people. (can be workplace related)Sports Psychologists – Help athletes refine their focus on competition goals, increase motivation, and deal with anxiety and fear of failure. (Professional Athletes)
40Which of the following individuals is also a physician? Clinical psychologistExperimental psychologistPsychiatristDevelopmental Psychologist
41Counseling Psychologist Clinical Psychologist Forensic Psychologist A person working within this subfield of psychology might work closely with their local police department to explain the behavior of a suspect.Health PsychologistCounseling PsychologistClinical PsychologistForensic Psychologist