2Outline Classification of Source Quarrying Dressing Qualities Testing UsesTypes and their Uses
3Classification of Rocks Geological ClassificationIgneous rocksFormed by cooling of molten lavaUn-stratified rocksE.g. Granite, Basalt, TrapSedimentary RocksFormed from weathering deposits (sediments)by wind or waterStratified rocksSolidified to rocks due to compaction caused intense pressure from overlaying sediments.E.g. Sandstone, Gypsum, Lime stone, peatMetamorphic rocksChanged from igneous or sedimentary rocksFoliated ricksChanged due to intense heat or pressure inside earthE.g. Marble, Slate, Laterite Gneiss, Quartzite
4Classification of Rocks Chemical classificationSiliceous rocks:Silica (SiO2) is the major constituentGranite, SandstoneArgillaceous rocks:Clay is the main constituentSlate, LateriteCalcareous rocks:Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) is the main constituentLimestone, marble
5Quarrying(Extraction Of Stones) The Process of extracting or taking out stones from rock beds is known as quarrying of stones.A Mine is one in which the process is carried on.Methods Of QuarryingDigging or excavating, heating, wedgingFor soft rocks like limestone, marbleBlasting-blasting rocks with explosivesFor hard dense rocks like granite, basalt
6Dressing Of Stones Stones obtained from quarrying have rough surface Dressing is the process of cutting the stones into regular shape and size with the required finished surface.PurposeSuitable sizeRegular shape and pleasing appearanceProper bedding for stone masonry
7Qualities of A Good stone Crushing strength >100 N/sq.mmUniform colorFine crystalline structure, strong and should be durableEasy to carve and dressBuilding stone should be sharp and clearStones used in road work must be hard enoughWear and tear < 3% Wear and tear = 3% (tolerable) Wear and tear >3% (not satisfactory)Specific gravity >2.7Should not absorb water more than 0.6% by weightAcid resistant, fire resitant
8Testing Of Stones(Exam Point Of View) Hardness Test: tested by pen knife which will not produce scratchImpact Test(Toughness): tested by impact test machine.Test for crushing strength: crushing strength= max load at failureArea of bearing faceMicroscopic Test: to study properties like Mineral constitution, texture, average grain size etcAttrition/Abrasion Test: to test % of wear of stones in Deval’s attritions test. % wear=(Loss in weight/initial weight) *100Smith’s Test: to find presence of earthly matter in stone (broken pieces of stone shaken with water vigorously)
9Electrical Resistance Test: resistance of stones is measured from its water absorption capacity (as wet stones have less resistance)Crystallization Test: immersed in a solution of Sod. Sulphate and dried in hot air. Diff in weight if any is recorded and that determines the durability of stonesAcid test: corners of the stone become roundish and loose when kept immersed in HCl or H2SO4 for a long period. This test is carried out in order to determine whether the stone can be used in smoky atmosphereFire Resistance Test: to find its fire resistance, test for the amount of Calcium Carbonate present (Add H2SO4 and you get bubbles)TO REMEMBER THESE POINTS – MASE HIT CAFÉ (E no use)
10Basic UseStone is used in two fundamentally different ways in buildings:It may be laid in mortar, much like bricks or concrete blocks, to make walls, arches, and vaults, a method of construction referred to as stone masonry.It may be mechanically attached to the structural frame or walls of a building as a facing, called stone cladding.As known it is used for construction like construction of walls, columns, arches, roofs, floors etcFor foundation of buildings, damp proof courses etc.Hard stones used for pavements and roads.As a basic material in concrete manufacturing.As flux in blast furnaces, blocks in construction of bridges, piers etc
11Types Of Building Stones GRANITE:Granite is the igneous rock most commonly quarried for construction in North America.Granite is nonporous, hard, strong, and durable, the most nearly permanent of building stonesUSESGranite has been extensively used as a dimension stone and as flooring tiles in public and commercial buildings and monuments.Polished granite is also a popular choice for kitchen countertops due to its high durability and aesthetic qualitiesLife-size elephant and other creatures carved in granite; Mahabalipuram.
12LIMESTONELimestone is one of the two principal sedimentary rock types used in construction.Limestone may be composed either of calcium carbonate (oolitic limestone) or of a mixture of calcium and magnesium carbonates (dolomitic limestone).USESLimestone is very common in architecture, especially in Europe and North America.Manufacture of Cement.DO YOU KNOWSo many buildings in Kingston, Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed the 'Limestone City'.
13SANDSTONESandstone is the second major sedimentary rock type used in building construction.Sandstone was formed in ancient times from deposits of quartz sand (silicon dioxide).USESFlooring: Sandstones are mainly used in paving, flooring, roofing etc. This is very strong that makes it perfect material for flooring.Resistant to Corrosion and weathering.The different shades and patterns of sandstone make garden pavement gorgeous. Sandstone composed mainly of quartz grains
14QUARTZITEQuartzite is a hard metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone.Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure.Pure quartzite is usually white to grey, though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3).USESQuartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls, as roofing tiles, as flooring, and stair steps.Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction .
15Quartzite mine in British Columbia, Canada Quartzite with shades of Red and Pink due to amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3).
16SLATESlate is one of the two metamorphic stone groups utilized in construction.Slate was formed from clay.It is a dense and hard stone.USESSlate can be made into roofing slates, also called roofing shinglesSlate is particularly suitable as a roofing material as it has an extremely low water absorption index of less than 0.4%.Slate tiles are often used for interior and exterior flooring, stairs, walkways and wall cladding.
18MARBLE Marble is the second of the major metamorphic rock groups. In its true geologic form it is a recrystallized form of limestone.It is easily carved and polished and occurs in white, black, and nearly every colour, often with beautiful patterns of veining.USESMainly used for Flooring.Finely ground marble or calcium carbonate powder is a component in paper, and in consumer products such as toothpaste, plastics, and paints.Also for interior decorations.
21Marbles Used In Construction The Taj Mahal is made of marble.Ancient marble columnsin a prayer hall
22CHALKChalk is a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.Calcite is calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It forms under relatively deep marine conditionsUSESChalk is used to make quicklime and slaked lime, mainly used as lime mortar in buildings.
23LATERITELaterites are soil types rich in iron and aluminium, formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are rusty-red because of iron oxides.They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock.USESUsed in wall Construction andrough stone masonry work.
24GRAVELGravel is a rock that is of a specific particle size range. Specifically, it is any loose rock that is larger than 2 mm (0.079 in) in its smallest dimension .The next smaller size class in geology is sand.USESGravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic.Both sand and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of concrete.