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Presentation on theme: "Stones."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stones

2 Outline Classification of Source Quarrying Dressing Qualities Testing
Uses Types and their Uses

3 Classification of Rocks
Geological Classification Igneous rocks Formed by cooling of molten lava Un-stratified rocks E.g. Granite, Basalt, Trap Sedimentary Rocks Formed from weathering deposits (sediments)by wind or water Stratified rocks Solidified to rocks due to compaction caused intense pressure from overlaying sediments. E.g. Sandstone, Gypsum, Lime stone, peat Metamorphic rocks Changed from igneous or sedimentary rocks Foliated ricks Changed due to intense heat or pressure inside earth E.g. Marble, Slate, Laterite Gneiss, Quartzite

4 Classification of Rocks
Chemical classification Siliceous rocks: Silica (SiO2) is the major constituent Granite, Sandstone Argillaceous rocks: Clay is the main constituent Slate, Laterite Calcareous rocks: Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) is the main constituent Limestone, marble

5 Quarrying(Extraction Of Stones)
The Process of extracting or taking out stones from rock beds is known as quarrying of stones. A Mine is one in which the process is carried on. Methods Of Quarrying Digging or excavating, heating, wedging For soft rocks like limestone, marble Blasting-blasting rocks with explosives For hard dense rocks like granite, basalt

6 Dressing Of Stones Stones obtained from quarrying have rough surface
Dressing is the process of cutting the stones into regular shape and size with the required finished surface. Purpose Suitable size Regular shape and pleasing appearance Proper bedding for stone masonry

7 Qualities of A Good stone
Crushing strength >100 N/ Uniform color Fine crystalline structure, strong and should be durable Easy to carve and dress Building stone should be sharp and clear Stones used in road work must be hard enough Wear and tear < 3% Wear and tear = 3% (tolerable) Wear and tear >3% (not satisfactory) Specific gravity >2.7 Should not absorb water more than 0.6% by weight Acid resistant, fire resitant

8 Testing Of Stones(Exam Point Of View)
Hardness Test: tested by pen knife which will not produce scratch Impact Test(Toughness): tested by impact test machine. Test for crushing strength: crushing strength= max load at failure Area of bearing face Microscopic Test: to study properties like Mineral constitution, texture, average grain size etc Attrition/Abrasion Test: to test % of wear of stones in Deval’s attritions test. % wear=(Loss in weight/initial weight) *100 Smith’s Test: to find presence of earthly matter in stone (broken pieces of stone shaken with water vigorously)

9 Electrical Resistance Test: resistance of stones is measured from its water absorption capacity (as wet stones have less resistance) Crystallization Test: immersed in a solution of Sod. Sulphate and dried in hot air. Diff in weight if any is recorded and that determines the durability of stones Acid test: corners of the stone become roundish and loose when kept immersed in HCl or H2SO4 for a long period. This test is carried out in order to determine whether the stone can be used in smoky atmosphere Fire Resistance Test: to find its fire resistance, test for the amount of Calcium Carbonate present (Add H2SO4 and you get bubbles) TO REMEMBER THESE POINTS – MASE HIT CAFÉ (E no use)

10 Basic Use Stone is used in two fundamentally different ways in buildings: It may be laid in mortar, much like bricks or concrete blocks, to make walls, arches, and vaults, a method of construction referred to as stone masonry. It may be mechanically attached to the structural frame or walls of a building as a facing, called stone cladding. As known it is used for construction like construction of walls, columns, arches, roofs, floors etc For foundation of buildings, damp proof courses etc. Hard stones used for pavements and roads. As a basic material in concrete manufacturing. As flux in blast furnaces, blocks in construction of bridges, piers etc

11 Types Of Building Stones
GRANITE: Granite is the igneous rock most commonly quarried for construction in North America. Granite is nonporous, hard, strong, and durable, the most nearly permanent of building stones USES Granite has been extensively used as a dimension stone and as flooring tiles in public and commercial buildings and monuments. Polished granite is also a popular choice for kitchen countertops due to its high durability and aesthetic qualities Life-size elephant and other creatures carved in granite; Mahabalipuram.

12 LIMESTONE Limestone is one of the two principal sedimentary rock types used in construction. Limestone may be composed either of calcium carbonate (oolitic limestone) or of a mixture of calcium and magnesium carbonates (dolomitic limestone). USES Limestone is very common in architecture, especially in Europe and North America. Manufacture of Cement. DO YOU KNOW So many buildings in Kingston, Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed the 'Limestone City'.

13 SANDSTONE Sandstone is the second major sedimentary rock type used in building construction. Sandstone was formed in ancient times from deposits of quartz sand (silicon dioxide). USES Flooring: Sandstones are mainly used in paving, flooring, roofing etc. This is very strong that makes it perfect material for flooring. Resistant to Corrosion and weathering. The different shades and patterns of sandstone make garden pavement gorgeous.  Sandstone composed mainly of quartz grains

14 QUARTZITE Quartzite is a hard metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure. Pure quartzite is usually white to grey, though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). USES Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls, as roofing tiles, as flooring, and stair steps. Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction .

15 Quartzite mine in British Columbia, Canada
Quartzite with shades of Red and Pink due to amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3).

16 SLATE Slate is one of the two metamorphic stone groups utilized in construction. Slate was formed from clay. It is a dense and hard stone. USES Slate can be made into roofing slates, also called roofing shingles Slate is particularly suitable as a roofing material as it has an extremely low water absorption index of less than 0.4%. Slate tiles are often used for interior and exterior flooring, stairs, walkways and wall cladding.

17 Slate roof. Buildings with slate roofs.

18 MARBLE Marble is the second of the major metamorphic rock groups.
In its true geologic form it is a recrystallized form of limestone. It is easily carved and polished and occurs in white, black, and nearly every colour, often with beautiful patterns of veining. USES Mainly used for Flooring. Finely ground marble or calcium carbonate powder is a component in paper, and in consumer products such as toothpaste, plastics, and paints. Also for interior decorations.

19 Different Textures Of Marble

20 Marbles Obtained Form the site
Marble Stone

21 Marbles Used In Construction
The Taj Mahal is made of marble. Ancient marble columns in a prayer hall 

22 CHALK Chalk is a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It forms under relatively deep marine conditions USES Chalk is used to make quicklime and  slaked lime, mainly used as lime mortar  in buildings.

23 LATERITE Laterites are soil types rich in iron and aluminium, formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are rusty-red because of iron oxides. They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. USES Used in wall Construction and rough stone masonry work.

24 GRAVEL Gravel is a rock that is of a specific particle size range. Specifically, it is any loose rock that is larger than 2 mm (0.079 in) in its smallest dimension . The next smaller size class in geology is sand. USES Gravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic. Both sand and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of concrete.

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