Presentation on theme: "AP Psychology Mr. Basich. By the end of this chapter, I will be able to: Recognize how philosophical perspectives shaped the development of psychological."— Presentation transcript:
AP Psychology Mr. Basich
By the end of this chapter, I will be able to: Recognize how philosophical perspectives shaped the development of psychological thought. Describe and compare different theoretical approaches in explaining behavior: — structuralism, functionalism, and behaviorism in the early years; — Gestalt, psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, and humanism emerging later; — evolutionary, biological, and cognitive as more contemporary approaches. Recognize the strengths and limitations of applying theories to explain behavior. Distinguish the different domains of psychology: — biological, clinical, cognitive, counseling, developmental, educational, experimental, human factors, industrial–organizational, personality, psychometric, and social. Identify the major historical figures in psychology (e.g., Mary Whiton Calkins, Charles Darwin, Dorothea Dix, Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, William James, Ivan Pavlov, Jean Piaget, Carl Rogers, B. F. Skinner, Margaret Floy Washburn, John B. Watson, Wilhelm Wundt).
Lesson 1: Define psychology and trace its historical development. Lesson 2: Explain how psychology’s different perspectives contribute to a complete view of the human form. Lesson 3: Identify the major subfields of psychology.
By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Recognize how philosophical perspectives shaped the development of psychological thought. 2. Describe and compare different theoretical approaches in explaining behavior: 3. Identify the major historical figures in psychology
When you hear the word psychology, what words come to mind? Turn to someone next to you and talk about it. What words did you come up with? Why did you pick those words?
People have been studying human behavior for thousands of years. (Examples: Romans, Egyptians, Indians) This was good, but was not done in an organized manner. Psychology as a science has a very short history. Today, psychology focuses much more on quantifying results (observation is not enough)
Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Let’s break down the definition Behavior – Anything that you do that can be observed. Mental Processes – Internal experiences such as: thoughts, feelings, sensations, and perceptions. (harder to observe and quantify) Systematic Study: Systematic collection and examination of data (empirical evidence) to support or disprove hypotheses (predictions) rather than depending on common sense.
Roots of psychology can be traced back 2000 years ago to the early philosophers, biologists, and physiologists of ancient Greece. Hippocrates – Greek Physiologist that thought the mind or soul resided in the brain. He believed that it was not composed of a physical substance. This is called mind-body- dualism – seeing mind and body as two different things that interact. Can anyone lend this guy some facial moisturizer?
Plato (350 B.C.) – Greek philosopher that believed that who we are and what we know are innate (inborn). Aristotle – Plato’s student believed that who we are and what we know are acquired from experience.
About 2000 yrs. later John Locke and Rene Descartes had a similar argument. John Locke – Believed that knowledge comes from observation, and what we know comes from experience. He coined the term “tabula rasa” – blank slate. “The mind is like a blank slate in which the environment writes upon.” Rene Descartes – Believed that what we know is innate. Focused much of his research on how the nervous system responds “I think therefore I am.”
The debate about the extent to which our behavior is inborn or learned through experience is called the nature vs. nurture controversy. Nature: Certain elementary ideas are innate to the human mind; not gained through experience Men are born, not made
Nurture: Anything that we know, we have learned through experience. Our mind is like a blank slate (tabula rasa; Locke) that the environment writes upon Men are made, not born Where do the Spartans fall into this nature vs. nurture controversy?
By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Describe and compare different theoretical approaches in explaining behavior: — structuralism, functionalism, and behaviorism in the early years; — Gestalt, psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, and humanism emerging later; — evolutionary, biological, and cognitive as more contemporary approaches. 2. Recognize the strengths and limitations of applying theories to explain behavior.
Not all psychologists look at psychology the same way. Some believe that you are who you are purely because of your genetics. Some believe that experiences play a much bigger factor. Psychology is a broad field that aims to answer questions from many different perspectives. We are going to look at the different schools and approaches to psychology. But first….. A quick poll to wake you up!
By the late 1800’s, psychology was beginning to emerge as a separate scientific discipline. Biologist Charles Darwin came up with the theory of natural selection. Psychology branched into two schools of psychology (structuralism and functionalism) and from there several approaches to psychology.
Wilhelm Wundt – Credited as the founder of scientific psychology because in 1879 he set up a research laboratory in Germany. The lab was dedicated to the scientific study of conscious experiences and sensations. Introspection – the process of looking inward to identify how one feels, thinks, or acts. he replicated his studies in different conditions with similar results. Wundt helped found the School of Structuralism which aimed to focus on the structure of the mind and indentify the basic elements of consciousness.
William James was a psychologist that felt that Wundt was asking the wrong questions. James was more interested in the function or purpose of behavioral acts. School of Functionalism – Researchers that focused on how we adapt to our environments. (stream of consciousness) Main Goal: Explain human behavior Also wrote first psychology textbook
Max Wertheimer – founded Gestalt Psychology The whole is more than the sum of it’s parts Example: A beautiful painting A painting is more than just colors and line – its an experience So, each person has a completely different experience when viewing the world – must be sensitive to this during therapy.
Behavioral Approach – Focuses on measuring and recording observable behavior. (behavior results from learning) Pavlov and his dogs, Watson and Baby Albert, Skinner and his rats. (rewards, punishments, and associations) All these men believed that psychology should be the science of behavior.
Psychoanalytic Approach – Focuses on unconscious internal conflicts to explain mental disorders, personality, and motivation. Sigmund Freud developed this approach and focused on unconscious desires (Freudian slips, life and death instincts, libido, early life experiences. Psychodynamic Approach – Those that varied Freud’s ideas but kept with the roots of psychoanalysis.
Humanistic Approach – Emphases the importance of people’s feelings and view human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking. Abraham Maslow (Hierarchy of Needs) and Carl Rogers (Unconditional Positive Regard) led the charge. This approach came out the 60’s and 70’s.
Biological Approach – Examines how complex chemical and biological processes within the nervous and endocrine systems are related to the behavior of organisms. Much research is being done today using this approach – Brain based research.
Cognitive Approach – Emphasizes the importance of receiving, storing, and processing information. It also focuses on thinking, reasoning, and using language to understand human behavior. Cognition – thinking and memory.
Evolutionary Approach –Attempts to explain behavior patterns as adaptations naturally selected to increase reproductive success. This approach uses Darwin’s theory of natural selection as a basis. Darwin wrote Origin of Species.
As time progressed more people were traveling and visiting other cultures. Psychologists soon recognized the difference in cultural gestures, body language, and spoken language. Socio-cultural Approach – Examines the cultural differences in an attempt to understand, predict, and control behavior.
The most widely used psychological approach today is eclectic Eclectic – No one perspective can best explain all human behavior So…Eclectic psychologists use a combination of all the approaches
By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Distinguish the different domains of psychology: biological, clinical, cognitive, counseling, developmental, educational, experimental, human factors, industrial–organizational, personality, psychometric, and social.
Psychology saw a huge boom after World War II. Many opportunities arose in clinical and counseling psychology. Psychologist – Treats patients through talk therapy and behavior modification Psychiatrist – Treats patients with medication and behavior modification Careers in Psychology Website Link (APA)Link Zimbardo LinkLink
Clinical Psychologists – Evaluate and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. (OCD, Schizophrenia) Counseling Psychologists – Help people adapt to change or make changes in their lifestyle. (Analyze This) Developmental Psychologists – Study psychological development throughout a lifespan. (Piaget) Engineering Psychologists – Do research on how people function best with machines. (assembly lines)
Educational Psychologists – Focus on how effective teaching and learning take place. (consultants) Forensic Psychologists – Apply psychological principles to legal issues. (crimes) Health Psychologists – Concentrate on biological, psychological, and social factors associated with health and illness. (hospitals) Industrial/Organizational Psychologists – Aim to improve productivity and the quality of work life by applying psychological principles and methods to the workplace. (Panera)
Neuro-psychologists – Explore the relationship between brain/nervous systems and behavior. (Laboratory research) Psychometricians – Focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data. (research based) Rehabilitation Psychologists – Help clients with mental retardation, developmental disabilities, and disabilities resulting from neurological injury. (stroke) School Psychologists – Assess and counsel students, consult with educators and parents, and perform behavioral intervention when necessary. (Mrs. Waikem)
Social Psychologists – Focus on how a person’s mental life and behavior are shaped by interactions with other people. (can be workplace related) Sports Psychologists – Help athletes refine their focus on competition goals, increase motivation, and deal with anxiety and fear of failure. (Professional Athletes) - LinkLink