Presentation on theme: "Paleolithic Era Tool-Makers Hunter-Gatherers Multiple types of humans."— Presentation transcript:
Paleolithic Era Tool-Makers Hunter-Gatherers Multiple types of humans
Objectives Describe the lifestyle of the hunter-gatherer. Discuss how scientists are changing their views of prehistoric people. Define the prefixes paleo-, meso-, and neo-. Explain how a discovery in the 1990s changed how we view the development of humankind.
Terms Prehistory – what happened before people could write Hominids are humans, both modern and extinct types Ancestor – those that came before us Tool – any handheld object that has been fashioned to help a person do a task We may look different, but we’re all humans! Glacier – massive sheets of ice
Terms Paleolithic Era – the earliest part of human prehistory when people had stone tools but not farming Society is a community that shares a culture. Hunter-gatherer – people that hunt animals and gather fruits, nuts, and vegetables to survive Gobekli Tepe is a recent discovery that is changing the way we look at prehistory.
Mesolithic – the middle stone age Paleolithic – the early stone age Neolithic – the new stone age The stone age is divided into three parts: When we had stone tools but not farming; dogs were our only domesticated animals; the Earth was in an ice age; we shared Earth with at least two other human species When people used farming; mastered weaving; experimented with metals; domesticated pigs, chickens, cows, and many other animals. After the ice age, people made better tools including bow & arrow, made pottery, and domesticated goats and sheep. This chapter will focus on the Paleolithic. The word “Lith” means “Stone”. Paleo = early Meso = middle Neo = new
Gone is the ape- man in the cave wearing shaggy skins. Recent discoveries have forever changed the way we view the Paleolithic Era. Modern archeologists view prehistoric people as inventors and builders.
Earlier scientists made them look brutish and apelike in their reconstructions. During the Paleolithic Era, modern humans shared the Earth with at least two other species of humans: and Homo ErectusNeanderthal
Homo Erectus Modern reconstructions tend to show Paleolithic people as less apelike. Neanderthal
PlantsAnimalsHumans Reproduction Drinking Growth Reproduction Drinking Growth Reproduction Drinking Growth Art History Burial of the dead Ceremony, religion, Making fire Care for the elderly True language Hunting & Gathering Herding behaviors Migration Building shelters Hunting & Gathering Herding behaviors Migration Building shelters However they looked, Paleolithic people were very different from animals. Scientists believe Paleolithic people demonstrated all of these except history.
Paleolithic people buried their dead and included objects in with the burials:
The top row comes from an Upper Paleolithic cave in France from a culture called the Magdalenian. Second row: Indus valley signs Third row: early Greek Fourth row: Runic. Settegast (p. 28) after Forbes and Crowder, 1979. A few scientists even believe Paleolithic people used symbols. Paleolithic people used rafts or boats.
When they were excavated, a strange temple was revealed, unlike anything historians had seen before. In 1994, a great discovery took place when a shepherd stumbled upon some strange rocks. It was called Gobekli Tepe (go-BEK-leh TEP-eh).
That was between 3000 and 2500 BC. Before 1994, kids were taught that organized society began with Egypt and Stonehenge. When the temple complex of Gobekli Tepe was discovered, it pushed organized societies back thousands of years.
Gobekli Tepe also changed the way that we thought about human development. For a long time, scientists thought that it was farming that changed human society. They thought that farming allowed people to settle down and develop other aspects of modern society. The discovery of Gobekli Tepe showed scientists how wrong they had been – they now believe it was settlement and religion that allowed people to develop farming.
By the end of the Paleolithic period, all types of humans had died out except our own. Homo ErectusNeanderthal Homo Sapiens
Some scientists believe that humans were almost wiped out during this period. “Stone Age Apocalypse – pt2of5.” YouTube:SpakerForrTheDead http://youtu.be/LG3QXNkkdlI. (9:57). http://youtu.be/LG3QXNkkdlI
400,000 First Spears 110,000 First Beads 60,000 boat invented 58,000 Earliest bone needle 50,000 Musical instruments invented 30,000 Dog domesticated 36,000 Earliest Known woven cloth 28,000 twisted rope 19,000 Pottery invented 14,000 bow and arrow invented 11,000 Earliest sheep domestication 10,000 Gobekli Tepe huge temple complex in southern Turkey 9,000 Pig domestication 9,000 Jericho established the oldest major city 8,000 Earliest known baskets 8,000 cow, cat, and goat domesticated 7,000 fish hook invented 6,000 chicken domesticated 6,000 Gold, the first metal worked 5,000 wheels invented 4,200 copper used 4,000 horse, camel, and duck domesticated 3,200 True writing invented in Mesopotamia 3,100 Stonehenge begun 3,000 bronze smelted – end of the worldwide stone age 2,700 Step Pyramid of Egypt Built A Few Accomplishments of Stone Age Peoples Dates are BC Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic
“Göbekli Tepe.” YouTube:Lily Tuk. http://youtu.be/siB2DnbXPQE. (3:46). http://youtu.be/siB2DnbXPQE More for Later
“Stories from the Stone Age, part 1 – Daily Bread” http://youtu.be/CB1UkyLrlio 00:00 – 03:00 Intro Fertile Crescent Discovery of Grain 03:00 – 33:25 The Natufians Settling down Eclectic hunter – bola and sling Tools and weapons and decorations Use of grains Society; clan meetings Death: always under 50 and from injury Buried in home w/ stone on the chest Jewelry and carvings The Younger Dryas Natufians learn to farm 33:25 – 47:00 The Settlement at Zadd Cultivated strains of crops Drawbacks of agriculture Invention of the bow and arrow 47:00 – 51:00 Jaef Al Akmah Organization and leaders communal storage of crops