Presentation on theme: "The Bible and Us Bible History how did we get what we’ve got today? Emmanuel Chesham Summer Bible School 2011."— Presentation transcript:
The Bible and Us Bible History how did we get what we’ve got today? Emmanuel Chesham Summer Bible School 2011
Housekeeping June 19th –praise and prayer – 7pm –the Bible at Home – 7.30 / 8.45 June 26th –praise and prayer – 7pm –Bible Truth – 7.30 / 8.45 prayer team in coffee break –at rear of worship area Bible translation in Burkina Faso –donations welcome, in marked envelope to David Green or one of the wardens
Bible History when was the Bible written? who wrote it? how were its contents recognized? how has it been copied? how has it been translated? how has it been at the centre of Christian life?
when was the Bible written?
Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1,2 Samuel 1,2 Kings 1,2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Songs Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi Major Prophets Minor ProphetsWisdom Books of Moses Historical Books contents: Old Testament historical narrative set in a historical context
Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans 1,2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1,2 Thessalonians 1,2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1,2 Peter 1,2,3 John Jude Revelation Gospels Acts Paul’s LettersOther LettersRevelation contents: New Testament historical narrative set in a historical context
pre- Conquest Conquest to Exile post- Exile life of Christ early Church creation patriarchs wanderings judges united k’dom divided k’dom exile return birth ministry death and res Pentecost mission Revelation Bible times Old Testament period New Testament period Inter-Testamental period
pre- Conquest Conquest to Exile post- Exile life of Christ early Church creation patriarchs wanderings judges united k’dom divided k’dom exile return birth ministry death and res Pentecost mission Revelation Genesis Ex, Lev, Num, Deut Josh, Judg, Ruth 1-2 Sam, 1-2 Kings, 1-2 Chr Ezra, Nehemiah Esther Is, Jer Lam, Ezek, Dan Obadiah Hag, Zech, Mal Am, Hos, Joel, Jon, Mic, Nah, Hab, Zeph Matthew, Mark, Luke, John Acts Revelation Rom, 1-2 Cor, Gal, Eph, Phil, Col, 1-2 Thess, 1-2 Tim, Titus, Phm, Heb, Jas, 1-2 Pet, 1-3 Jn, Jd Job Ps Prov Ecc Song historyprophets and letterswisdom which book when?
who wrote it?
pre- Conquest Conquest to Exile post- Exile life of Christ early Church creation patriarchs wanderings judges united k’dom divided k’dom exile return birth ministry death and res Pentecost mission Revelation Moses Joshua, Samuel, other scribes Ezra, Nehemiah 1 scribe Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel 12 prophets Paul, Hebrews-writer, James, Peter, Jude David Solo- mon others historyprophets and letterswisdom Matthew (gospel) Mark (gospel) Luke (gospel+Acts) John (gospel, Revelation, letters) who wrote what?
from then till now
the Bible was written over a period of about 1600 years by about 40 authors –more than 30 of whom, are named it’s now 2,000 years later how did the Bible come down to us? –the books we have today –the words we have today
early Church medieval Church modern Church from Pentecost to now conversion of Constantine division of Empire Reformation invention of printing fall of Constantinople vigorous but persecuted church all over Roman Empire Latin-speaking church Greek-speaking church ecumenical Councils 410 world-wide church
document recognition and rejection readers worldwide ? document dustbin of history canon recognized works apocrypha rejected works God-breathed true, useful generally received bad untrue secondary document
from author to reader author autograph manuscript MS family copyist community MS family community MS family community text (edition) editor translator translation (version) reader
how were the Bible’s contents recognized?
the OT canon: Jewish view OT recognizes itself! –all parts refer to the Law –Daniel refers to Jeremiah (etc) final Jewish recognition was in 90AD –at the Council of Jamnia Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Samuel Kings Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel “the 12” Psalms Proverbs Job Song of Songs Ruth Lamentations Ecclesiastes Esther Daniel Ezra-Nehemiah Chronicles Prophets Writings Law
the OT canon: Jesus’ view Jesus recognized exactly the OT that was recognized in Jamnia he quoted from nearly all of its books –and from none of the OT apocrypha he bracketed it neatly, Mt –“from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of Berekiah” Genesis 4 – 2 Chronicles 24 he referred to it by name, Lk –“the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms”
the NT canon NT writings were complete prior to AD70 –except Revelation, which is about AD90 –all written by, or close to, the apostles other “letters” and works came in –some good but secondary, some just bad church categorized writings as “accepted”, “disputed”, “rejected” –much evidence exists for how this developed –Eusebius, c323, is particularly clear
people power or power play? NT canon was finally agreed at Council of Carthage, 390 was it a power play? –bishops suppressed the inconvenient stuff?? no! – it was people power –three centuries of the people’s recognition –finally discussed openly thanks to the new freedoms since Constantine
how was the Bible copied?
the Old Testament Masoretic text from 1000AD –sounds bad? –but, exceptionally careful copyists LXX (Greek) translated ~300BC 1948: DSS discovered, 125BC! author autograph manuscript Dead Sea Scrolls copyist Essenes Masoretic text Masoretes BC 1000AD 125BC LXX Alexandrians
the New Testament author autograph manuscript fragments copyist various Vaticanus, Sinaiticus etc Alexandrian 55-90AD AD 130AD many MSS Byzantines 6,000 Greek MSS exist earliest complete are 4th century –two in British Library! widely quoted in very early material 9,000 translated MSS –8,000 Latin, 1,000 others AD
by comparison the New Testament is by far the best attested ancient literature workwrittenMSS dateinterval# MSS Tacitus: Histories and Annals yrs2 Caesar: Gallic War58-50BC825875yrs10 Thucydides: Peloponnesian War BC900 (+ first-century fragments) 1,300yrs73 Homer: Iliad900BC900AD1,800yrs643 New Testament yrs6,000 (+ 9,000 translated)
today’s texts we can be very confident in today’s text –it’s extremely close to the word of God originally given –both NT Greek and OT Hebrew OT was faithfully copied NT MSS evidence is unrivalled variant readings boost confidence! –they are tiny compared to the whole –no doctrine depends on a disputed reading
how has the Bible been translated?
Bible translations Bible has license to translate –Pentecost – apostles spoke in everyones’ language early translations –Septuagint (OT in Greek, 270AD) –Vulgate (Bible in Latin, Jerome, ~390) Wycliffe, 1382, from Latin into English –the Bible of the Amersham martyrs and Thomas Harding
the Reformation Reformation principle: everyone has direct access to God –all are priests! –all can read and understand God’s word! so, the Reformers were translators –aided by texts based on Greek MSS from Constantinople –and by printing text (edition) Erasmus translator translation (version) reader Luther · German, 1522 Tyndale · English, 1526 Olivétan · French, 1536
the King James Bible also KJV, and AV, “Authorized Version” requested by King James I in 1604 committee of 50 translators published 1611 remained the English Bible until well into the 20th century woven into fabric of English-speaking history and culture worldwide
choosing a translation readableunreadable inaccurate accurate Greek+Hebrew text NIV “literal” translations KJB CEV New World (JW) Book of Mormon! paraphrases “ideal” cults’ and sects’ mistranslations Latin Vulgate
the Bible at the centre
Bible at the centre the Reformation missionary translations –Carey in India (1800s), Henry Martyn in Persia (1810s), Judson in Burma (1820s)... –Wycliffe Bible Translators (1942 onwards) Christians working together –eg in University Christian Unions, or in mission in vibrant church life in Christians’ homes
looking forward Bible at home –a really practical session Bible truth –in fact it’s not the Bible which is central, it’s God! –we’ll look at why the Bible is needed, and take a deeper look at why it’s reliable