2 1. The work of different kinds of scientists contributes to our understanding of the history, geography, and the people of Southwest Asia and Egypt. An anthropologist is a scientist who studiesa. changes in the earth's climateb. human beings and their societiesc. the evolution of the planet earthd. varieties of plant and animal lifeAnthropology is the study of humankind and human cultures. Anthropologists study both past societies that have died out and contemporary cultures. Physical anthropologists specialize in the origins and classifications of humans. Cultural anthropologists study the societies and cultures of humans.
3 2. Archaeologists learn about prehistoric cultures by studying all of the following, EXCEPT a. fossilsb. tools and weaponsc. written recordsd. PotteryPrehistoric means before written history. Archaeologists did not have written records to learn about early people. Fossils and bones can be studied to learn about the size, structure, diseases, and brain capacity of early humans. Tools and weapons can tell much about how people lived in prehistoric times. Pottery was often decorated with drawings and designs that provide information about clothing and animals known to the people. Changes in pottery design also can be used to date when people lived and whether they had contact with other cultures.
4 a. skeleton of Homo erectus b. fossil of an extinct prehistoric plant 3. Which of the following is an artifact that might be found in a site where Old Stone Age people lived?a. skeleton of Homo erectusb. fossil of an extinct prehistoric plantc. necklace of beads made from bonesd. pieces of volcanic cindersA necklace made from bones is the only item listed that is made by human hands. Artifacts are articles that have been built or shaped by people using tools. Fossils are imprints formed by natural action of plants or animals.
5 4. Which one of the following four hominids developed before the other three in the evolution of humans?a. Homo erectusb. Homo habilisc. Neanderthalsd. Homo sapiensHome habilis first appeared between 1.5 and 2.5 million years ago. Homo erectus and Neanderthals developed later, and the evolution of Homo sapiens was the most recent development of modern humans. Many other different human-like primates had developed before Homo habilis as far back as 4 million years ago.
6 c. wearing woven woolen clothing d. building shelters 5. During the glacial periods, Old Stone Age people kept warm by all of the following means, EXCEPT bya. wearing animal skinsb. building firesc. wearing woven woolen clothingd. building sheltersOld Stone Age people did not know how to weave cloth or to spin woolen fibers into yarn. They wore clothing made from animal skins wrapped around them or stitched together with strips of leather. They built shelters of branches and bark; some used mammoth bones to build igloo-shaped structures. They also discovered the use of fire for warmth, protection, and cooking.