Presentation on theme: "Native American Art Baskets the oldest art form. Native American Art Baskets Basketry is probably the oldest and most wide- spread craft and art developed."— Presentation transcript:
Native American Art Baskets Basketry is probably the oldest and most wide- spread craft and art developed by the native American Peoples. Baskets can be made from many kinds of materials, but generally plant stems, either whole or split, are used.
Native American Art Baskets The stems or stalks are peeled for the bark or interior fibers, or root fibers and leaves and grass stems are used. Baskets can be woven out of almost anything, but it requires great skill and much knowledge.
Native American Art Baskets The roots, stems, bark, leaves and flowers of different plants produce the broad range of colors in most baskets. Identical plant materials gathered in different seasons may produce different colors.
Native American Art Baskets Some basketmakers use commercial dyes to obtain colors not available from plants or to alter or intensify the effects produced by vegetal material. But most basketmakers today prefer to produce their colors in traditional ways or experiment with plants near their homes.
Native American Art Baskets Basketmakers must know which plants in their area are suitable, where they grow, their special properties, the best season to gather them, and how they must be processed and stored.
Native American Art Baskets This knowledge is passed down from one generation to the next - when to collect leaves, roots, stems, flowers or seeds - how to prepare colors or fibers - boiling, drying, combining with other ingredients.
Native American Art Baskets This Papago Coiled Plaque was crafted by Thesesa Andrews Atohono O odham, the Desert People of Southern Arizona & Northern Sonora. The Tohono O odham People have been making baskets for utilitarian purposes for hundreds of years. Baskets like these were used for gathering the Saguaro fruit harvest, winemaking, gathering and storing seeds and nuts. They are now made primarily for retail sale. This design is a classic and complex squash blossom. It is coiled with fiber foundations of bear grass and closely stitched with yucca. The design detail is done in devils claw.
Native American Art Baskets Devil’s claw is also called the Unicorn Plant. The Tohono O’odham of southern Arizona have cultivated a variety of devil’s claw, P. parviflora var. hohokamiana, that possesses several unusual characteristics. Instead of black seeds, the plants produce white seeds, which germinate more quickly than the wild species. In addition, the dried capsules are longer, up to 15 inches, and more flexible than non- domesticates. Ethnobotanists believe that this domestication is one of only a handful that occurred for wild native plants north of Mexico. Furthermore, it appears that women were responsible for this process. When cattle became widespread in the desert, O’odham women, who used the pods in their basketry, started to plant devil’s claw in protected areas to prevent livestock consumption. Over time, they chose seeds that produced the longer capsules and seeds that germinated faster. This is "plant wifery." devils claw
Native American Art Baskets Yucca link This yucca has been dubbed the soaptree yucca because of the soapy substance found within its roots. Native Americans were the first to use the soaps to wash their hair, bodies and clothes. They also noticed its ability to relieve sunburn and minor inflammation from scratches and cuts. Cattle ranchers would sometimes feed yucca to cattle during draught as an emergency food. Every part of the yucca plant can be used. Native tribes use parts of the plant for basket weaving, sandals, ropes, belts, crafts, food, and dyes for rugs, fibers and art. The buds, flowers and stalks are edible, raw or cooked.
Native American Art Baskets This Navajo basket was woven of sumac by Elsie Holiday, whose mother-in- law taught her how to weave. The Twin Rocks Trading Post & Gallery in Bluff, Utah, has an artist bios/legends section with pictures of artists & work.Twin Rocks Trading Post & Gallery artist bios/legends
Native American Art Baskets Navajo baskets were almost a lost art. This short story about how basket making survived is an example of the oral tradition which is in most Native American art. This basket has lessons about snakes.This short story about how basket making survivedlessons about snakes
Native American Art Baskets Mary Holiday Black Mary Holiday Black has trained 9 of her children to make baskets. Mary has received many national awards. She says “There are many basket stories. If we stop making the baskets, we lose the stories.” Each ceremonial basket has a story & a song which are part of a healing, wedding, to bring rain, or for other important events.
Native American Art Baskets The tradition of basket weaving was passed down to this artist, whose basket tells the Story of Emergence into the world. It explains the break in the rings in the center of many designs.Story of Emergence
Native American Art Baskets to learn more: Thanks to TWIN ROCKS TRADING POST - NATIVE AMERICAN BASKET MUSEUM and store in Utah for sharing photos, stories, legends, & art.
Native American Art Baskets to learn more: Thanks to Heard Museum in Arizona, and its online shop and bookstore, for sharing photos and information.Heard Museum online shop and bookstore
Native American Art Baskets Plant information and photos are from the: NAU Virtual Paleoethnobotany Manual, NAU Virtual Paleoethnobotany Manual, Twin Rocks Trading PostTwin Rocks Trading Post, Heard MuseumHeard Museum, & DesertsUSA.com