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Field Approaches to Control Part - I Ch 7-13 HUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICTS - Althoff LEC-07.

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Presentation on theme: "Field Approaches to Control Part - I Ch 7-13 HUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICTS - Althoff LEC-07."— Presentation transcript:

1 Field Approaches to Control Part - I Ch 7-13 HUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICTS - Althoff LEC-07

2 Four Basic Approaches to ADC efforts from a Field Implementation Standpoint 1 2 3 In some situations, a _________________ of these approaches is necessary to effectively resolve the problem 4

3 HABITAT MANAGEMENT - Overview Often a reasonable approach for a ______________ solution Often more practical in urban/suburban settings than rural areas. Property owner’s parcel is usually smaller and easier to modify in terms of habitat structure. Sometimes, “problem species” gets shuffled to some other part of the neighborhood. Like landscaping for wildlife (i.e., planting species to attract), one can avoid plants that are appealing from a food or nesting standpoint

4 HABITAT MANAGEMENT - Overview Example of small-scale habitat management: Be selective about _______________. A) avoid deer favorites—even during low temps and snowy conditions B) substitute one tree/shrub species for another. Hawthorns are seldom browsed on by deer… so better choice than a dwarf or semi-dwarf apple tree C) seek county extension agent advice…extension agents often get the bulk of calls about “what to do” for this type of problem

5 Known “Deer Favorites” Apples Arborvitaes European mountain ash Asters Evergreen azaleas Cherries Clematis Fraser and balsam firs Hostas English ivy Norway maple Phlox Plums Lilies Redbud Rhododendrons Hybrid tea rose Tulips Winged euonymus Wintercreeper Yews Daylilies

6 HABITAT MANAGEMENT - Overview Example of large-scale habitat management: Be selective about ______________ type planting. A) avoid varieties with lighter husk B) sometimes there is a tread-off….the heavier husk varieties have lower yields C) heavier husk varieties deter blackbirds better Example of large-scale habitat management: Be selective on ___________ to reduce deer damage A) square and slightly less-than-square shapes have less edge, long linear fields. B) avoid “convoluted” edges


8 HUSBANDRY PRACTICES- Overview Most producers are willing to consider recommendations in husbandry practices if they can see in the long run a reduction or elimination of losses Practicality depends on: a) b) c) Example: sheep husbandry practices in OH typically different than in western states with farms/ranches smaller. May be more practical to shed ewes during lambing period during the night for a 100-head operation vs. a 1, 000 head one. Coyotes less likely to approach buildings

9 HUSBANDRY PRACTICES- Overview Economics often dictates where a producer should “look” to reduce losses. Sometimes other problems— non-wildlife ones—result in substantially higher losses than those sustained from predators. Example ( see next slides & handout for details ): far more cattle succumb to respiratory problems than to predators. In fact, in 2010 predator losses where only the 9 th highest loss category for cattle operators in the United States. Besides respiratory problems, digestive problems, weather-related, calving problems, and other non-predator losses were reported to have created greater economic losses.

10 Cattle Losses 2005 vs. 2010 Source: USDA Report 12 May 2011 40,000 surveyed, 78% (31,200) of forms returned were usuable 3,861,000 head 3,773,000 head Down 2.3% P = Predator NP = Non-predator PP NP 190,000 head 219,000 head Up 15%

11 USDA 2010 Year Data – Losses of Cattle & Calves (arrows indicated substantial increase or decrease vs. 2005) Coyote 116,700 Dogs 21,800 Mt. Lion & 18,900 Bobcat Lynx Vultures 11,900 Wolves 8,100 Bears 2,800 Other 12,400 Unknown 27,300 Respiratory 1,055,000 Digestive 505,000 Calving 494,000 Weather 489,000 Unk N-P 435,000 Other N-P 301,600 Other disease 179,500 Lameness 140,000 Mastitis 62,000 Metabolic 59,800 PredatorsNon-Predators

12 DEVICES & EQUIPMENT- Overview Very long list of equipment/methods used to curb losses, repel, or remove animals New equipment/methods are being developed and tested by wildlife professionals, private industry, and the public Many approaches are species-specific…but many are not Limitations of use include causing harm/death to humans, their pets, and their livestock.

13 MAJOR CATEGORIES OF “EQUIPMENT”/”DEVICES- TYPE APPROACHES Barriers Excluders Toxicants & Fumigants Repellents Scare Devices Traps and Snares Shooting Guard Animals Lethal Non-lethal

14 Barriers Types Woven wire fence Hi-tensile fence Electric fence Netting Tree guards Chimney covers “Spiny” Strips Monofilament Wires

15 Woven Wire Fence Netting

16 Hi-tensile fence Charger = energizer

17 Electric Fence Charger = energizer

18 Fence Charger (energizer) 1 2 3 4 4-strands ~ __ inches

19 Bottom 2 strands will likely repel woodchucks and rabbits

20 Electric Fence -single wire with _________________ as attractant


22 Tree Guards

23 Chimney Covers Preventing entry by raccoons and chimney swifts

24 Spiny Strips - Nixalite Preventing perching by birds: sparrows, starlings, mud swallows, black birds, pigeons, crows, seagulls and vultures ®

25 Monofilament Wires for spacing see Conover Table 13.2, page 313 Preventing entry by birds: sparrows, starlings, pigeons, seagulls, etc. Prevent access- by herons, bitterns, etc. to fish hatcheries/ponds protect

26 Excluders Bat excluders – “one-way” exits

27 Toxicants & Fumigants Gas cartridges Smoke candles Poison peanuts/pellets Starlicide M-44s Toxicants = substance used to poison a problem animal, typically through ____________ Fumigants = gas used to poison a nuisance animal as it ____________

28 Gas cartridges produce ________________ gas that fills the burrow system. The carbon monoxide induces a loss of consciousness in the animal

29 Smoke Bombs produce ____________ smoke that fills the burrow system, asphyxiates tunnel dwellers. Light, drop in burrow/hole, then plug opening

30 Poison Peanuts/Pellets

31 Starlicide Used to control starlings and blackbirds. DRC- 1339 is registered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture APHIS Birds ingesting it typically take 1-3 days to die. Use in feedlots…mixed with livestock feed

32 Avitrol …causes starlings and blackbirds to act erractically. That behavior frightens others. Intent is to expect only a few birds to get “sick” Use in corn and sunflower fields. Must re-bait with “treated” grain

33 M-44 Ejects sodium cyanide when “tugged” on by predator. Device is spring-activated. Top wrapped with absorbent material—then coated with attractant Used only by ___________ Specifically for canids…death occurs 10 seconds to 2 minutes after injection

34 Repellents Sprays/Powders – odor repellents Sprays/Powders – taste repellents Sticky Compounds

35 Deer repellents – commercial products Deer Out Liquid fence Deer Away Hinder

36 “Catch all” Repellents – commercial products Shake Away …coyote, fox, or bobcat urine in granular/powder form ? Deer Woodchuck Rabbit Porcupine etc, ?

37 Homemade remedies – deer repellents see handout for “recipes” Ammonia Human hair Worn clothes Predator urine Tankage (putrified meat scraps) Rotten eggs Moth balls / Moth crystals Hot pepper spray + liquid dish soap + 1 tsp. garlic powder Blood meal Deodorant Soap

38 Goose Repellents Contains grape extract = methyl anthranilate Spray on….must be “dry” Geese do not like taste…will not graze

39 Sticky Compounds Preventing perching by birds: sparrows, starlings, pigeons, etc. 4 the Birds Bird Repellent Bird Tanglefoot

40 Scare Devices Scare-away exploder Pyrotechnics / Shell crackers Hawkite Balloons Reflective tape Crow-killer scare-away Strobe lights and sirens

41 Scare-away / Propane exploders / Pyrotechnics “noise” to disrupt/annoy birds, deer, coyote

42 Scare-away songbirds – protect fruit/berry crops…maybe effective for 2-5 acres per kite Hawkite

43 Scare-away songbirds – protect fruit/berry crop…some streamers Balloons

44 Scare-away songbirds – protect fruit/berry crop…some streamers…maybe deer? Reflective tape Usually made of mylar

45 Crow-killer Scare Away Animated model – owl with crow in its clutches

46 Strobe Lights / Sirens scare away coyotes, birds, etc. Key is to vary pattern and timing of lights flashing, sirens going off

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