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Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. C HAPTER 4: S MALL T OOLS AND A PPLIANCES, U SAGE, AND T ECHNIQUES
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. L EARNING O BJECTIVES Identify different types of graters, zesters, and rasps. Identify different types of peelers and corers. Identify different types of sifters and strainers. Identify different types of spoons and tongs. Identify different types of whisks. Identify different types of spatulas and scrapers. Identify different types of scoops and ladles. Define the key characteristics of cooling racks. Identify different types of grinding, puréeing, and chopping tools and appliances.
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. L EARNING O BJECTIVES ( CONT ’ D ) Identify different types of mixers. Identify different types of ice cream machines. Identify different types of juicers. Define the key characteristics of blowtorches. Define the key characteristics of dough sheeters. Define the key characteristics of a molder. Define the key characteristics of proofers. Define the key characteristics of retarders.
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. G RATERS, Z ESTERS, AND R ASPS Citrus zester: – Stainless-steel edge with five tiny cutting holes creates threadlike strips of the peel. Microplane grater: – Made of stainless-steel and has a plastic handle. – Produces the lightest and finest zest. Nutmeg grater: – Used for grating or grinding spices. – It comes in two varieties. Tools
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. P EELERS AND C ORERS Swivel-blade peeler: Blade rotates slightly to follow the contours of the food item and remove a thin layer of skin. Corer: A cylinder with a sharpened end and a handle on the other end, used to remove the core. Cherry pitter: A handheld spring-loaded tool that extracts the pit from a cherry while leaving the fruit whole. Tools (cont’d)
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. S IFTERS AND S TRAINERS Strainers: Used to separate liquids from solids. They are made of wire mesh and sometimes have a handle. Drum sieve/tamis: Wide and flat to allow for dry ingredients to be pushed through using a back and forth motion. Take care to minimize pressure on the hands and wrists. Conical sieves: The conical shape allows the sieve to rest inside a tall container like a bain-marie. Colander: A tool used to wash and dry items like fruits. Cheesecloth: A loosely woven cotton cloth that is useful for separating solids and liquids. Tools
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. S POONS AND T ONGS Slotted/perforated spoons: Act as a ladle and sieve; liquid passes through the holes, keeping the larger solids in the spoon. Wooden spoons: Can be used to cream butter and sugar, as well as for mixing and folding in fruits, chocolate, and nuts. Spiders/skimmers: Consist of a long handle with a wire woven basket at the end. Spiders are useful for retrieving cooked foods from hot water or oil. Tongs: A grasping device made of stainless-steel that can help protect hands from burns as well as extend reach. Tools
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. W HISKS Balloon whisks: Designed to incorporate as much air as possible into egg whites and cream. – More wires on the balloon whisk will increase the whisk’s contact area and the speed of the process. Flat whisks: A flat whisk is composed of four or five wires lying flat. Tools
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. S PATULAS AND S CRAPERS Rubber spatulas: – Made of rubber or silicon – Used to fold batters, spread soft foods, and scrape out the contents of pans, bowls, etc. Metal spatulas: – May be straight or offset – Used to turn or lift foods; can be used when spreading icing/batter Plastic bowl scraper: Provides a little more control than a regular spatula. Bench scraper: Designed to scrape, lift, and cut. Tools
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. S COOPS AND L ADLES Ice cream scoops: – Can be oval or round; make equal portions of soft or semisoft food. Melon ballers: Contain a wooden, metal, or plastic handle and a large and small stainless-steel scoop on either end. Portioning scoops: – Contain blades that sweep over the inside of the scoop’s bowl to release the food from the scoop. – Scoops are made in a variety of sizes that are numbered according to their volume. Tools
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. S COOPS AND L ADLES Ladles: Come in a range of sizes, from 1- to 2- to 4-fluid ounce/30- to 60- to 120-mL portions or larger with varying lengths of handles. Tools (cont’d)
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. C OOLING R ACKS Can be used: – To allow air to pass through and around hot products to cool them down quickly. – As glazing screens when pouring a soft ganache or glaze over cakes and cookies. Key Points
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. G RINDING, P URÉEING, AND C HOPPING T OOLS AND A PPLIANCES Food mill: It separates as it purées, leaving seeds and skins behind. Coffee and spice mills: Very useful for grinding small quantities of nuts, coffee beans, chocolate, and spices. Mortars and pestles: The mortar is a concave surface like a bowl that holds the food, and the pestle is a rod with a curved end that is pressed and rubbed against the food. Tools
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. G RINDING, P URÉEING, AND C HOPPING T OOLS AND A PPLIANCES Blender: An appliance used to mix ingredients or purée food, among other things. Immersion blender: It is composed of a housing, motor, and mixing head with rotating blades and can be operated with one hand. Food processor: Useful for slicing, chopping, puréeing, grinding, shredding, and mixing. Tools (cont’d)
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXERS Electric machines used to mix, beat, whip, or knead batter/dough. – Planetary mixer (or vertical mixer): Gets its name from the motion of the mixing attachment in the stationary mixing bowl. – Spiral mixer: A stationary mixer. – Oblique mixer (or fork mixer): Similar to a spiral mixer except the attachment is a fork rather than a spiral. Tools
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. I CE C REAM M ACHINES A specialized piece of equipment used to cool and churn a liquid base into ice cream. – Hand-cranked ice cream machine: Has a handle that you must crank to turn the paddle within the cooling chamber or rotate the chamber around the paddle. – Electric ice cream machine: Has a motor that either turns the paddle within the cooling chamber or rotates the chamber around the paddle. – Commercial ice cream freezers: Have built-in refrigeration units for large-scale production of frozen confections. There are two basic types: continuous and batch. Tools
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. J UICERS There are several options when it comes to juicing fruits and vegetables. – Reamer: Can be used to juice small citrus fruits. On one end is a handle and on the other is a convexly conical end with deep troughs along the sides and a smooth spike on the tip. – Crank juicer: Can be used to juice a variety of fruits and vegetables, but they will need to be peeled and/or cut into small pieces. – Electric juicer: It is the most expensive but most powerful type of juicer. It is also the fastest and least labor-intensive. Tools
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. B LOWTORCH Handheld torches can be butane or propane. Gives you control that you do not have with a broiler. Can be used to: – Finish crème brûlée and other desserts that require a caramelized exterior. – Give color to baked fruit or meringue topping. Key Points
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. D OUGH S HEETER A machine that accepts pieces of irregularly shaped dough and rolls them into a uniform thickness. Ideal for puff pastry, pie crust, lavash, pizza dough, and fondant. Key Points
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M OLDER A machine with adjustable, spring-loaded rollers that roll and form dough into uniform shapes. Some machines require the dough to be hand-fed while others are automated as part of an assembly line operation. May be used to shape baguettes, loaves, and rolls. Key Points
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. P ROOFER Proofers maintain the most desirable environment for yeast growth. Some proofers have refrigeration capabilities, making them able to retard yeast growth. Key Points
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. R ETARDER A cabinet-style machine that will maintain the dough at a set temperature, typically around 40°F/4°C. Retarding dough allows bakers to organize their work to meet production and employee schedules and also gives the gluten in the dough more time to relax, resulting in dough that is easier to shape. Key Points
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