Presentation on theme: "H OW HAVE TRADITION AND DIFFUSION INFLUENCED MODERN CULTURAL PRACTICES AND PRODUCTS ? Activity 1F."— Presentation transcript:
H OW HAVE TRADITION AND DIFFUSION INFLUENCED MODERN CULTURAL PRACTICES AND PRODUCTS ? Activity 1F
C ULTURE AND C ULTURAL D IFFUSION Refers to a people’s entire way of life. It includes a peoples language, foods, literature, music, art, and religious beliefs. When people think of American culture they think of hot dogs, hamburgers, and baseball. It is so much more!!! The spread of ideas and products from one place to another. One of the major forces that cause cultures to change. All cultures tend to change and at the same time to resist change. CultureCultural Diffusion
W HY C ULTURES C HANGE Why Cultures Change Sometimes people change because they come into contact with other cultures with different products and ideas. Sometimes people change because they are introduced to new discoveries and events within a culture. Sometimes certain aspects of society will change more quickly than others. Some people in a society welcome change to improve their position, while others resist change and cling to old ways and traditions
W HY C ULTURES C HANGE - CONTINUED In modern times: Tastes in popular music, movies, and clothing tend to change quickly. Other features: Such as a culture’s deepest values and beliefs change more slowly.
C HINA ’ S C ULTURAL I NFLUENCE ON J APAN 200 A.D. China was more prosperous and technologically advanced than Japan. Chinese scholars and merchants introduced many aspects of their culture to the Japanese. The Japanese readily adopted many features of Chinese culture to their society.
C HINA ’ S C ULTURAL I NFLUENCE ON J APAN - CONTINUED Written Language Japan lacked a writing system upon their first contact w/ China. Japan adopted the Chinese method of writing, characters, or symbol writing. Spoken Japanese and Chinese are entirely different from one another, yet their writing systems are very similar. Many Japanese characters are adopted from the Chinese.
C HINA ’ S C ULTURAL I NFLUENCE ON J APAN - CONTINUED Belief Systems Buddhism and Confucianism were key to the Chinese. Both were introduced to the Japanese. From Buddhism, the Japanese learned to abandon selfish desires. Confucianism emphasized the importance of order in government and society AND inspired loyalty and obedience to one's family and ruler.
C HINA ’ S C ULTURAL I NFLUENCE ON J APAN - CONTINUED Imperial Government The organization of China’s Imperial Court was also adopted in Japan. Japan’s ruler, like the Chinese emperor, claimed to be an absolute ruler. The Japanese Imperial Court, and their bureaucracy, came to be modeled after Confucian teachings.
C HINA ’ S C ULTURAL I NFLUENCE ON J APAN - CONTINUED City Planning Several cities in Japan were build along the same plans that the Chinese used. Nara, Japan’s 1 st permanent capital, is modeled after China’s capital city of Xi’an. Japanese cities are based on a system of fields and irrigation systems divided into even rectangles…just like the Chinese model of city planning.
C HINA ’ S C ULTURAL I NFLUENCE ON J APAN - CONTINUED Other Chinese Influences Music, architecture, art, dance, pottery, weaving, and cooking all influenced Japanese style & taste. The Japanese were even more impressed with the quality of Chinese goods, especially silk and ceramics. Japan created a unique civilization based on a blend of their own local traditions and a selective borrowing of Chinese practices. Even in Japan today, you will still see many Chinese influences. The use of written characters, gowns made from silk, beautiful ceramics, and the eating of rice and drinking of tea.
T HE I NFLUENCE OF I SLAM ON M IDDLE E ASTERN A RT AND A RCHITECTURE Art and architecture have also been influenced by cultural diffusion. Middle Eastern countries haven been greatly influenced by the Islamic religion. Centered around God, Allah. Forbidden to portray direct images of Allah. Art and architecture do not include living things, especially humans. Focuses on geometric, floral, Arabesque, and calligraphy designs. Repetition of geometric patterns with bright colors and symmetrical shapes.
T HE I NFLUENCE OF I SLAM ON M IDDLE E ASTERN A RT AND A RCHITECTURE - CONTINUED The Horseshoe Arch Used in architecture Has been used in Islamic structures since the 5 th century. Popular feature in many Islamic structures stretching from the Middle East to North Africa.
T HE I NFLUENCE OF I SLAM ON M IDDLE E ASTERN A RT AND A RCHITECTURE - CONTINUED Water Fountains Symbolizes the origin of life. Water is seen as life-giving and purifying. The Garden of Eden Key to Islamic architecture Allow worshippers to wash their feet before entering the mosque. Seen in courtyards, gardens, and other structures throughout North Africa and the Middle East.
T HE I NFLUENCE OF I SLAM ON M IDDLE E ASTERN A RT AND A RCHITECTURE - CONTINUED Minaret Tower Consists of a tall spire w/ a pointed crown. Built to be seen from afar. Followers are called to prayer at a mosque. Spread throughout the world to wherever mosques are found.
T HE I NFLUENCE OF I SLAM ON M IDDLE E ASTERN A RT AND A RCHITECTURE - CONTINUED Domes Its use extends over many centuries. First designed for Roman buildings. Shows the influence of Ancient Rome on the Middle East. Used in 691 w/ the construction of the Dome of the Rock Have repeatedly appeared and widely used in mosques throughout the Middle East, as well as the Taj Mahal in India.
T HE S PREAD OF S ILK T EXTILES According to Chinese legend, the wife of Emperor Huang Ti was the first to accidentally discover silk fibers. Their source- a silkworm in mulberry trees. Cocoons of a silk caterpillar could be unwound and the filaments could be woven into fabric. Soon after this, the empress began cultivating silkworms. This legend is unlikely true; however, what remains true is that China maintained a monopoly on silk production for nearly three centuries.
T HE S PREAD OF S ILK T EXTILES - CONTINUED Demand for this product created profitable trade along the Silk Road. Carried to the West, while gold, silver, and wooden textiles were brought East. At a time, silk was valued to be worth more than gold (5x).
T HE S PREAD OF S ILK T EXTILES - CONTINUED The Chinese realized the value of silk and kept the way it was manufactured a secret. When people would leave China they would be searched, this lasted for centuries. Anyone caught smuggling eggs, cocoons, or silkworms out of China was executed.
T HE S PREAD OF S ILK T EXTILES - CONTINUED The secret of silk-making eventually spread to other countries. By the 1950’s the Japanese were the largest producers of raw silk. In the 1970’s China regained their position of the world’s top producer and exporter of raw silk and silk yarn. Currently, the countries of India, Japan, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Uzbekistan, Italy, France, and Brazil, all produce silk. Men and women all over the world wear silk dresses, neckties, embroidery, and pajamas.
T HE S PREAD OF THE E NGLISH L ANGUAGE AND A MERICAN P OP C ULTURE Language can spread from one culture to another. For example, if you walk down the street of many Asian cities today you will see signs in English as well as American fast-food franchises. McDonalds KFC Starbucks Taco Bell
T HE S PREAD OF THE E NGLISH L ANGUAGE AND A MERICAN P OP C ULTURE In the early 20 th century American culture was promoted by new technologies. Radio, record player, movies, and television. After WWII, American music and movies became quite popular in Europe and later spread to other continents.
T HE S PREAD OF THE E NGLISH L ANGUAGE AND A MERICAN P OP C ULTURE - CONTINUED English Language Influence of American culture has been made easier due to the spread of English as an international second language. Part of this is due to British imperialism (extending the rule or influence of a country over other countries or colonies) British colonized not only part of North America, but also parts of Africa and the Middle East. Early 20 th century, Britain ruled over almost ¼ of the world.
T HE S PREAD OF THE E NGLISH L ANGUAGE AND A MERICAN P OP C ULTURE - CONTINUED The use of English in former British colonies, like Egypt and India, the spread of American culture since WWII, the locations of worldwide businesses, and the increasing use of the Internet, have all led to the adoption of English as a global language. English is the chief language of communication between individuals from different countries and even those speaking different languages within the same country.
T HE S PREAD OF THE E NGLISH L ANGUAGE AND A MERICAN P OP C ULTURE - CONTINUED 400 million now speak English as their primary language. Plays a key role in linking people who do not share a common first language in this global era. Enables people to share ideas and cultures. In most countries, people learn English as a second language. More than a billion people understand and use English. Video: The Middle East and Central Asia: The People