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1 Chapter 3 Inclusion and Identity Most people prefer group membership to isolation, but, once they join with others, they find they must sometimes do.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 3 Inclusion and Identity Most people prefer group membership to isolation, but, once they join with others, they find they must sometimes do."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 3 Inclusion and Identity Most people prefer group membership to isolation, but, once they join with others, they find they must sometimes do what is best for the group rather than what benefits them personally. Groups blur the boundary between the self and other, for members retain their personal qualities—their motives, emotions, and outlooks—but add to them a sense of self that is based on their group identity. Groups transform the me into the we.  Do humans, by nature, seek solitude or inclusion in groups?  When do people embrace collectivism by putting the group’s needs before their own?  What processes transform an individual’s sense of self into a collective, social identity? 3 Inclusion and Identity The ancient taoist taijitu symbolizes the synthesis of the individual and the collective.

2 Isolation to Inclusion Need to Belong Inclusion and exclusion Inclusion and Human Nature Individualism to Collectivism Micro: The Social Self Meso: The Group Culture Macro: Collectivism across Cultures Personal Identity to Social Identity Social Identity Theory Motivation and Social Identity 3: Inclusion and Identity

3 Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe I am cast upon a horrible, desolate island; void of all hope of recovery. I am singled out and separated, as it were, from all the world, to be miserable. I am divided from mankind, a solitary; one banished from human society. I have no soul to speak to or to relieve me. Isolation to Inclusion Need to Belong All human beings, “have a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive, and impactful interpersonal relationships.” Roy Baumeister & Mark Leary (1995, p. 497).

4 Rubin Hurricane Carter: I had nothing, absolutely nothing. I was trapped at the bottom, the lowest point at which a human being can exist without being dead: solitary confinement. I had nothing to hold on to, no family, nobody to do anything for me. Isolation can be rejuvenating, but: Isolated individuals (e.g., stranded explorers) report negative effects Solitary confinement recognized as a severe punishment People seek membership in a variety of groups People build their “social capital” by creating online and face-to-face relationships

5 People affiliate in groups Putnam’s “bowling alone” hypothesis: affiliation patterns are shifting

6 Type of Loneliness: social and emotional

7 Different groups reduce different types of loneliness

8 Rejection Acceptance Maximum Exclusion Active Exclusion Passive Exclusion Ambivalence Passive Inclusion Active Inclusion Maximum Inclusion Group rejects or ostracizes person Group avoids person Group ignores person Group neither accepts nor rejects individual Group allows member to join Group welcomes member Group actively recruits member Inclusion and exclusion The Inclusion/Exclusion Continuum

9 Inclusion and exclusion Ostracism: Excluding one or more individuals from a group by reducing or eliminating contact with the person, usually by ignoring, shunning, or explicitly banishing them. Researchers have studied reactions to ostracism in various ways, including The “life alone” paradigm The ball-toss paradigm (and cyberball) The exclusion paradigm

10 The Temporal Need-Threat Model of Ostracism: Williams, 2009

11 Fight vs Flight Tend and Befriend Withdrawal and freezing Aggressive, combative orientation Attention to social cues Increased motivation Prosocial orientation Reactions to Exclusion Results from Gaertner, Iuzzini, & O’Mara, 2008

12 Inclusion and Survival The evolution of gregariousness (the “herd instinct”) Leary’s sociometer theory Neurological reactions to exclusion

13 The Evolution of Gregariousness

14 Leary’s sociometer theory: self-esteem warns of possible exclusion Self-esteem is not the evaluation of your worth—it is an indicator of how well you are accepted into social groups Mark Leary: We need to think about ourselves occasionally, but none of us needs to think about ourselves as much as we do.

15 The Biology of Ostracism and Inclusion Anterior insula dACC (dorsal cingulate cortex) Ostracism triggers “pain” areas of the brain

16 IndividualismCollectivism A tradition, ideology, or personal outlook that emphasizes the primacy of the individual and his or her rights, independence, and relationships with other A tradition, ideology, or personal orientation that emphasizes the primacy of the group or community rather than each individual person. Individualism to Collectivism Isolation to Inclusion Individualism to Collectivism Personal Identity to Social Identity

17 IndividualismCollectivism A tradition, ideology, or personal outlook that emphasizes the primacy of the individual and his or her rights, independence, and relationships with other A tradition, ideology, or personal orientation that emphasizes the primacy of the group or community rather than each individual person. Individualism to Collectivism

18 Copyright 2004 by Donelson R. Forsyth The individual is primary, first. His or her rights must be recognized and put above the right of the group as a whole. If the group’s goals aren’t compatible with the individual’s goals, then the individual is free to go his or her own way. Individualism Collectivism The group is primary, first. Its rights must be recognized and put above the right of the individual. The individual belongs to the group.

19 Individualism to Collectivism

20 Individualists Collectivists Micro: The Social Self

21 Micro: The Social Self Differences individualists and collectivists sex differences generational differences Brewer’s optimal distinctiveness theory America is woven of many strands. I would recognize them and let it so remain. Our fate is to become one, and yet many. ― Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man “

22 Individualism Collectivism Conformity and duty Communal relations Equality or need Sociocentric Ingroup oriented Autonomy and uniqueness Exchange relations Equity Egocentric Reciprocity Meso: The Group Culture

23 The mean distributions in the Ultimatum Game from people living in 16 different indigenous societies and cultures around the world.

24 Macro: Collectivism across Cultures  Cultures: East vs. West  Subcultures: Some ethnic groups, such as Asian Americans and Latinos, are more collectivistic than individualistic  Regions of the U.S.: Culture of Honor in the south Source: Cohen, Nibsett, Bowdle, & Schwartz

25 IndividualismCollectivism A tradition, ideology, or personal outlook that emphasizes the primacy of the individual and his or her rights, independence, and relationships with other A tradition, ideology, or personal orientation that emphasizes the primacy of the group or community rather than each individual person. Individualism to Collectivism Isolation to Inclusion Individualism to Collectivism Personal Identity to Social Identity

26 Social Identity Theory: Basics Basic assumption: the self- concept is determined by group memberships Personal identity (individual self) and Social identity (collective self) Tajfel & Turner’s minimal intergroup situation Key processes: categorization and identification

27  Social categorization: Individuals automatically classify people, including themselves, into groups.  Social identification: accepting as self- descriptive (self- stereotyping) the qualities attributed to one’s group (depersonalization ) Social Identity Theory I am a member of group X People in group X have qualities A, B, and C I have qualities A, B, and C Categorize

28 Self-esteem depends on an individual’s personal qualities and the value of the groups to which they belong Collective Self-esteem

29 Ingroup-outgroup bias: Rating one’s own group more positively than other groups. Basking in Reflected Glory (BIRG): stressing association with successful groups. Social creativity: Restricting comparisons between the ingroup and other groups to stress the ingroup’s relative strengths Stereotype threat: Anxiety-provoking (and self-confirming) belief that others’ are biased against one’s group Social mobility: Leaving the group Motivation and Social Identity

30 Social Identity Theory Need for self- esteem Personal Identity InclusionAchievementsSocial Identity Group achievements Group favoritism Increased self-esteem Outgroup rejection Not clear if outgroup rejection raises self-esteem

31 Isolation to Inclusion Need to Belong Inclusion and exclusion Inclusion and Human Nature Individualism to Collectivism Micro: The Social Self Meso: The Group Culture Macro: Collectivism across Cultures Personal Identity to Social Identity Social Identity Theory Motivation and Social Identity Review Who are you? A complex, hard-to-answer, question.


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