Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Inclusion and Identity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3 Inclusion and Identity The ancient taoist taijitu symbolizes the synthesis of the individual and the collective.Most people prefer group membership to isolation, but, once they join with others, they find they must sometimes do what is best for the group rather than what benefits them personally. Groups blur the boundary between the self and other, for members retain their personal qualities—their motives, emotions, and outlooks—but add to them a sense of self that is based on their group identity. Groups transform the me into the we.Do humans, by nature, seek solitude or inclusion in groups?When do people embrace collectivism by putting the group’s needs before their own?What processes transform an individual’s sense of self into a collective, social identity?
2 3: Inclusion and Identity Isolation to InclusionNeed toBelongInclusion and exclusionInclusionandHuman NatureIndividualism to CollectivismMicro:The Social SelfMeso:The Group CultureMacro:Collectivism across CulturesPersonal Identity to Social IdentitySocialIdentityTheoryMotivationand Social
3 Isolation to Inclusion Need toBelongAll human beings, “have a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive, and impactful interpersonal relationships.”Roy Baumeister & Mark Leary (1995, p. 497).Daniel Defoe’s Robinson CrusoeI am cast upon a horrible, desolate island; void of all hope of recovery. I am singled out and separated, as it were, from all the world, to be miserable. I am divided from mankind, a solitary; one banished from human society. I have no soul to speak to or to relieve me.
4 Isolation can be rejuvenating, but: Rubin Hurricane Carter:I had nothing, absolutely nothing. I was trapped at the bottom, the lowest point at which a human being can exist without being dead: solitary confinement. I had nothing to hold on to, no family, nobody to do anything for me.Isolation can be rejuvenating, but:Isolated individuals (e.g., stranded explorers) report negative effectsSolitary confinement recognized as a severe punishmentPeople seek membership in a variety of groupsPeople build their “social capital” by creating online and face-to-face relationships
5 People affiliate in groups Putnam’s “bowling alone” hypothesis: affiliation patterns are shifting
7 Different groups reduce different types of loneliness
8 Inclusion and exclusion The Inclusion/Exclusion ContinuumRejection AcceptanceMaximum ExclusionActive ExclusionPassive ExclusionAmbivalencePassive InclusionActive InclusionMaximum InclusionGroup rejects or ostracizes personGroup avoids personGroup ignores personGroup neither accepts nor rejects individualGroup allows member to joinGroup welcomes memberGroup actively recruits member
9 Inclusion and exclusion Researchers have studied reactions to ostracism in various ways, includingThe “life alone” paradigmThe ball-toss paradigm (and cyberball)The exclusion paradigmOstracism: Excluding one or more individuals from a group by reducing or eliminating contact with the person, usually by ignoring, shunning, or explicitly banishing them.
10 The Temporal Need-Threat Model of Ostracism: Williams, 2009
11 Reactions to Exclusion Fight vs FlightTend and BefriendWithdrawal and freezingAggressive, combative orientationAttention to social cuesIncreased motivationProsocial orientationResults from Gaertner, Iuzzini, & O’Mara, 2008
12 Inclusion and Survival The evolution of gregariousness (the “herd instinct”)Leary’s sociometer theoryNeurological reactions to exclusion
14 Leary’s sociometer theory: self-esteem warns of possible exclusion Mark Leary:We need to think about ourselves occasionally, but none of us needs to think about ourselves as much as we do.Self-esteem is not the evaluation of your worth—it is an indicator of how well you are accepted into social groups
15 The Biology of Ostracism and Inclusion dACC(dorsal cingulate cortex)Anterior insulaOstracism triggers “pain” areas of the brain
16 Individualism Collectivism Isolation to InclusionIndividualism to CollectivismPersonal Identity to Social IdentityIndividualismCollectivismA tradition, ideology, or personal outlook that emphasizes the primacy of the individual and his or her rights, independence, and relationships with otherA tradition, ideology, or personal orientation that emphasizes the primacy of the group or community rather than each individual person.Individualism to Collectivism
17 Individualism to Collectivism Individualism to Collectivism A tradition, ideology, or personal outlook that emphasizes the primacy of the individual and his or her rights, independence, and relationships with otherA tradition, ideology, or personal orientation that emphasizes the primacy of the group or community rather than each individual person.Individualism to Collectivism
18 Collectivism Individualism The group is primary, first. Its rights must be recognized andput above the right of the individual. The individual belongs to the group.IndividualismThe individual is primary, first. Hisor her rights must be recognized andput above the right of the group as awhole. If the group’s goals aren’tcompatible with the individual’s goals,then the individual is free to go hisor her own way.Copyright 2004 by Donelson R. Forsyth
20 Individualists Collectivists Micro:The Social SelfIndividualistsCollectivists
21 individualists and collectivists sex differences Micro:The Social SelfAmerica is woven of many strands. I would recognize them and let it so remain. Our fate is to become one, and yet many. ― Ralph Ellison, Invisible ManDifferencesindividualists and collectivistssex differencesgenerational differencesBrewer’s optimal distinctiveness theory“
22 Autonomy and uniqueness Meso:The Group CultureIndividualismCollectivismAutonomy and uniquenessExchange relationsEquityEgocentricReciprocityConformity and dutyCommunal relationsEquality or needSociocentricIngroup oriented
23 The mean distributions in the Ultimatum Game from people living in 16 different indigenous societies and cultures around the world.
24 Collectivism across Cultures Cultures: East vs. WestSubcultures: Some ethnic groups, such as Asian Americans and Latinos, are more collectivistic than individualisticRegions of the U.S.: Culture of Honor in the southSource: Cohen, Nibsett, Bowdle, & Schwartz
25 Individualism Collectivism Isolation to InclusionIndividualism to CollectivismPersonal Identity to Social IdentityIndividualismCollectivismA tradition, ideology, or personal outlook that emphasizes the primacy of the individual and his or her rights, independence, and relationships with otherA tradition, ideology, or personal orientation that emphasizes the primacy of the group or community rather than each individual person.Individualism to Collectivism
26 Personal Identity to Social Identity Social Identity Theory: BasicsBasic assumption: the self-concept is determined by group membershipsPersonal identity (individual self) and Social identity (collective self)Tajfel & Turner’s minimal intergroup situationKey processes: categorization and identification
27 Social Identity Theory Social categorization: Individuals automatically classify people, including themselves, into groups.Social identification: accepting as self- descriptive (self- stereotyping) the qualities attributed to one’s group (depersonalization)CategorizeI am a member of group XPeople in group X have qualities A, B, and CI have qualities A, B, and C
28 Collective Self-esteem Self-esteem depends on an individual’s personal qualities and the value of the groups to which they belong
29 Motivation and Social Identity Ingroup-outgroup bias: Rating one’s own group more positively than other groups.Basking in Reflected Glory (BIRG): stressing association with successful groups.Social creativity: Restricting comparisons between the ingroup and other groups to stress the ingroup’s relative strengthsStereotype threat: Anxiety-provoking (and self-confirming) belief that others’ are biased against one’s groupSocial mobility: Leaving the group
30 Social Identity Theory Need for self-esteemPersonal IdentityInclusionAchievementsSocial IdentityGroup achievementsGroup favoritismIncreased self-esteemOutgroup rejectionNot clear if outgroup rejection raises self-esteem
31 Review Isolation to Inclusion Individualism to Collectivism Who are you? A complex, hard-to-answer, question.Isolation to InclusionNeed toBelongInclusion and exclusionInclusionandHuman NatureIndividualism to CollectivismMicro:The Social SelfMeso:The Group CultureMacro:Collectivism across CulturesPersonal Identity to Social IdentitySocialIdentityTheoryMotivationand Social