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Cardiac catheters. 2  In 1929 Werner Forssmann demonstrated that a simple Rubber catheter could be passed to the pulmonary artery through the antecubital.

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Presentation on theme: "Cardiac catheters. 2  In 1929 Werner Forssmann demonstrated that a simple Rubber catheter could be passed to the pulmonary artery through the antecubital."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cardiac catheters

2 2  In 1929 Werner Forssmann demonstrated that a simple Rubber catheter could be passed to the pulmonary artery through the antecubital Vein and An angiographic film could be obtained using radiographic contrast.

3  “Was the key in the lock” – Andre Cournand & Dickinson Richards said in their Nobel lecture in  Certainly this key has unlocked the door to expanded diagnostic capabilities & therapeutic interventions. CARDIAC CATHETERS 3

4 4 Ideal characteristics of catheters  Better Torque Control  Strength  Radio-opacity  Flexible  Atraumatic Tip  Low Surface frictional resistance for good trackability over guide wire.

5 5 PARTS OF A CATHETER  HUB  BODY  TIP HUB BODY TIP

6 6 FRENCH CATHETER SCALE: The French catheter scale is commonly used to measure the outer diameter of cylindrical medical instruments including catheters, needles etc. D(mm) = Fr/3 or Fr = D(mm)*3 MEASUREMENT:  Most commonly in adult Diagnostic Catheters of 5 – 7 Fr is used.

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8  Thick walled- Accentuates pressure waveform-systolic overshoot & diastolic dips.  Thin walled _ Improves monitoring, blood sampling & flushing abilities, decrease thrombogenicity.  Disadvantage – less torque control, not suitable high pressure injection. SIZE – wall thickness 8

9 9 What is a Catheter made up of ? Materials: A range of polymers are used for the construction of catheters, including silicone rubber latex and thermoplastic elastomers. Silicone is one of the most common choices because it is inert and unreactive to body fluids and a range of medical fluids with which it might come into contact. Materials: CATHETER:  Polyvinylchloride (PVC)  Polyethylene (PE)  Fluoropolymers (PTFE) (TEFLON)  Polyurethane (PUR)  Silicone (SI)

10  Very maneuverable & flexible.  Covered by polyurethane coating – reduce vascular trauma.  Nylon core-increase bursting pressure  Nylon – great mechanical & physical strength, reduced friction coefficient.  Eg- USCI Cournand, birds eye, eppendorf & sones. DACRON 10

11  Stiffness inbetween polyurethane & Teflon.  Selective injection.  More thrombogenic than PVC, polyurethane, silicone catheters.  Stainless steel mesh braid improves rotational control & increase bursting pressure.  Eg – pigtail angiographic catheters (cook), judkins catheters, NIH & cournand. POLYETHYLENE 11

12  Excellent memory – Superselective injection.  Softer than polyethylene or Teflon.  Increased thrombogenicity  Reshaped if immersed in boling water.  Eg – pigtail angiographic (cordis) catheters & original judkins catheters. POLYURETHANE 12

13  Stiffest.  Poor memory.  Low friction coefficient.  Eg – Brockenbrough catheters, transducer-tip catheters & introducer sheaths. TEFLON 13

14  Softest & flexible.  High friction coefficient- venous spasm.  Increased thrombogenicity.  Very poor tensile strength ( memory)  Cant be reformed.  Most hydrophilic.  Drugs absorbed- NTG, insulin, diazepam,thiopentone.  Eg- Balloon-tip flow directed catheters. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE 14

15 CHARACTERISTICTEFLON POLYETHYLENEPOLYURETHANEPVC FRICTION COEFFICIENT STIFFNESS MEMORY GoodExcellent Fair MOISTURE ABSORPTION (% 24 HRS)

16  TIP: Neither blunt nor too sharp, soft & flexible.  Bullet nose tip- least trauma, Though too taper increased tip penetration.  HUB: Metal or plastic, larger than catheter, tapered hubs – easier insertion of guidewire. TIP & HUB 16

17  Rt heart catheters- 100 to 125cm.  Lt heart catheters- 100 to 110cm.  125cm for very tall person. LENGTH 17

18  Cournand  Lehman  Goodale–lubin  Balloon floatation catheters General purpose – RIGHT heart catheters 18

19  Gensini  NIH  Eppendorf  Lehman ventriculography  Pigtail angiographic catheter  Flow directed angiographic catheter ANGIOGRAPHIC CATHETERS 19

20  Judkins  Amplatz  Schoonmaker multipurpose catheter  Coronary bypass catheter  Sones  Castillo PREFORMED CORONARY CATHETERS 20

21  Shirey transvascular catheter  Brockenbrough transeptal catheter  Double lumen catheter  Multilumen catheter  Fogarty catheter  Transducer-tip catheter  Angioscopic catheter  Pacing catheter. SPECIALISED CATHETERS 21

22 COURNAND catheter  Designer: Andre Cournand,1939. End hole radio-opaque woven Dacron catheter with an outer coating of polyurethane.  Construction: very gradual distal curve Tapered tip.  Use : All purpose right heart catheter.  Size : 5 to 8Fr.length – 100 & 125cm. 22

23 SCHOOMAKER MULTIPURPOSE CATHETER  Designer : Dr.Fred W Schoomaker.  Construction: polyurethane with an inner wire braid. A-1 MP:A bend –hockey stick with straight tip 1-one end hole only A-2 MP:2side holes,1end hole B-1 MP :B bend gradual 90 degree curve,1 end hole only B -2 MP: 2 sideholes and an end hole Use- CAG & LV,for crossing different lesions PDA and MAPCAcoiling.  Size : 7 & 8 Fr. length –100cm. 23

24 NIH catheter  Construction: USCI version- woven dacron with a nylon core.Injection at high flow rates 6 sideholes COOK – polyethylene with a stainless steel braid, 4 to 6 sideholes. Hole : No end hole, only sidehole catheter with a gentle curve.[excellent mixing of contrast ]  Use : visualizing RV.LV,arterial,pulmonary vasculature & great veins.  Size :USCI 5 to 8Fr.length –50, 80,100 cms 125cm.  COOK:6.5,7.3 & 8.2Fr, all 100cm.  Disadvantage : perforation 24

25 PIGTAIL CATHETER  Designed : Judkins.  Construction: woven dacron coated with polyurethane or polyethylene.  Hole : 4-12 non-laterally opposed sidehole in the terminal 5cm. Terminal 5cm coiled back.  Use : most commonly used LV, aortography & pulmonary angiography.  Size : 6.5,7,3 & 8.2Fr.length – 65,80,100 & 110cm.side holes-4,6,8 or

26  Advantage : least traumatic, less incidence of arrythmia,catheter recoil, intramyocardial injection & cardiac perforation.  Disadvantage : Thrombogenicity, & not for prolonged haemodynamic monitoring. Pigtail catheter 26

27  Construction: polyurethane with stainless steel braid.  Hole : 8 nonlaterally opposed sidehole near the endhole.  Use. most commonly used LV, aortography & pulmonary angiography  Size : 7 & 8Fr. length – 110cm. Positrol II pigtail catheter 27

28  Construction: polyurethane over a thin nylon core.  Hole : 8 nonlaterally opposed sidehole near the endhole.  Use: LV, aortography.  Size : 7 & 8Fr. length – 65,80 & 110cm.  Advantage : flow rate equal to one Fr > than designated. Nycore high-flow pigtail catheter 28

29  Construction: polyurethane with a stainless steel braid except in tip.  Hole : 12 nonlaterally opposed sidehole near the endhole.  Use: LV, aortography.  Size : 5,7 & 8Fr. length – 65,90 & 110cm.  Advantage : can withstand upto 1000psi. Ducor high-flow femoral- ventricular Pigtail catheter 29

30 PIG TAIL ANGIOGRAPHIC  12 Side holes evenly disperses contrast in LV QUANTICOR [Cardiomarker pig tail] Radiopaque markers set 2 cm apart Used for quantitative angiography 30

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32 Grollman pigtail catheter  Construction: polyethylene with for spiraled side ports near tip.  Hole : 12 nonlaterally opposed sidehole near the endhole. 60 degree bend.  Use: RV & selective PA angiography.  Size : 5,7 & 8Fr. length – 65,90 & 110cm. 32

33 VAN TASSEL ANGLED PIGTAIL Construction: polyurethane over a thin nylon core.  Hole : 8 nonlaterally opposed sidehole near the endhole 145˚or 155˚ angle 7cm from the tip.Use: LV, aortography.  Size : 7 & 8Fr. length – 110cm.  Advantage : can cross stenotic aortic valve 33

34 GOODALE-LUBIN CATHETER  Birdseye catheter.  Construction: woven dacron coated with polyurethane.  Hole : Two laterally opposed sidehole near the endhole.  Use : right heart pressure, including wedge & blood sampling.  Size : 4 to 8Fr.length – 80,100 & 125cm.  Variation :Standard wall –Cournand  Thin wall- Lehman 34

35 LEHMAN CATHETER;  Thin wall variation of cournand.  Shorter distal curve, increased inner diameter & decreased stiffness.  size-4 to 9Fr.length-50,80,100 &125cm. 35

36 GENSINI catheter  Construction: woven dacron coated with polyurethane.  Hole : Three laterally opposed oval sidehole within 1.5cm of its open tip.  Use : right or left heart, pulmonary & vena cava angiographic studies.  Size : 5 to 8Fr.length – 80,100 & 125cm.  Disadvantage: More arrythmogenic 36

37 EPPENDORF catheter  Construction: woven dacron coated with polyurethane area 20cm proximal to hub is reinforced with nylon  Hole : closed-end, six laterally opposed sidehole catheter with a gentle curve.  Use : visualizing RV.LV,arterial,pulmonary vasculature & great veins.  Size : 7 to 8Fr.length –100 & 125cm.  Feature: less stiff, & more torque control. 37

38 GUIDEWIRES  Three components Central core that tapers distally.  Flexible tip  Lubricious coating. 38

39 Fixed & movable core GW  1.spring coils  2.inner safety wire  3.mandrel core  4.flexible tip  5.proximal end 39

40 Guidewire  First available standard guidewire ’ contains 2 to 3cm,safety wire in the tip  Safetywire is replaced by a ribbon  steerability,trackability,torquability,kink resistence, frictional resistance.  Standard length- 175 to 190cm- usually 20cm longer than the catheter.  For exchange wire-300cm.  Thickness – inch (0.9mm). 40

41 CORE  single or multiple segment.  Provides tensile strength, torque strength, torque transmission & blood compatibility.  Commonly composed of stainless steel.  Nitinol – increased tractability.  Disadvantage- tends to store rather than transmit torque- wire WINDING UP.  Commonly used “workhorse wire” have moderate flexibility & support. 41

42 Distal tip  Platinum or tungsten alloy.  Radiopacity,flexibilty & blood compatibility.  Radiopacity -2 to 3cm. Rarely 11 to 40cm.  High radiopacity is a feature of more aggressive wire,  Tip load- Amount of force required to deflect the tip into a predetermined configuration. Exp-gms of force. 42

43 Coating  - silicone, teflon, polytetrafluoroethylene, hydrophilic polymer.  Hydrophilic wire- crosses severe stenosis & total occlusion, 43

44 J-curve guidewire 44

45 Coreflex guidewire –solid wire body with spring coils at tip 45

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47 Spring tip wire & Plastic wire  Spring wire:A) stainless steel tip  B) Nitinol tip jointed to stainless steel shaft  Steerability helps  Plastic wire: Little resistence, torquability lost, useful for severe stenosis with heavy calcification. 47

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83 83  In 1929 Werner Forssmann demonstrated that a simple Rubber catheter could be passed to the pulmonary artery through the Anti- Cubital Vein and An angiographic film could be obtained using radiographic contrast.


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