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TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission www.highered.tafensw.edu.au ENMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Associate Degree of Applied.

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Presentation on theme: "TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission www.highered.tafensw.edu.au ENMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Associate Degree of Applied."— Presentation transcript:

1 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission ENMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Associate Degree of Applied Engineering (Renewable Energy Technologies) Lecture 24 – Fibre-reinforced composite materials

2 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Fibre-reinforced composite materials EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Reference TextSection Higgins RA & Bolton, Materials for Engineers and Technicians, 5th ed, Butterworth Heinemann Ch 24 Reference TextSection

3 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Fibre-reinforced composite materials (Higgins 24) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Wood can be thought of as a fibre composite: Fibres are the cells (tracheids) and glued together by the matrix (lignin).

4 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Fibre-reinforced composite materials (Higgins 24) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Man-made fibre-reinforced composites Matrix materials, such as thermosetting or thermoplastics polymers and some low-melting point metals, reinforced with fibres of carbon, glass or organic polymer. Polymers, usually thermosetting, reinforced with fibres or laminates of woven textile materials. Vehicle tyres in which vulcanised rubber is reinforced with woven textiles and steel wire. Materials such as concrete reinforced with steel rods.

5 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.2 Unidirectional Composites (Higgins 24.2) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Relative density of composite Tensile strength of composite Modulus of composite Higgins

6 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.3 Fibres (Higgins 24.3) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Glass fibre Carbon fibre Boron fibre Aramid fibre (Kevlar) Other fibres CarbonAramid (Kevlar)Glass

7 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.3 Fibres (Higgins 24.3) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Higgins

8 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.4 Matrix materials (Higgins 24.4) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes It should be stable to a temperature at which the properties of the fibre begin to deteriorate. It must be capable of resisting any chemical attack by its environment. It should not be affected by moisture Thermosetting resins Thermoplastic polymers Metals

9 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.5 Mechanical properties (Higgins 24.5) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Higgins

10 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.6 Fibre-composite manufacture (Higgins 24.6) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Higgins Rovings. A 'roving' of glass fibres, which may be several kilometres in length, consists of 'strands', or bundles of filaments wound on to a 'creel'. A 'strand' contains some 200 filaments, each about 10 um in diameter. Bundles of continuous carbon fibres are known as 'tows'. Woven fabrics in various weave types. Chopped fibres, usually between 1 mm and 50 mm long. Continuously produced sections (rod, tube or channel), or sheet, from which required lengths can be cut. Such a process can only produce composites which are anisotropic in their properties, strength being in a direction parallel to the fibre direction. Composites manufactured as individual components. Here the fibre may be woven into a 'preform' which roughly follows the mould or die contour. In this case, the mechanical properties will tend to be multi-directional.

11 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.6 Fibre-composite manufacture (Higgins 24.6) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Higgins Poltrusion

12 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.6 Fibre-composite manufacture (Higgins 24.6) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Fibreglass/polyester Boat Hull 'Hand-and-spray' placement Press moulding Resin-transfer moulding Metal matrix composites

13 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.7 Uses of fibre-reinforced composites (Higgins 24.7) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Higgins The most important of these materials commercially are polymer matrix composites reinforced with either glass, carbon or aramid fibres. The following characteristics of fibre composites commend their use: Low relative density and hence high specific strength and modulus of elasticity. Good resistance to corrosion. Good fatigue resistance, particularly parallel to the fibre direction.

14 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.7 Uses of fibre-reinforced composites (Higgins 24.7) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes This wind turbine blade is fibreglass – the fibres can be clearly seen. The tower itself is usually steel. Oldenburg in northern Germany /dangers_of_wind_power.html

15 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.8 Reinforced wood (Higgins 24.8) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Higgins The development of strong synthetic resin adhesives some years ago resulted in much progress in the use of timber as a constructional material. Also called ‘engineered wood’ Laminated wood Plywood, blockboard and particleboard

16 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.8 Reinforced wood (Higgins 24.8) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Corrugated cardboard Laminated boards Complex anatomy of a carton. Image: Carton Council

17 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission 24.9 Reinforced concrete (Higgins 24.9) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Higgins Steel reinforcing is designed to take tension, while concrete assumed to have zero tensile strength but takes compression.

18 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

19 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Compression tests on concrete Ductile materials simply squash (barrel). Brittle materials often fracture at 45 o (due to shear stress being much lower than compressive stress). Compression is the standard test for concrete. Compression test for Concrete Wikipedia 24.9 Reinforced concrete (Higgins 24.9)

20 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Concrete Test High Strength Concrete Concrete is not usually this strong, so it doesn’t usually explode like this… The numbers: (Imperial/US units) 15.9 ksi or 200,000 lbs on a 4" diam cylinder. Convert this to metric = 110Mpa Concrete is usually about 20MPa, structural about 40MPa, and higher strength usually prefabricated since the W/C ratio must be very low (dry). Compression test for Concrete You Tube rutgerscivilengr OfflineOnline

21 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Resources. Ashby diagrams Young's modulus - Density Young's Modulus - Cost Strength - Density Strength - Toughness Strength - Elongation Strength - Cost Strength - Max service temperature Specific stiffness - Specific strength Electrical resistivity - Cost Recycle Fraction - Cost Energy content - Cost

22 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Composite Materials Cook, Jerome T. [US]: Society of Manufacturing Engineers, c2005. DVD (17 min.). Part A: Hand lay-up, theory, open mould chopped roving, marine, vacuum bagging Part B: Resin infusion, resin transfer, compression moulding, pultrusion, filament winding, continuous profile, bulk casting, centrifugal casting Features an explanation of the mechanical properties of thermoset fiber- reinforced composites. The primary types of reinforcement materials are examined as well as the major matrix materials. The use of thermoplastic composite materials is also highlighted. Mt Druitt College LibraryMt Druitt College Library: DVD /COMP Recommended Viewing: All sections. Videos

23 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Wikipedia: Fibre-reinforced plastic Resources. Wikipedia: Composite material Ashby diagrams

24 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Glossary EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Anisotropic Chopped fibre Rovings Unidirectional Woven mat Chopped strand mat Filament wound Matrix Poltrusion Aramid Carbon fibre

25 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission QUESTIONS Higgins Ch24, Newell, Timmings, Sheedy, Callister, Ashby 1.Define all glossary terms 2.Explain the issues of making strong concrete regarding water ratio, cement ratio, aggregate and sand, curing time and temperature, curing humidity. Explain what would be done to achieve high strength and low shrinkage. 3.What is a cermet and what are they used for? Give some examples of cermets and explain what properties they have that make them suitable for their purpose. 4.Give five reasons for a particle to be added to a matrix – include a range of different types of particle composites. 5.Explain how small particles can strengthen a ductile metal matrix even when the particles are rounded. (Dispersion hardened material). 6.Obsidian is a naturally occurring (usually dark) volcanic rock. Granite has large visible crystals and forms deep underground. Which one is more likely to be a glassy structure? Explain. 7.Explain why fibres are available in woven mat, chopped strand mat and filament. Give examples of each. 8.Polyester is common with glass and epoxy with carbon. Give reasons. Give advantages and disadvantages of each matrix resin. EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

26 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission QUESTIONS: Fibre Composites Higgins Ch24, Newell, Timmings, Sheedy, Callister, Ashby 9.Compare and contrast the advantages and limitations of the following systems of reinforcing concrete: (a) simple reinforcement, (b) prestressed reinforcement, (c) post-tensioned reinforcement. 10.Explain what is meant by the particle hardening of a composite material and the dispersion hardening of a composite material. In each case give an example of such a material, together with a typical application. 11. Compare the four main types of water storage tank for domestic purposes: Polyethylene, fibreglass, galvanised steel and concrete. See materials-/news/4531 materials-/news/4531 EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes


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