2Woven fabric is produced by interlacing the threads running down the fabric (warp yarns) with those lying acrossit (weft yarns).The major reasons for the variations in the appearance ofWoven fabric arethe yarn structure andthe fabric structureThe aspects of yarn structure that are most likely to affectThe final appearance and properties of the fabric includethe degree of hairiness of the yarnIts smoothness and lustreIts extensibility and twistStrength, which is critical in ensuring satisfactory performanceduring use
3Woven fabric parameters There are four basic parameters that are essential for every woven fabric:Thread Count/ Fabric density (Sett)Yarn Diameter (Linear density)Yarn Bending (Crimp) andThe order of yarn interlacement (Weaving)
4Thread count:Fabric density or compactness is one of the most significantFactors when considering the durability of the fabric. It isdetermined by the closeness of the yarns after the fabric is being wovenA garment made from such a fabric shrinks less in washing, slips less at the seems and keeps its shape.A fabric of compact construction has a high thread count.Thread count, also known as fabric count or cloth count isdetermined by counting no. of warp yarns and weft yarns in a square inch of fabric.
5The warp yarns and weft yarns are commonly referred to as end and picks, so the terms commonly used areEPI = ends per inch andPPI = picks per inchTo ascertain the thread count, one may use a pick glassor fabric counting glass, which is a “magnifying glassmounted on a small stand with a 1 inch square openingthrough which the no. of warp and weft are counted”.Another and faster means of determining thread count iswith a transparent plastic plate of line gratings having asequence of parallel lines set with mathematical precisionat decreasing distances from each other.
7When the line grating scale is placed on the fabric, light passing through produces a wave pattern (moire effect)that is interrupted by a harmonic image of a oval form.The center of which, where the waves converge into a straightline, the thread count can be noted along the edge of the plate.Thread count: measures the no. of warp and weft in 1inch squareYarn count: measures the degree of fineness in the yarnsLow thread count: 20 /inch –tobacco clothHigh thread count: 350/inch – typewriter ribbon74 x 66 ; first no. indicates the warp and the second, filling.which is sometimes described as 140.
8Balanced construction: A fabric is said to be balnced if the number of warp yarns arealmost equal to the number of weft yarns.Ex: 64 x 60, 28 x 24Fabric count and yarn count are interdependent.A high count fabric even with poor balance will givebetter wear than a low count fabric with good balance.
9Linear Density or yarn count: fineness of yarn (measured in ratio of length to weight or weight per length)The popular yarn count systems that have been used formany years include the cotton count, worsted, metric and denier.Crimp: Crimp refers to the amount of bending that is doneby a thread as it interlaces with the threads that are lyingin the opposite direction of the fabric.It is the difference between the length of yarn (Ly) taken froma length of fabric (Lf)(Ly –Lf) (Ly –Lf)Crimp (c) = Crimp% (c%)= x 100Lf Lf
11Weave: Weave refers to the order of interlacing of the warp ends and the weft picks A weave repeat is commonly illustrated in the square or grid paper design.A weave repeat is the smallest number of threads required to show all of the interlacings in the pattern.It is usually considered sufficient to show one repeat only.
12Fabric Weight:Fabric weight (Wc) is the weight of yarn per square meterin a woven fabric, which is the sum of the weight of warp (W1)and the weight of the weft(W2).Expressed in GSM; Grams per Square MeterWc = total length of yarn in 1square meter x mass perunit length of yarn.Total weight per square m = W1+W2 gm-2 andWeight per piece =(W1+W2)x piece length x piece width g.
13Cover factor:Cover factor (k) is defined as the area covered by yarnwhen compared with the total area covered by the fabric.Warp cover (k1)= n1√n1 (k2)= n2√n2Total Cover factor kc =k1+k2
14WEAVING:Weaving is a process of interlacing of the warp ends and the weft picksMajor method of fabric constructionThe technique became known even before spinningSpinning developed when people discovered that the raw material could be improved before they were woven.
15WARP: The length wise yarns which run from the back to the front of the loom, which forms the basic structureof the fabric and are called the warp.Warp yarns are yarns that are parallel to the selvedgewhich run through the length of the fabricWEFT: Crosswise yarns that run across the loom are called theweft / woof / filling yarns.Weft yarns are yarns that are perpendicular to the selvedgewhich run through the width of the fabric
16Preparation for weaving: In the weaving operation, the filling yarns undergo less strainwhen compared to the warp yarns.Weft yarns are prepared by spinning them in to desired sizeand give them the amount of twist required for thetype of fabric for which they will be used.Warp yarns must pass through such operations asSpoolingWarping andSlashing
17Spooling:In spooling the yarn is wound on larger spools or coneswhich are placed on a rack called creel. From this creel,the yarns are wound on a warp beamWarping:In warping the yarns are taken from the spools placedon the creel and are wound around the warp beam or rollas per the calculated width of the fabric. An uninterruptedlength of hundreds of warp yarns results, all lying parallelto one another.Slashing: The yarns are unwound from the warp beam andput through the Slashing or sizing bath containing eitherstarch based or synthetic based starches (PVA) depending upon thefibre content of warp yarns. The sized yarns are again wound on afinal warp beam which can be readily used in the loom.
19Essential weaving operations: In any type of weaving, four operations are fundamental.They are performed in sequence and are constantly repeated.Shedding: Raising specific warp yarns by means of theharness or heddle frame or heald shaftsPicking: Inserting filling yarns through the shedBeating Up: Pushing filling yarns firmly in placeby means of the reedTaking up and Letting off: winding the finished fabricon the cloth beam and releasing more of the warp fromthe warp beam
21Shedding: The raising of the alternate warp yarns formed an inverted V opening or shed, through which thefilling yarn was inserted. on the modern looms, sheddingoperations are performed automatically by the harness.Harness: it is a rectangular frame, to which a series of wirescalled heddles are attached. As each warp yarn comes fromthe warp beam, it must pass through an opening like“eye of a needle” in the middle of the heddle.The operation of drawing each warp yarn through appropriateheddle eye is known as “drawing in”.
23Picking: As the harnesses raise the heddles which in turn raise the warp yarns, the filling yarn is inserted throughthe shed by a carrier device.A single crossing of the filling from one side of the loomto the other is called a pick.Beating up (Battening):All warp yarns pass through heddles eyes and through openingsin another frame that resembles a comb and is called a reed.With each picking operation, the reed automatically beatseach filling yarn against the portion of the fabric that hasalready been formed. It gives the fabric a firm and compactconstruction
26Shuttle looms:The conventional loom utilises a shuttle that contains abobbin of filling yarn which emerges through a hole inthe side.Shuttle loom is the oldest kind of loom but versatileand effective.Disadvantages: shuttles causes abrasion on the warp yarnsand sometimes causes warp breaks.Function slowly (110 to 225 picks per minute)Shuttle looms are noisy.
27Shuttle less looms:Shuttle less looms uses a different method of picking,which provides specific characteristics and applications.Missile or Projectile looms: The picking action is accomplishedBy a series of small bullet like projectiles which grip the fillingYarn and carry it through the shed and return empty.All the filling inserted from one side of the loom andA special tucking device is used to hold the filling in placeat the edges of cloth to form selvedge.Speed: upto 300ppm and less noisy than shuttle looms.
29Rapier looms:These looms are competetors to the missile looms.There are two types of rapier looms.Long and single rapier that carries the weft across the widthfrom one side of the loom to anotherDouble rapier that is one on each side of the loom.One rapier feeds the filling yarn halfway through theshed of warp yarns to the arm on the other side,which reaches in and takes it across the rest of the way.Speed: 200 to260ppm at the same noise level of projectile loom
31Water jet looms: A pre measured length of filling yarn is carried across the loom by a jet of water. Can producesuperior quality of fabrics. Suitable for non absorbent fibreslike synthetic fibres.Speed: 600ppm, at noise levels lower than missile and rapierAir jet looms: These looms use a jet of air to propel thefilling yarn through the shed. Require uniform filling yarns.They are suitable for use with medium weight yarns thanvery light and very heavy yarns.
32Selvages (Selvedges): As the shuttle moves back and forth across the widthof the shed, it weaves a self edge called a selvedge oneach side of the fabric.The selvedge prevent the fabric from ravelingIt is usually made more compact and stronger than therest of the fabric by using more or heavier warp yarns or byusing a stronger weave.The kind of selvedge depends upon the economy ofproduction and the expected use of the fabric.
33Plain selvages: simple plain weave, same size yarns, threads more compactly packed. Fairly durable and firm.Tape selvages: basket weave for flatter edges, made ofheavier yarns or ply yarns for greater strengthSplit selvages: made by weaving narrow width fabrics twiceits ordinary width with two selvages in the center
35Fused selvages: for fabrics of thermoplastic fibers. The fabric is fused to seal at the edges. This technique issometimes used to split wider fabrics in to narrow width fabrics.Leno selvage: used on shuttle less looms. Uses a narrowleno weave at the edges which locks the cut endsalong the edgesTucked selvage: used on shuttle less looms. A special device isused to tuck and hold the cut ends in to the fabric weave.
36Classification of weaves Weaves fall in to three main categories:Basic weaves (Plain, Twill, Satin and their derivatives)Fancy weavesCompound structures
37Plain weave:It is the simplest weave having the most basic interlacing. Each weft goes over a warp and then under a warp yarn.It gives a firm and flat structure and is ideal for finisheslike printing. The fabric looks alike from the face and the backand is therefore reversible. Checks and stripes can becreated by using different coloured yarns in warp or weft.
40The two main variations of plain weave are: Basket weave: two or more yarns are taken as one set and areInterlaced in plain weave pattern. Such weave creates interestingtextures, but are not very stable.Rib Weave: A rib effect is produced by using several yarns asone or a thick yarn in either warp or weft direction which createridge like effect
43Twill weave: A twill weave is characterized by diagonal lines on the face or the back of the fabric.For ex: DenimThis weave requires a minimum of three harnesses formanufacturing.Twill weave is characterised by high strengthand compact weaving.These fabrics have good abrasion resistance and are durable.The direction of the twill can be varied to create interestingeffects such as broken twill, pointed twill, herringbone etc.
55Distinguishing warp and weft: Direction of the fabric determines the way in whichthe fabric should be cut when a garment is made from it.It is easy to identify the direction of warp and weft -If the fabric is new – warp along the length of the fabricIf the fabric has selvedge – warp parallel to the selvedgeFabric with no selvedges can be identified by observingthe weave of the fabric.
56In plain weave- greater no. of yarns in one direction indicates the direction of warpIn twill weaves, filling yarns run in the direction of the diagonal.In satin weaves, the direction of the floating yarns is warp.The direction of the coloured stripes indicates warpMore stretch along the weft when compared to warpFiner yarns in the warp directionFilament yarns in warp and spun yarns in weft in mixture fabrics
57Direction of ribs mostly in warp direction but can vary according to variety of fabric.Stronger and stiff or starched yarns in the warpPly yarns in the warpFancy yarns in the weftElastic yarns in the weftYarns of varying sizes in warpInferior quality of yarn in filling
58Yarns with higher twist in the warp Marked evenness in one direction indicates warpNapped fabric-direction of nap in the warp as it is passedthrough napped rollers in warp directionThe reed marks or bands along the weftMore shrinkage along the warpMore drape in the direction of warpIn garment: warp parallel to side seemsweft along the length of waist bands.
59Identifying the right side of the fabric: It is necessary to identify the face or right side of thefabric for cutting and sewing purposes.When the cloth is on a bolt, usually the fabric is folded orrolled with right side of the fabric inside to keep it cleanMore lustrous and shinier side is right sidePrint more distinct on right side of the fabricNapped or fuzzier surface is face (textural effects on right side)Slub yarns tend to be more outstanding on the right side
60Woven fabric defects:Yarn defects: Slubs caused by uneven spinningBroken or missing end or pickMixed end or pick with variation insize, twist, number of plies or colourWeave defects: A slack yarn or tight end or pickdue to insufficient tensionUneven space between ends due to miss drawMiss pick due to improper weavingReed marks due to improper drawing of warpthrough the reedFilling bars due to the variation in batteningTight selvedge due to excess tension in the warpStreaks caused by loom start and stop motions