What are some examples of different ways we protect ourselves from contaminants? Medical and Non-medical Ways
Medical Ways Vaccine Protection from pathogens Example: Flu Shot, Booster Shot, Hep B, Polio Protect against spreadable infectious diseases caused by microbes How They Work: use body’s natural ability to defend itself by exposing it to small amounts of microbes and letting immunity build up ~ Lymphatic System (immune system) most vaccines contain microbes that have been weakened or killed
Medical Ways – Vaccine Con’t Naturally Acquired Immunity Old way of building up immunity before vaccines Contract disease and hopefully survive it Artificially Acquired Immunity Provided through vaccines b/c don’t have to get disease to build up immunity Protect both individual and community Herd Immunity: need certain number of people in community = whole community less likely to contract disease
Medical Ways Medication Used when vaccine not available Prevent, treat symptoms and cure diseases Example: Malaria – mosquitoes; antimalaria medication – kill parasites that cause malaria Asthma – inflammation of the lungs airways, caused by various triggers (dust mites, pollen, smog, etc); corticosteroid (hormone) medication inhaled with puffer
Non-Medical Ways Sunscreen and Sun Protective Clothing SPF = sun protective factor; represents length of time that sunscreen-protected skin can be exposed to UVB Rays only before it turns red Example: SPF 15 – 15 times longer in sun before burn (30 minutes = 450 minutes with SPF 15 on) Broad Band Spectrum – protection from both UVB and UVA What type of UV Rays was most active and dangerous? What was least?
Non-Medical Ways Sun Protective Clothing Con’t Rated using UPF numbers (ultraviolet protection factor) Protects from both UVB and UVA Rating that is used to measure amount of UV rays that pass through fabrics when exposed to UV radiation
Non-Medical Ways – Sun Protective Clothing Con’t UPF ratingProtection category% UV rays blocked 15-24good93.3-95.9 25-39very good96.0-97.4 40 and overexcellent97.5 or more
Non-Medical Ways – Sun Protective Clothing Con’t Regular clothing does provide some UV protection Dark colours (dyes absorb rays) Tightly woven Worn and wet = less protective Everyday fabrics that provide more sun protection Everyday fabrics that provide less sun protection Blue or black denim jeans 100% polyester Shiny polyester blends Satin-finish silk Tightly woven fabrics Unbleached cotton Polyester crepe Bleached cotton Viscose Loosely woven knits Undyed white denim jeans Threadbare worn fabric
Non-Medical Ways Air-Purifying Respirators and Supplied-Air Respirators What types of Environmental Factors would respirators protect against? Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, etc....chemical fumes, infectious pathogens Give examples of professions who use respirators. Firefighters, construction workers, healthcare workers
Non-Medical Ways Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs) Remove airborne contaminants like particulate matter Some absorb chemical gases and microbes in a cartridge or canister
Non-Medical Ways Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR) Supply clean air through compressed air tank or air line Used in extremely hazardous environments Example: figherfighters in smoke filled burning buildings or toxic industrial contaminants in air Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) User carries in tank with them on their back Two types: Open-Circuit SCBA, Closed-Circuit SCBA
Non-Medical Ways Open-Circuit SCBAs Provide clean air from a cylinder; user exhales directly into the atmosphere Closed-Circuit SCBAs Recycle users exhaled air; carbon dioxide removed and oxygen added from a chemical canister when passed through a mechanism What type do firefighters use?
Non-Medical Ways Hearing Protection Noise Pollution; Hearing Loss Ear Plugs Made of foam; inserted into ear canal Ear Muffs Made of sound reducing material and soft ear cushion covered by hard outer cups Can be worn together to provide more protection from really loud noises
Non-Medical Ways Ear plugsEar Muffs Advantages: Small and easily carried Simple to use Less expensive Convenient to use with other personal protection equipment (e.g., can be worn with ear muffs) More comfortable to wear in hot, humid work areas Advantages: More consistent noise-reducing ability among different users Designed so that one size fits most head sizes More durable; have replaceable parts Easily seen at a distance to assist in monitoring their use Not easily misplaced or lost May be worn with minor ear infections
Non-Medical Ways Ear PlugsEar Muffs Disadvantages: Provide less noise protection than some ear muffs Custom molded plugs require more time to fit More difficult to insert and remove Must be properly inserted to provide effective protection Use requires good hygiene practices to avoid dirt and bacteria entering the ears, causing ear infections May irritate the ear canal Easily misplaced Disadvantages: Less portable and heavier to wear More expensive More inconvenient to use with other personal protective equipment (e.g., may interfere with the wearing of safety or prescription glasses; wearing glasses may break the seal between the ear muff and the skin, resulting in decreased hearing protection) More uncomfortable to wear in hot, humid work areas