Presentation on theme: "Five Disciplines for Building High Performing Learning Organizations"— Presentation transcript:
1Five Disciplines for Building High Performing Learning Organizations PresentedCampus NorrköpingLinköping Universitet, SwedenSeptember 24-25, 1998
2A High Performing Organization is … “… a group of people who are continually enhancing their capacity to create the results they want. This statement has two parts to it: One, you have to know what you want to create, so you are continually reflecting on your sense of purpose, vision. And secondly, you have to be continually developing the capability to move in that direction.”Peter Senge, 1990
3The Laws of the Fifth Discipline Today’s problems come from yesterday’s “solutions.”The harder you push, the harder the system pushes backBehavior grows better before it grows worse.The cure can be worse than the disease.
4The Laws of the Fifth Discipline (continued) Faster is slowerCause and effect are not closely related in time and space.You can have your cake and eat it too--but not at once.Dividing the elephant in half does not produce two small elephantsThere is no blame. (Senge (1990) pp )
5Organization Learning Disabilities “I am my position”“The enemy is out there”The illusion of taking chargeThe fixation on eventsThe parable of the boiled frogThe delusion of learning from experienceThe myth of the management team (18-24)
6Antidote to Learning Disabilities Aspiration:Individual & CollectiveUnderstandingComplexity and ChangeCollaboration
7Systems Thinking Helps us understand and describe complex issues. Is a language for learning and acting.Helps us see how we create our realityPoints to higher leverage solutions to problems.Helps us understand and describe complex issues.Integrates the other disciplines.
8Events, Patterns and Structure Structure is harder to see Trends and PatternsIncrease leverageand opportunity forlearningLike an icebergthe big importantstructure is hiddenStructure
9Levels of Structure Business structures Organizational Structures Interpersonal StructuresIndividual Structures(Mental Models)
12Interpersonal Structures Relational skillsRoles and role flexibilityAbility to recognize & capitalize on diversityProblem solving and decision makingUnwritten rules
13Individual Structures (Mental Models) How I thinkHow I view myself and my roleMy beliefs and assumptions
14Systems ThinkingIs a discipline for seeing structures(the patterns and connections underlying seemingly diverse personal, organizational and societal issues.
15Disciplines of Highly Performing Learning Organizations Systems thinkingPersonal masteryMental modelsShared visionTeam learning
16Systems Thinking An appreciation of how our actions shape our reality. An appreciation that ones actions impinge all the members of the work unit.Focus on interrelationships and not thingsThink in circles, not in lines.Moving beyond blame.
17Systems Thinking (Cont.) Systems Thinking shows that is no outside--that you and the cause of the problems are part of a single system.The language of systems thinking is “links” and “loops.”
18Systems Thinking (Cont...) Seeing interrelationships rather than linear cause-effect chains.Seeing circles of causality.Seeing processes of change rather than snapshots.The practice of systems thinking starts with understanding the concept called “feedback.”
19Levels of Perspective Vision Mental Models Systemic Structures PatternsEvents
20If we were 99.9% free of defects in our life Eighteen planes would crash every day.The Postal Service would lose 17,660 pieces of mail every day.More than 3,700 prescriptions would be filled incorrectly every day.Ten new born babies would be dropped during delivery everyday.Banks would deduct $24.8 million from the wrong accounts every hour
21Personal Mastery Based on personal vision. Facing current reality. Holding creative tension--the gap between reality and the vision we hold is creative tension.Commitment to the truth.Using subconscious, or, “you don’t really need to figure it all out.
22Stages of Personal Mastery Adopting a creative orientation toward life.Articulating a personal vision and seeing current reality.Choosing to commit to creating the results you want.Balancing work and home life.
23Personal MasteryIs the emotional intelligence-capacity to use our intelligence (smarts) to the fullest extent.Organizations learn only through individuals who learn.
24Personal Mastery Capacity Our capacity is limited by 5 Demons:Fear of not being good enough [you have untapped capacities within yourself]Fear of losing control [letting go makes new things happen]its a cruel world out there--life is always a struggle [there is generosity all around, all you have to do is ask]
25Personal MasteryI am in this all alone, I can’t count on anyone but myself [there is help everywhere]Fear of losses to great to bear, fear of our own mortality [leaving something behind creates space for something new]Source: Personal communication Judy Brown, Ph.D.
26Mental ModelsAre the images, assumptions, and stories which we carry in our minds of ourselves, other people, institutions, and every aspect of the world.Are like a pane of glass framing and subtly distorting our vision.They determine what we see.
27Mental ModelsThey are our cognitive maps of the world people hold in their long-term memory and short-term perceptions which people build up as part of their everyday reasoning processes.According to some cognitive theorists, changes in short-term every day mental models, accumulating over time, will gradually be reflected in changes in long-term deep-seated beliefs.
28Mental ModelsAre powerful in affecting what we do because they affect what we see.The tools needed to practice this discipline are Reflection and Inquiry.
29Skills for working & practicing the discipline on Mental Models Reflection--slowing down our thinking processes to become aware of how we form our mental models.Inquiry--holding conversations where we openly share views and develop knowledge about each other’s assumptions.
30Skills for working & practicing the discipline on Mental Models Single-loop learningPeople respond to changes in their organizational environment by detecting errors and correcting them to maintain the current desired status. No reflection or inquiry that leads to reframing the situation.Double-loop LearningInvolves surfacing and challenging deep-rooted assumptions and norms of an organization that may lead to a a reformulation of the problem.
31A tool for examining your “mental models” Ladder of Inference:A tool for examining your “mental models”
32(based on assumptions) I takeActions(based on my beliefs)INQUIRYI adoptBeliefs(about the world)I drawConclusions(based on assumptions)I makeAssumptions(based on meaning)ReflexiveLoopOur beliefsaffect whatdata weselect thenext timeADVOCACYI addMeaning(cultural & personal)I selectData(from what I observe)Observabledata/experiencesAll that is knowable
33“I’d better consider bringing someone else in on this project.” Climbing the Ladder“I’d better consider bringing someone else in on this project.”“He’s not going to be there when crunch time hits.”“He’s not very interested in helping me with this project.”“Paul is late for my meeting.”“Paul arrives afterthe meeting started.”
34ADVOCACY INQUIRY TELLING GENERATING OBSERVING ASKING Bystanding LowHighTELLINGGENERATINGOBSERVINGASKINGBystandingSensingWithdrawingDialogueSkillfulDiscussionInterrogatingClarifyingInterviewingDictatingAssertingExplainingTesting--Moves you up the ladder of inferenceADVOCACYHighINQUIRY-- makes your thinking process visible--Ask questions from genuine “not knowing”-- Moves you down the ladder of inference
35Benefits of the Ladder Helps you check your assumptions Helps you become more aware of your own thinking and reasoningPrompts you to make your reasoning clear to othersHelps you inquire into the thinking and reasoning of others
36When to Use the Ladder When we notice ourselves jumping to conclusions When you hear someone advocating a position without making their reasoning clearWhen you fear that “group-think” may be occurring in the team’s conversation
37“Left-hand Column” Analysis What is it?A way of checking our assumptionsA method of checking out what we’re thinking but not sayingA method to remind us to use the ladder of inference if necessaryA method of mutual inquiry
38Tools for working & practicing understanding mental models Left-hand Column ExerciseOn a sheet of paper folded in halfThink of a conversation you had about a problem or issue that was hard to resolveIn the right-hand column write down what was actually said.In the left-hand column write what you were thinking and feeling and not saying
40“Left-hand Column” Analysis MESSAGE: Make your left-hand column explicitFrom example, try this…“What I hear you saying is that we should move ahead with the project. I want to share a concern that I’ve been thinking but not saying. I am worried about the current staffing…”“I want to share a conclusion I formed from our last conversation, and check how it fits with your thinking.”
41How to use the “Left-hand Column” First, practice on paper…Write the actual conversation on the rightIn the left-hand column, write what you were thinking but not sayingThen use it as a tool for “reflection-in-action”Examine your thinking while you are in a conversationLook for opportunities to share your thinking with others, and inquire into others’ thinking
425 warning Signs of ASSUMPTIONS BEWARE5 warning Signs of ASSUMPTIONSInReality…The truth is...Everybodyknows...As a matterof fact...Researchstates that...
43The “Competency Trap”Too often when confronted with a problem we “speed listen” and assume this problem is the same as one we encountered before. This leads to a limited range of possible solutions!Try asking, “What assumptions am I making about this situation that may limit my deeper understanding of the problem?”
44Be aware of you own reasoning Ladder of Inference helps prevent jumping to conclusions by:reviewing the logic that produces conclusionsrevealing gaps in reasoning
45Make Your Reasoning Clear to Others Ladder provides a tool to ask questions without embarrassment
46Seek to Understand Others’ Reasoning Ladder is a tool that permits mutual inquiry into each others’ thinking without being rude. For example, you can ask,“Can you lead me through the steps which led you to that conclusion?”Rather than rudely asking, “Are you sure you know what you’re talking about?”
47Shared Vision Shared visions emerge from personal visions. Personal mastery is the bedrock for developing shared vision. Commitment to the truth and creative tension can generate levels of energy that go beyond individual abilities.
48Shared VisionLeaders intent on building shared visions must be willing to continually share their personal visions. They must also be prepared to ask, “Will you follow me?”Vision creates a sense of commonality that binds people together for a greater good.A shared vision must be co-created.
49Team LearningTeam Learning is the process of aligning and developing the capacity of a team to create the results the members truly desire.Team learning is a team skill.
50Team Learning: Tools of Team Learning are Dialogue and Conversation A flow of thoughts and meaningNo results or decisionsNo stripesOpen and honest talkAwareness of one’s assumptions, discovery of the assumptions of others.
51Learning Organization The Learning Organization is an organization that has woven a continuos and enhanced capacity to learn, adapt and change its processes and culture. Its values, policies, practices, systems and structures support and accelerate learning for all who work in it.Generative and adaptive learning are the norm
52Learning Organization (A definition) A learning organization is one in which people at all levels, individually and collectively, are continually increasing their capacity to produce results they really care about.
53Producing Business Results Engine for SuccessQuality ofRelationshipQuality ofResultsRQuality ofThinkingQuality ofAction