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Pastoralism East African Cattle Complex Tibetan Herders.

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1 Pastoralism East African Cattle Complex Tibetan Herders

2 “Cattle Complex” E. African Cattle Area E. African Cattle Area –Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Mozambique –Non-utilitarian use of cattle, i.e. more food from grain than milk, meat, blood. Cultural value of cattle rather than subsistence. Cultural value of cattle rather than subsistence.

3 Traits Cattle are used for social purposes Cattle are used for social purposes –Esteemed for prestige and social status –Not equivalent to money, only thing to acquire with cattle is wives. –“Bridewealth”-cattle in exchange for wife Limited as a food resource, subsistence based on farming Limited as a food resource, subsistence based on farming –Cattle for milk and beasts of burden. Strong personal attachment to cattle, associated with rituals such as birth, death, marriage and initiation Strong personal attachment to cattle, associated with rituals such as birth, death, marriage and initiation

4 Grinding Sorghum

5 Herding Habitat Great Rift Valley, water major limitation Great Rift Valley, water major limitation Areas wet enough to support plants also harbor tsetse fly, which infects cattle. Areas wet enough to support plants also harbor tsetse fly, which infects cattle. Agriculture least productive in arid regions, where cattle predominate. Agriculture least productive in arid regions, where cattle predominate. Recurrent adaptation in steppes, deserts, and dry savannahs. Recurrent adaptation in steppes, deserts, and dry savannahs.

6 Waterholes

7 Transhumance Pattern of herding where part of family (usually men) graze cattle over large area Pattern of herding where part of family (usually men) graze cattle over large area –Women and children, elders stay at permanent home site. Karimojong Karimojong –250 people in one sq. mile for house sites. –Cattle graze over 500 sq. miles. –Cattle mean wealth, legacy for sons, formal contract for friendship, validation of marriage. –Boys given male calf to care for at their initiation.

8 Permanent Villages

9 Milking

10 Pastoralist “Personality” Statistical study of Africans who herd vs. farmers Statistical study of Africans who herd vs. farmers –Farmers value hard work, Pastoralists do not. –Farmers consult each other, cooperate; Pastoralists work independently. –Farmers more suspicious of strangers, hostile to neighbors. –Farmers indirect, anxious; Pastoralists direct, open. –Pastoralists value independence, especially in males.

11 Social Organization Patrilineal Descent Patrilineal Descent –Males control cattle and family. Sometimes practice matrilocality, however. Sometimes practice matrilocality, however. Male “Elder” make decisions for family/village. Male “Elder” make decisions for family/village.

12 Boy Herding

13 Pakot, W. Central Kenya cattle, 10.5 goats, 3.4 sheep per male cattle, 10.5 goats, 3.4 sheep per male. Steers (not cows) killed in ceremony, distribution of meat. Steers (not cows) killed in ceremony, distribution of meat. –Eating of meat and milk on same day prohibited. –Steers not killed for family use only, large quantities of meat in hot climate with no storage-always share meat. –Ritual consumption effective way to utilize meat of large animals, promote community cooperation.

14 Ceremony of the White Bull

15 Large Herds Government efforts to limit stock for environmental reasons. Government efforts to limit stock for environmental reasons. Dodoth, Uganda Dodoth, Uganda –75,000 cattle to 18 waterholes. –Losses of 10-15% in some years. “A man who loses 1/3 of his stock is much better off if he begins with 60 cows than with 6.” “A man who loses 1/3 of his stock is much better off if he begins with 60 cows than with 6.”

16 Herds

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18 Maasai North central Tanzania, southern Kenya North central Tanzania, southern Kenya Population: 350,000 Population: 350,000 Language: Ol Maa (Nilotic) Language: Ol Maa (Nilotic) Neighboring Peoples: Samburu, Kikuyu, Kamba, Chaga, Meru, Pare, Kaguru, Gogo, Sukuma Neighboring Peoples: Samburu, Kikuyu, Kamba, Chaga, Meru, Pare, Kaguru, Gogo, Sukuma Types of Art: Maasai are best known for their beautiful beadwork which plays an essential element in the ornamentation of the body. Beading patterns are determined by each age-set and identify grades. Young men, who often cover their bodies in ocher to enhance their appearance, may spend hours and days working on ornate hairstyles, which are ritually shaved as they pass into the next age-grade. Types of Art: Maasai are best known for their beautiful beadwork which plays an essential element in the ornamentation of the body. Beading patterns are determined by each age-set and identify grades. Young men, who often cover their bodies in ocher to enhance their appearance, may spend hours and days working on ornate hairstyles, which are ritually shaved as they pass into the next age-grade.

19 Maasai Warriors

20 History Maasai are the southernmost Nilotic speakers and are linguistically most directly related to the Turkana and Kalenjin who live near Lake Turkana in west central Kenya. Maasai are the southernmost Nilotic speakers and are linguistically most directly related to the Turkana and Kalenjin who live near Lake Turkana in west central Kenya. According to Maasai oral history and the archaeological record, they also originated near Lake Turkana. According to Maasai oral history and the archaeological record, they also originated near Lake Turkana. Maasai are pastoralist and have resisted the urging of the Tanzanian and Kenyan governments to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. Maasai are pastoralist and have resisted the urging of the Tanzanian and Kenyan governments to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. They have demanded grazing rights to many of the national parks in both countries and routinely ignore international boundaries as they move their great cattle herds across the open savanna with the changing of the seasons. They have demanded grazing rights to many of the national parks in both countries and routinely ignore international boundaries as they move their great cattle herds across the open savanna with the changing of the seasons. This resistance has led to a romanticizing of the Maasai way of life that paints them as living at peace with nature. This resistance has led to a romanticizing of the Maasai way of life that paints them as living at peace with nature.

21 Economy Cattle are central to Maasai economy. Cattle are central to Maasai economy. They are rarely killed, but instead are accumulated as a sign of wealth and traded or sold to settle debts. They are rarely killed, but instead are accumulated as a sign of wealth and traded or sold to settle debts. Their traditional grazing lands span from central Kenya into central Tanzania. Their traditional grazing lands span from central Kenya into central Tanzania. Young men are responsible for tending to the herds and often live in small camps, moving frequently in the constant search for water and good grazing lands. Maasai are ruthless capitalists and due to past behavior have become notorious as cattle rustlers. Young men are responsible for tending to the herds and often live in small camps, moving frequently in the constant search for water and good grazing lands. Maasai are ruthless capitalists and due to past behavior have become notorious as cattle rustlers. At one time young Maasai warriors set off in groups with the express purpose of acquiring illegal cattle. At one time young Maasai warriors set off in groups with the express purpose of acquiring illegal cattle. Maasai often travel into towns and cities to purchase goods and supplies and to sell their cattle at regional markets. Maasai also sell their beautiful beadwork to the tourists with whom they share their grazing land. Maasai often travel into towns and cities to purchase goods and supplies and to sell their cattle at regional markets. Maasai also sell their beautiful beadwork to the tourists with whom they share their grazing land.

22 Herding Cattle

23 Socio-political system Maasai community politics are embedded in age-grade systems which separate young men and prepubescent girls from the elder men and their wives and children. Maasai community politics are embedded in age-grade systems which separate young men and prepubescent girls from the elder men and their wives and children. When a young woman reaches puberty she is usually married immediately to an older man. When a young woman reaches puberty she is usually married immediately to an older man. Until this time, however, she may live and have sex with the youthful warriors. Until this time, however, she may live and have sex with the youthful warriors. Often women maintain close ties, both social and sexual, with their former boyfriends, even after they are married. Often women maintain close ties, both social and sexual, with their former boyfriends, even after they are married. In order for men to marry they must first acquire wealth, a process that takes time. In order for men to marry they must first acquire wealth, a process that takes time. Women, on the other hand, are married at the onset of puberty to prevent children being born out of wedlock. All children, whether legitimate are not, are recognized as the property of the woman's husband and his family. Women, on the other hand, are married at the onset of puberty to prevent children being born out of wedlock. All children, whether legitimate are not, are recognized as the property of the woman's husband and his family.

24

25 Religion The cow is slaughtered as an offering during important ceremonies marking completed passage through one age-grade and movement to the next. The cow is slaughtered as an offering during important ceremonies marking completed passage through one age-grade and movement to the next. When warriors (moran) complete this cycle of life, they exhibit outward signs of sadness, crying over the loss of their youth and adventurous lifestyles. When warriors (moran) complete this cycle of life, they exhibit outward signs of sadness, crying over the loss of their youth and adventurous lifestyles. Maasai diviners (laibon) are consulted whenever misfortune arises. Maasai diviners (laibon) are consulted whenever misfortune arises. They also serve as healers, dispensing their herbal remedies to treat physical ailment and ritual treatments to absolve social and moral transgressions. They also serve as healers, dispensing their herbal remedies to treat physical ailment and ritual treatments to absolve social and moral transgressions. In recent years Maasai laibon have earned a reputation as the best healers in Tanzania. Even as western biomedicine gains ground, people also continually search out more traditional remedies. In recent years Maasai laibon have earned a reputation as the best healers in Tanzania. Even as western biomedicine gains ground, people also continually search out more traditional remedies. Maasai are often portrayed as people who have not forgotten the importance of the past, and as such their knowledge of traditional healing ways has earned them respect. Maasai are often portrayed as people who have not forgotten the importance of the past, and as such their knowledge of traditional healing ways has earned them respect. Laibons are easily found peddling their knowledge and herbs in the urban centers of Tanzania and Kenya. Laibons are easily found peddling their knowledge and herbs in the urban centers of Tanzania and Kenya.

26 Maasai Rituals There are many ceremonies in Maasai society. Enkipaata (senior boy ceremony), Emuratta (circumcision), Enkiama (marriage), Eunoto (warrior graduation), Eokoto e-kule (milk ceremony), Enkang oo-nkiri( meat ceremony), Orngesherr (junior elder ceremony), etc. There are many ceremonies in Maasai society. Enkipaata (senior boy ceremony), Emuratta (circumcision), Enkiama (marriage), Eunoto (warrior graduation), Eokoto e-kule (milk ceremony), Enkang oo-nkiri( meat ceremony), Orngesherr (junior elder ceremony), etc. Also, there are minor boys and girls rituals such as Eudoto/Enkigerunoto oo-inkiyiaa (earlobe), and Irkipirat (leg fire marks) that boys and girls must undergo before circumcision. Also, there are minor boys and girls rituals such as Eudoto/Enkigerunoto oo-inkiyiaa (earlobe), and Irkipirat (leg fire marks) that boys and girls must undergo before circumcision. However, many of these initiations concern men while women's initiations focus on circumcision and marriage. However, many of these initiations concern men while women's initiations focus on circumcision and marriage. Men will form age-sets moving them closer to adulthood. Men will form age-sets moving them closer to adulthood. Women do not have their own age sets but are recognized by that of their husbands. Women do not have their own age sets but are recognized by that of their husbands. Ceremonies are an expression of our culture and self-determination. Every ceremony is a new life. They are rites of passage, and every Maasai child is to go through these stages of life. Ceremonies are an expression of our culture and self-determination. Every ceremony is a new life. They are rites of passage, and every Maasai child is to go through these stages of life. Website by Kakuta ole Maimai, a native Maasai.

27 Nomadism Everyone in group moves along with herd. Everyone in group moves along with herd. No permanent settlements, but permanent water holes for cattle. No permanent settlements, but permanent water holes for cattle. Large herds common, even though conditions of land don’t always support large numbers. Large herds common, even though conditions of land don’t always support large numbers. –Among Dodoth-only 20% of herd giving milk at one time. – lbs. milk/cow/year (U.S lbs.) –Blood taken once a month in wet season, 1-2 pints –Meat eaten once a week or less. Keeping of large herds protection against drought and epidemics. Keeping of large herds protection against drought and epidemics.

28 Nomadic Pastoralism in Tibet The yak, to the people of the Himalayas, was what the reindeer was to Laps. The yak, to the people of the Himalayas, was what the reindeer was to Laps. Anywhere a man could walk, a yak could be ridden. Anywhere a man could walk, a yak could be ridden. –Yaks are high-altitude creatures, adapted to the highland plateaus of the Himalayas when no other large beast of burden will thrive; where horses and cattle and camels died, yaks flourished. –Even Tibetan ponies, which can live above 1400 feet in altitude, are small and do not bear as much cargo as a yak will.

29 The Laya Dedicated to yak breeding, because a large portion of the highland area can at best be used as pasture. Dedicated to yak breeding, because a large portion of the highland area can at best be used as pasture. They live as semi-nomads and only spend a small part of the year in houses. They live as semi-nomads and only spend a small part of the year in houses. In the summer, most of the Laya travel with their herds to higher mountain regions and return to their home regions not before the beginning of winter. In the summer, most of the Laya travel with their herds to higher mountain regions and return to their home regions not before the beginning of winter. During the warm periods of the year, tents made out of woven yak hair serve as shelters. During the warm periods of the year, tents made out of woven yak hair serve as shelters.

30 Pasture

31 Role of Yaks In the north of Bhutan, the yaks provide the source of life for these highland inhabitants. In the north of Bhutan, the yaks provide the source of life for these highland inhabitants. Their hair serves not only as material for their tents, but is also woven into clothing, their meat is eaten, their milk is made into butter and hard cheese, and their dung is used as burning material. Their hair serves not only as material for their tents, but is also woven into clothing, their meat is eaten, their milk is made into butter and hard cheese, and their dung is used as burning material. In addition, the yaks are used as beasts of burden and are hitched in front of the plow to till the few existing fields. In addition, the yaks are used as beasts of burden and are hitched in front of the plow to till the few existing fields.

32 Butter in Pig Skin

33 Weaving

34 Yak Hair Jewelry

35 Traditional Clothing

36 Trade In the early fall, even before the first snow makes the mountain passes impassable, the Laya herders wander back to the valleys of Central Bhutan where they sell the milk products they produced in the summer, as well as yak meat on the markets or trade them for rice, other food, salt, or tools. In the early fall, even before the first snow makes the mountain passes impassable, the Laya herders wander back to the valleys of Central Bhutan where they sell the milk products they produced in the summer, as well as yak meat on the markets or trade them for rice, other food, salt, or tools. In recent times, however, the money-based economy has increasingly replaced the traditional barter with material goods. In recent times, however, the money-based economy has increasingly replaced the traditional barter with material goods.

37 Yak Caravans

38 Upland Camps


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