3 This wool yarn is made from staple fibres. IntroductionFabrics are made up from fibres.Fibres come in different lengths:Staple fibres are only a few centimetres in length and are normally spun into a yarn.Filament fibres are usually several kilometres in length, and can be chopped up or left as they are. Filament fibres can be twisted or looped to produce thicker yarns.This wool yarn is made from staple fibres.Image of wool yarn courtesy of Rowan Yarns (http://www.knitrowan.com/html/home.asp).Image of filament fibres provided courtesy of Swicofil (http://www.swicofil.com).Dyed viscose filament yarn
4 What are fibres?The questions in this true or false quiz introduce topics covered by the rest of this presentation. You may wish to use it here, or as a revision or plenary activity at the end of the presentation.
5 Natural fibresFibres can be broken down into two main categories – natural and manufactured.Natural fibres are either animal or plant-based.Silk, wool and hair are all animal fibres. Silk is made by silk worms, wool comes from sheep and hair can come from a number of animals including rabbit (angora), camel, horse and goat (cashmere and mohair).Plant fibres include cotton and linen. The fibres come from different parts of plants. Cotton and coir come from the seed, while linen comes from the stem of flax plants.Cotton fibres grow on cotton plants, forming around the seeds in the cotton boll.
6 Synthetic fibresSynthetic fibres and regenerated fibres are manufactured. All manufactured fibres start as filament fibres.Regenerated fibres are made from natural materials, such as cellulose from wood, that are chemically processed. Viscose and rayon are regenerated fibres.Synthetic fibres are all man-made from organic polymers, made by refining crude oil or coal. Polyester, nylon and acrylic are synthetic fibres.Nylon was the first synthetic fibre to be created from chemicals obtained from crude oil.
7 Modern fibresMicrofibres are very fine synthetic fibres, often made from polyester and polyamide. They can be blended with other fibres such as cotton. Fabric made from microfibres is lightweight and durable, and can be waterproof.This top is made from lyocell, a microfibre made from cellullose-derived wood-pulp. It is lightweight, breathable and crease-resistant.‘Smart’ fibres are synthetic fibres which alter their properties in response to their environment, for example, changing colour in reaction to light or heat.
9 Turning fibres into yarns – carding Staple fibres are matted together and need to be pulled apart. Traditionally, this was done using two wire brushes (carders), pulled in opposite directions.Image of industrial carding machine courtesy of Ramella Pietro & C (www.textilemachines.org/products/worsted.htm)The carding process can also now be done on an industrial scale.
10 Turning fibres into yarns – spinning Yarns are fibres that have been spun (twisted) together.There are two methods of spinning: the Worsted Spinning System which produces a smooth yarn and the Woollen Spinning System which produces a more hairy yarn.Yarns can be spun in two directions:Z twist is spun in a clockwise directionS twist in spun in an anticlockwise direction.
12 Woven fabric A loom is used to weave fabric. The vertical yarns or warp yarns are connected to the loom.Then weft yarns are threaded alternatively over and under the warp yarns to produce the fabric.This method produces plain weave.This weaver in Mali, West Africa, is using a hand loom to produce strips of cotton cloth, which will then be sewn together and dyed.
14 Alternative weavesJacquard weave is an extremely complex fabric that uses its own specific loom. It uses CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture) to produce the end piece. Therefore, this method is expensive but the end product is of a high quality.Image courtesy of Scotweave (http://www.scotweave.com/home.htm).
15 Knitted fabricsThere are two types of knitted fabrics. Both processes work by forming interlocking loops of yarn.Weft knitting is when the loops run across the fabric. Weft knitting can be constructed by hand and will unravel if the yarn is broken. The most common example of weft knitting is jersey.Warp knitting is when the loops run vertically. This is constructed using a machine and produces a sturdier fabric. This method hardly ever ladders and keeps its shape.
16 Non-woven fabricsFelting is a quick and cheap method of producing fabric. A combination of pressure, moisture and heat is used to form the fibres into fabric. Felt is not very strong but will not fray when cut. It can be formed (steamed) into shapes without the need for seams.Bonding is another method of producing non-woven fabric. The fibres are bonded together by using stitching or adhesive.Images courtesy of Specialist Crafts (www.specialistcrafts.co.uk).Laminating is when a number of fabrics are bonded together. Woven, knitted, felted or bonded fabrics can be combined to produce a fabric with a mixture of properties.
17 Fabrics The fabric items are: clothing (worn by the four people pictured)the roof insulationthe bean bag the girl is sitting on at the top of the housethe rag doll the girl is holdingthe plaster on the girl’s kneethe bedding on the bed on the first floor of the housethe carpet (on all three floors of the house)the sofa in the living roomthe cushions on the sofathe rug on the floor of the living roomthe tent in the gardenthe tennis ball and racket.
18 Sailing clothes need to be wind and waterproof. Fabric propertiesDesigners will always take fabric properties into consideration when designing a garment/textile product. To choose the correct fabric they will ask a number of questions.Does the item need to be windproof?Will the item need to keep heat in?Does the item need to be waterproof?How often will the item be washed?Does the item need any special protection?How will the item be manufactured?Does the item need to stretch?Will the item be subjected to much wear and tear?Sailing clothes need to be wind and waterproof.Image courtesy of Musto (www.musto.co.uk).
19 Fabric propertiesAll fabrics have properties that make them suitable for particular end products.CottonPolyesterCreases easily/cheapCrease resistant/stretchyWhen you know a fabric’s properties it makes it easy to understand why mixing or blending fibres can produce an enhanced fabric.CottonPolyesterPoly/cottonCrease resistant/cheap/stretchy
20 Fabric properties Task Take a swatch sample of the following fabrics and draw up your own chart with the following headings: Warmth, Elasticity, Strength, Durability, Crease Resistance, Absorbency, Flammability. Include your own personal description.COTTONWOOLLINENNYLONStudents could complete this task as an individual or group activity. Websites with useful information include:POLYESTERACRYLICSILKELASTANE