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© Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 22 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. © Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 22 Textiles Fibres and Fabrics
© Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 22 Learning objectives © Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 22 Learning objectives To understand what fibres are, and recognize the differences between natural and manufactured fibres. To realize how fibres become fabric through weaving, knitting and non-woven methods. To research and record the fabric properties of a selection of natural and manufactured fabrics.
© Boardworks Ltd 20053 of 22 Fabrics are made up from fibres. Introduction Staple fibres are only a few centimetres in length and are normally spun into a yarn. Filament fibres are usually several kilometres in length, and can be chopped up or left as they are. Filament fibres can be twisted or looped to produce thicker yarns. Fibres come in different lengths: This wool yarn is made from staple fibres. Dyed viscose filament yarn
© Boardworks Ltd 20054 of 22 What are fibres?
© Boardworks Ltd 20055 of 22 Fibres can be broken down into two main categories – natural and manufactured. Natural fibres are either animal or plant-based. Natural fibres Cotton fibres grow on cotton plants, forming around the seeds in the cotton boll. Silk, wool and hair are all animal fibres. Silk is made by silk worms, wool comes from sheep and hair can come from a number of animals including rabbit (angora), camel, horse and goat (cashmere and mohair). Plant fibres include cotton and linen. The fibres come from different parts of plants. Cotton and coir come from the seed, while linen comes from the stem of flax plants.
© Boardworks Ltd 20056 of 22 Synthetic fibres Synthetic fibres are all man-made from organic polymers, made by refining crude oil or coal. Polyester, nylon and acrylic are synthetic fibres. Nylon was the first synthetic fibre to be created from chemicals obtained from crude oil. Synthetic fibres and regenerated fibres are manufactured. All manufactured fibres start as filament fibres. Regenerated fibres are made from natural materials, such as cellulose from wood, that are chemically processed. Viscose and rayon are regenerated fibres.
© Boardworks Ltd 20057 of 22 Microfibres are very fine synthetic fibres, often made from polyester and polyamide. They can be blended with other fibres such as cotton. Fabric made from microfibres is lightweight and durable, and can be waterproof. Modern fibres ‘Smart’ fibres are synthetic fibres which alter their properties in response to their environment, for example, changing colour in reaction to light or heat. This top is made from lyocell, a microfibre made from cellullose- derived wood-pulp. It is lightweight, breathable and crease-resistant.
© Boardworks Ltd 20058 of 22 Where do fibres come from?
© Boardworks Ltd 20059 of 22 Staple fibres are matted together and need to be pulled apart. Traditionally, this was done using two wire brushes (carders), pulled in opposite directions. The carding process can also now be done on an industrial scale. Turning fibres into yarns – carding
© Boardworks Ltd 200510 of 22 Yarns are fibres that have been spun (twisted) together. There are two methods of spinning: the Worsted Spinning System which produces a smooth yarn and the Woollen Spinning System which produces a more hairy yarn. Z twist is spun in a clockwise direction S twist in spun in an anticlockwise direction. Turning fibres into yarns – spinning Yarns can be spun in two directions:
© Boardworks Ltd 200511 of 22 Fabric types
© Boardworks Ltd 200512 of 22 A loom is used to weave fabric. The vertical yarns or warp yarns are connected to the loom. Woven fabric This weaver in Mali, West Africa, is using a hand loom to produce strips of cotton cloth, which will then be sewn together and dyed. Then weft yarns are threaded alternatively over and under the warp yarns to produce the fabric. This method produces plain weave.
© Boardworks Ltd 200513 of 22 Alternative weaves
© Boardworks Ltd 200514 of 22 Jacquard weave is an extremely complex fabric that uses its own specific loom. It uses CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture) to produce the end piece. Therefore, this method is expensive but the end product is of a high quality. Alternative weaves
© Boardworks Ltd 200515 of 22 There are two types of knitted fabrics. Both processes work by forming interlocking loops of yarn. Weft knitting is when the loops run across the fabric. Weft knitting can be constructed by hand and will unravel if the yarn is broken. The most common example of weft knitting is jersey. Warp knitting is when the loops run vertically. This is constructed using a machine and produces a sturdier fabric. This method hardly ever ladders and keeps its shape. Knitted fabrics
© Boardworks Ltd 200516 of 22 Felting is a quick and cheap method of producing fabric. A combination of pressure, moisture and heat is used to form the fibres into fabric. Felt is not very strong but will not fray when cut. It can be formed (steamed) into shapes without the need for seams. Bonding is another method of producing non-woven fabric. The fibres are bonded together by using stitching or adhesive. Laminating is when a number of fabrics are bonded together. Woven, knitted, felted or bonded fabrics can be combined to produce a fabric with a mixture of properties. Non-woven fabrics
© Boardworks Ltd 200517 of 22 Fabrics
© Boardworks Ltd 200518 of 22 Designers will always take fabric properties into consideration when designing a garment/textile product. To choose the correct fabric they will ask a number of questions. Does the item need to be windproof? Will the item need to keep heat in? Does the item need to be waterproof? How often will the item be washed? Does the item need any special protection? How will the item be manufactured? Does the item need to stretch? Will the item be subjected to much wear and tear? Fabric properties Sailing clothes need to be wind and waterproof.
© Boardworks Ltd 200519 of 22 All fabrics have properties that make them suitable for particular end products. Creases easily/cheap CottonPolyester Crease resistant/stretchy When you know a fabric’s properties it makes it easy to understand why mixing or blending fibres can produce an enhanced fabric. CottonPolyester Poly/cotton Crease resistant/cheap/stretchy Fabric properties
© Boardworks Ltd 200520 of 22 Task Take a swatch sample of the following fabrics and draw up your own chart with the following headings: Warmth, Elasticity, Strength, Durability, Crease Resistance, Absorbency, Flammability. Include your own personal description. COTTON POLYESTER SILK ELASTANE LINEN WOOL NYLON Fabric properties ACRYLIC
© Boardworks Ltd 200521 of 22 Which fabric am I?
© Boardworks Ltd 200522 of 22 Key points © Boardworks Ltd 200522 of 22 Key points Fibres come in two lengths – staple fibres and filament fibres. Fibres can be natural or manufactured. Manufactured fibres can be synthetic or regenerated. Fibres are spun to make yarn. Fibres are made into fabric by weaving, knitting or non-woven methods, such as bonding. Fabrics have different properties depending on the fibres they have been made from. These properties make them suitable for different uses.
© Boardworks Ltd of 7 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 16 These icons indicate that teachers notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that.
Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 4 1 Introduction and How Forensic Scientists Use Fibers Fibers often fall off and are picked up.
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