4 Setting the StageIn the United States and France, political revolutions brought in new governments. A different type of revolution now transformed the way people did work. The Industrial Revolution refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England during the 18th century. Before the Industrial Revolution, people wove textiles by hand. Beginning in the mid 1700s, machines did this and other jobs as well. The Industrial Revolution started in England and soon spread to Continental Europe and North America.
6 The BeginningsImprovements in farming methods in the 1700s boost crop yields.Many small farmer lost their land, move to the city, and become urban workers.Britain possesses ideal conditions for the growth of industry.
7 Inventions Spur Advancements Key inventions revolutionize industry during the 1700s and 1800sThe textile industry is the first to benefit, with the inventions of machines to produce cotton cloth.Transportation expands with the invention of the steam engine and the construction of canals, roads, and railroads.
9 The Seed DrillAmong the first who experimented in the early 1700s was the gentleman-farmer Jethro Tull. Concerned with the wasteful practice of scattering seeds by hand over a wide area, Tull invented a seed drill, which made it possible to plant seeds in the soil in regular rows. Tull also developed a horse-drawn hoe that could uproot weeds between rows and it could also break up the soil- all proved to produce positive results and higher crop yields.
10 The Cotton GinEngland’s cotton came from plantations in the American South in the 1790s. Removing seeds from the raw cotton by hand was hard work. In 1793, an American inventor named Eli Whitney invented a machine to speed the chore. His cotton gin multiplied the amount of cotton that could be cleaned. American cotton production skyrocketed from 1.5 million pounds in 1790 to 85 million pounds in 1810.
11 The Steam Engine The Spinning Jenny James Watt’s steam engine could pump water from mines three times as earlier versions. Steam engines were fired by coal, thus they did not need to be located near rivers. This led to an increase in cotton production. In 1760 Britain imported 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton by the 1780s they imported nearly 22 million.The Spinning JennyThe invention of the flying shuttle made spinning on a loom easier, but the spinning jenny, invented in 1768 by James Hargreaves, allowed spinners to create yarn in greater quantities.
12 The Rise of IndustryBegan in the 1780s in Great Britain; stemmed from the agricultural advancements.The growing demands of cotton clothes in Britain and the vast colonial empire led to manufactures seeking new ways to increase production.The European manufacturing process shifted from small-scale production by hand at home to large-scale production by machine in a factory setting.
13 Steam ShipsThe steam powered engine created a cheap, convenient source of power. Once it was realized that the steam could be used to propel boats- Robert Foulton, an American inventor ordered an engine from the Boulton and Watt factory. Initially used to transport people in America, later steam ships were used to transport goods. This led to other countries wanting to increase water transportation by creating networks of canals to transport raw materials for cheap prices.
14 The ClermontThe first commercially successful steamship of the paddle steamer design, North River Steamboat (later known as the Clermont), operated on the Hudson River between New York and Albany. She was neither the first steamboat built nor even the first to be operated in scheduled service, but she was the start of the first long-lasting and financially successful steamboat business. She was created by the wealthy investor and politician Robert Livingston and inventor and entrepreneur Robert Fulton ( ). The ship was built at Charles Browne's shipyard in New York and fitted with steam engines from Boulton and Watt, Birmingham, England.
15 The Role of RailroadsAllowed cheaper and more rapid transport of raw materials and finished products.Created an increased demand for iron and steel and a skilled labor force.Enabled people to leave the place of their birth and migrate easily to the cities.
16 Growth in the USLike Britain, the United States encourages industrial growthBritish machinery spawns an American textile industryRailroads help America to expand rapidly
17 An Industrialized World At first war and unrest in Europe delay the growth of industryBelgium is the first country in Europe to industrializeOther parts of Europe begin to develop industry in the mid 1800s though progress is slow in some areasThe Industrial Revolution widens the gap between more-developed nations and less-developed nationsIndustrialized countries exploit overseas colonies for resources and marketsOver time, standards of living rise in the industrial nations
18 The CountryThe CitiesThe only successful farmers were those with large landholdings who could afford agricultural innovations.Most peasants:Didn’t have enough land to support themselvesWere devastated by poor harvests (e.g., the Irish Potato Famine of )Were forced to move to the cities to find work in the factories.The sheer number of human beings put pressure on city resources:Housing, water, sewers, food supplies, and lighting were completely inadequate.Slums grew and disease, especially cholera, ravaged the population.Crime increased and became a way of life for those who could make a living in no other way.
19 Social CommentaryOne of the major downsides of the Industrial Revolution was the amount pollution produced by the burgeoning factories . Streams and rivers were flooded with sewage waste dumped into them. The most visible sign , however were the dark, ominous, black plumes that rose from the smoke stacks into the clean sky daily. The pollution was so extreme that in places like London for example, black soot caked on to once white buildings leaving them permanently discolored..