Presentation on theme: "Persuasive Devices and Logical Fallacies Standard 5: Logic CLE 3001.5.5 SPI 3001.5.5 – 1.5.11 Select/Identify/Analyze persuasive devices and logical fallacies."— Presentation transcript:
Persuasive Devices and Logical Fallacies Standard 5: Logic CLE SPI – Select/Identify/Analyze persuasive devices and logical fallacies used in written and oral communication.
Persuasive Devices Techniques used to influence opinions, emotions, attitudes or behavior. The purpose is to benefit the speaker, writer, or sponsor. It appeals to the emotions not the intellect. It can be negative or positive. The purpose is to persuade.
Persuasive Techniques Rhetorical Question Bandwagon Loaded Words Testimonial Plain Folks Snob Appeal Misuse of Statistics Name-Calling
Rhetorical Questions A question posed for its persuasive effect. ◦Not supposed to be answered. ◦Ex: ◦"Aren't you glad you use Dial? Don't you wish everybody did?"
Bandwagon Persuasive technique that invites you to join the crowd with the argument that everyone else is doing it. ◦Everybody’s doing it! ◦If many people believe it, it must be so. Everyone in Auburn is supporting Bob Riley. Shouldn’t you be part of the winning team?
Loaded Words Using language with emotional connotations to further an argument. Descriptive words used to elicit strong feelings. Examples ◦House – shack ◦Job – chore ◦Dog – mutt ◦Perfume - odor
Testimonial Statement endorsing an idea/product by a prominent person – celebrity, politician, radio personality, etc. Product does not have to be related to “star’s” field. Commonly uses musical artists, sports giants, actors/actresses
Plain Folks The speaker of an argument presents himself as an ‘average Joe.’ ◦Consider Sarah Palin in the recent presidential campaign. Calling herself "an average hockey mom," Palin joked, "You know what they say the difference is between a hockey mom and a pit bull? Lipstick!
Snob Appeal Associating a product or decision with the idea that it will raise us above the common folks.
Misuse of Statistics Using statistics to change your audiences in opinions in your favor. Example Children with bigger feet spell better. This was the result of a survey about measuring factors affecting the spelling ability of children. When the final analysis came about, it was noted that children with bigger feet possessed superior spelling skills! Upon further analysis you will find that older children had bigger feet and quite certainly, older children would normally possess better spellings than their younger counterparts!
Name - Calling The use of language to demean or degrade the other side of the argument. Used a lot by politicians or towards politicians. My opponent is a flip-flop man who cannot make up his mind. He changes mind with the breeze! How could anyone follow such a weak- willed flip-flopper?
Personal Attack An argument which states that a person is wrong based on their characteristics. Examples ◦"You're new here, aren't you?“ ◦"I used to think that way when I was your age."
False Analogy Finding similarity where none exists Example: ◦Chilies are spicy ◦Chilies are red. ◦Red things are spicy. Democrats choose Nancy Pelosi. Gas prices are up 39%. Nancy Pelosi and the Democrats are responsible for the gas prices.
False Dilemma When only two choices are given. Example: ◦America, love it or leave it. You do not always have to love America to live here.
Appeal to Fear Persuasion through fear or force Examples 1."You know, Professor Smith, I really need to get an A in this class. I'd like to stop by during your office hours later to discuss my grade. I'll be in your building anyways, visiting my father. He's your dean, by the way. I'll see you later." 2.You must believe that God exists. After all, if you do not accept the existence of God, then you will face the horrors of hell."