Presentation on theme: "Unit I Timeline All slides prepared by students in 8 th period Mr. Celio does not vouch for the accuracy of these slides- when in doubt, research "— Presentation transcript:
Unit I Timeline All slides prepared by students in 8 th period Mr. Celio does not vouch for the accuracy of these slides- when in doubt, research If you choose to print these, do so as handouts with 6 or more slides per page!
Development of Early Hominids The earliest humans formed 3-4 million years ago. They lived in Africa and were generally unskilled. They were nomads and followed their food throughout the African savannah. The earliest human forms paved the way for us, and passed on simple ideas that are still used today.
Use of Stone Tools First stone tools were created 2,500,000 years ago by homo sapiens. These tools included simple pots and pans used for cooking and artistic tools to aid in making sculptures and other artistic forms. The use of stone tools aided human life, and made many tasks much easier, such as cooking and sculpting.
Use of Fire Humans first began to use fire around 500,000 years ago. Small fires gave the early humans a source of light and heat, and aided many tasks such as cooking and metalworking.
Origin of Homo Sapiens Sapiens Homo Sapien Sapiens began to form around 200,000 years ago. They were the first anatomically modern humans, and were the smartest humans to date. Homo Sapiens Sapiens were the first humans to travel throughout the world and live on every continent except for Antarctica.
Agricultural Revolution The agricultural revolution started around 10,000 years ago. This began the shift from hunter-gatherer societies to agricultural civilizations. By being able to stay/live in one place, early civilizations were able to form.
Emergence of Neolithic Towns Neolithic Towns began to form around 4,000 BCE. These were some of the first permanent settlements. Led to the rise of strong, early civilizations and led to the creation of tools used with agriculture.
Development of Metalworking Early metalworking can be traced to around 4,000 BCE. They melted metals and then put them into molds to create simple metal tools such as weapons. Improved work conditions and increased and more efficient battle tools.
Invention of Cuneiform First signs of cuneiform can be dated to around 3,000 BCE. This was the first known writing system. Cuneiform paved the way to future writing systems and provided a basis for record keeping and law codes.
Invention of Hieroglyphics Early hieroglyphics can be dated to around 2,700 BCE. These complex characters were the basis for the Egyptian empire and can be found throughout the empires. The hieroglyphics were used for record keeping and as an art source. The invention of papyrus came with the emergence of hieroglyphics.
Sumerian Civilization BC The first established civilization in the Tigris and Euphrates river valley. Significance: Created the first written language, organized irrigation systems and the use of a specialized labor force
Bronze Age BC The Bronze Age marks the beginning of using metals like bronze and copper for tools, weapons and other objects. Significance: The Bronze Age led us to the Iron Age
Unification of Egypt 3000 BC The unification of Egypt united upper Egypt and lower Egypt by Menes Significance: It led to an age of prosperity in which the Great Pyramids were built.
Construction of Pyramids at Giza 2560 BC They were tombs for past pharaohs of Egypt and for storage of things that the pharaohs would need in the afterlife. Significance: One of the oldest seven wonders of the world
Invention of the Wheel 2500 BC The wheel was invented in UR by the Sumerians. Significance: It helped to transport things and is still used today.
Sargon’s Empire BC Sargon was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire Significance: He conquered the Sumerian city states
Epic Of Gilgamesh BC An epic poem similar to Noah’s Ark written in Sumer Significance: One of the earliest know works of literature.
Egyptian Middle Kingdom BC The Middle Kingdom was the 11 th -14 th dynasties in transition from the Old to the New kingdoms. Significance: Know as the golden age because of it’s stability.
Code of Hammurabi 1700 BC The Babylonian law code written by Hammurabi. Significance: The first code of law ever written
Hyksos invasion of Egypt Started around BCE. When Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos and they became very powerful until ruling all of Northern Egypt. Significance- During their rule of Upper Egypt, they established their capital in the city of Avarius, forcing the line of Pharaohs to move to Thebes and only rule Lower Egypt.
Egyptian New Kingdom Between 16 th and 11 th centuries BCE. Also referred to as the Egyptian Empire Period that followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period. Significance- Egypt’s most prosperous time and marked the peak of its power.
Ramses II gains control of Palestine Gained control during his first Syrian Campaign in 1279 BCE He gained control and destroyed Egyptian power in Palestine and drove the Egyptians back into their old frontiers. This ended the days of the Egyptian Empire
Building of Stonehenge Built around 2500 BCE Located in the English county of Wiltshire, Stonehenge is a large circular setting of standing stones. Archeologists evidence suggests that Stonehenge was used as a burial ground.
Hittite use of Iron Started in the 14 th century BCE The Hittites were the first Indo-European people to make and use iron. Their use of iron Started the Iron Age.
Creation of Phoenician trading network 11 th century BCE This trading network between the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia was re- established by the Phoenicians in the Early Iron Age. This network brought the Phoenician Alphabet to the Greeks.
Creation of Phoenician Alphabet Created before 1050 BCE Their Alphabet was created when they simplified their writing by using 22 different signs to represent sounds. This Alphabet was adopted by many places like Greece and made it easier to communicate.
Abraham’s covenant with Yahweh Around 2000 BCE When god gave Abraham land and descendants Important to Judaism
Lived through B.C.E Created the powerful Persian state by extending Persian control over the Medes in 550 B.C.E and years later he defeated the Lydian kingdom He entered Mesopotamia in 539 and captured Babylon and won their loyalty, he also issued an edict permitting the Hebrews to return to Jerusalem with their sacred temple objects and to rebuild their temple as well Throughout his conquest he demonstrated considerable wisdom and compassion and organization of his empire He successfully obtained their favor of the priesthoods in his conquered land by restoring temples and permitting a wide degree of religious toleration
Rule of Darius B.C.E He added a new Persian province in western India Darius organized the empire by dividing it into provinces and placing satraps to govern it Darius organized a campaign to Egypt where he defeated the Pharaoh’s armies and secured the lands Darius’s power depended on the military
Creation of Zoroastrianism It emerged from a common prehistoric Indo-Iranian religious system dating back to the early 2 nd millennium Zoroaster was the creator and did not introduce a new god but taught that Ahuramazda, who had long been one of the Iranians’ deities, was the only god and that his religion was the only perfect one It spread throughout the Persian empire because of its acceptance of the Great kings
Aryan Invasion Aryans were apart of the extensive group of Indo-European speaking people who inhabited vast areas Aryan Invasions were thought to be the reason why the Harappan Civilization came to an end The Aryan Invasion on India affected India in many ways such as the Aryans brought the caste system, with Aryan rule agriculture expanded rapidly with the invention of the iron plow, They brought the Vedas which were sacred texts in Hinduism
Solomon’s Reign King of the Hebrews in Jerusalem from B.C Sinned due to the amount of wives and children he had. Spread the word of the Lord by teachings. Married the daughter of the Egyptian Pharaoh. Controlled all of Jerusalem during his reign. Set the Jews free of slavery.
David’s rule Israel Between 1010 and 970 BCE He ruled and united the people of Israel and led them to victory in battle. His rule paved the way for his Solomon to build the Holy Temple.
Israel destroyed by the Assyrians In 721 BC, the Assyrians raided the Israelite capital at Samaria. Southern Israel such as Judah, was left to fend for itself. The capture of Israel was no challenge and almost no Assyrian men were killed. Their goal was to kill all the Jews.
Babylon Captivity of Israelites Captured in between BC by the Babylonian Empire and used as slaves for building, working and other deeds. According to the Bible, there was 3 deportations of Jews and Israelites to Babylon. The Jews thought of it as a turning point in their religion as they were saved in Egypt previously and it was a chore to Yahweh for sinning after the release of slavery in Egypt. It was predicted that they would fall to slavery in Babylon.
Creation of Persian Empire Otherwise known as the Achaemenid Empire. Established in 550 BC by Cyrus the Great. Construction first started in 515 BC at Persepolis. Greatest leader was Cyrus the Great. Had a monarch type government in which one person lead the whole empire (Cyrus the Great). The last king was Darius the Third. Empire is ended once Darius the Third. It is now modern day Iran.
Harappan Civilization Located in the Indus Valley near the Fertile Crescent. Had elaborately planned cities such as Mohenjo- daro. Took advantage of the river system and used an irrigation style farming technique which was an excellent way of efficient farming. Discovered a weight system and created pottery such as small figurines, rings and other crafts. Ceramics and shell working was popular in the Harappan culture. It provided a sense of style and divided the Elite from the Middle and Lower class.
Creation of Hinduism Hinduism emerged from the beliefs of the Aryan people. Includes sacred texts such as the Vedas Emerged in India at around 3500 B.C.E Religious beliefs in ancient times was the ideal of asceticism The thoughts of the Dharma were a big part of the creation of Hinduism
Conquest of India by Alexander the Great Alexandrian conquest of India was only a brief interruption It played a formative role because after his departure the rise of the first dynasty to control much of the region emerged 327 B.C.E.
The Mauryan Empire Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan Empire The capital of the empire was at Pataliputra in the Ganges river valley King pocessed a large army and secret police Empire was divided into provinces that were ruled by governors B.C.E.
The Arthasastra Highly centralized and even despotic government “It is power and power alone which, only when exercised by the king with impartiality, and in proportion to guilt, over his son or his enemy, maintains both his world and the next” The Mauryan Empire B.C.E.
Adoption of the Caste System Aryan people formed this caste system The Caste System Priests, warriors, commoners, peasants, and the untouchables The Caste System was harsh and strengthened social structure of India It was very hard to move up the Caste System B.C.E.
Creation of Jainism Believes in non-violence, non-stealing, and truthfulness Founded by Mahavira Resembles Buddhism in rejecting the reality of the material world B.C.E.
The Shang Dynasty Predominantly agricultural society rule by and aristocratic class, who’s major occupation war Villages were organized in clans and classes were differentiated with the poor working for elite families Best known for their mastery of the art of bronze casting, fairly sophisticated writing system 16 th century B.C.E.
Zhou Dynasty They overthrew the Shang Dynasty Located their capital in their home territory near the present-day city of Xian Mandate of Heaven was used to determine the rulers Divided kingdom into territories Advances in agriculture allowed Chinas population to reach 20 million people Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism were developed 11 th century B.C.E.
Development of Chinese Writing Started when civilization started in 3000 B.C. People could keep records Consists of picture-like characters that represent an idea Chinese characters haven’t changed much since then as far as we know
Shang Bronze working The Shang Dynasty lasted from B.C. During that time, they mastered the art of bronze working Bronze was more advanced than anything else; bronze was used for food containers and ceremonial rites for ancestral purposes
Confucianism Confucian matured and started spreading the word at 551 BCE Confucian provided a doctrine to the nation building a social organization for China During the Han dynasty, it was altered to State Confucianism, which was a combination of Legalism and Confucianism
Daoism 6 th century BCE It was basically an easier form of Confucianism During the Zhou dynasty, it was very popular It was a frame work for popular spiritualistic beliefs among the common people
Legalism 300 BCE to 200 BCE Unlike Confucianism, they had harsh laws and punishments. They used fear instead of the idea of reward as a motivation for people to follow the ruler.
Period of the Warring States Late 5 th century BCE It was the civil war between the different states of China New weapons came such as iron weapons, the foot soldier, and the cross-bow, and the introduction of cavalry
Qin dynasty From 221 to 206 BCE It was ruled by Qin Shi Huangdi, a legalist He was a forceful ruler with a lot of ambition He extended China to modern day Vietnam
Han Empire 202 BC CE It was considered the greatest empire in Ancient China Liu Bang was the founder of the Han dynasty It was under the rule of the Han that Confucianism became popular
First civil service examinations The first civil service examination was under the Han Dynasty in 165 BCE Positions for bureaucracy were selected through civil service examinations rather than hereditarily
Homer Date: 850 BCE Description: Homer is the author of the epics The Iliad and The Odyssey Significance to history: The Iliad and The Odyssey have a huge influence in the history of literature, and is still studied in public schools in America.
The invention of the Iron Plow Date: Description: Significance to history
Greek Dark Age Date: 1100 BCE–750 BCE Description: The Greek Dark Age is the term used to describe the time period between the Dorian invasion of Greece and the end of the Mycenaean Palatial civilization. During this period, many Greeks crossed the Aegean Sea to different islands and southwestern Asia. Significance: During this period, advances in technology occurred, such as the replacement of bronze with iron in the making of weapons, new literature that is still used today was introduced, as well as the Greeks adopting the now widely used Phoenician alphabet.
Origin of the Polis
Mycenaean Greece Date: 1600 BCE to 1100 BCE Description: This was a period in time where the Mycenaean people flourished under powerful monarchies. Significance to history: Mycenaean Greece was the historical setting of many ancient works of literature, such as the epics of Homer, as well as many Greek myths, which are also continually referenced in the modern world.
Rise of Tyrants
Origins of the Silk Road
Height of Sparta 6 th and 5 th Centuries Description: Sparta was a major city-state of ancient Greece. They became a major military power and remained that way unhtil they were defeated by Thebes in 371 B.C. Significance: They were one of the greatest military forces of the timje. They set a very high standard for military excellence. Everyone who came after them wanted to be like them.
Rule of Pericles 461 to 429 B.C.E Description: Pericles was born into a very influential family. He ruled Athens during their “Golden Age.” This was between the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars. The period in which he ruled was often called the Age of Pericles Significance: Because Pericles was learned in and promoted literature and the arts, Athens is known as the educational and cultural center of the ancient Greek world.
Plato c.420 – 347 B.C.E Description: He was considered by many as the greatest philosopher of western civilization. He was fascinated with the question of reality. He was one of Socrates’ disciples. He did not trust the workings of democracy. He thought individuals could not live an ethical life unless they lived in a rational state. Significance: He established a school at Athens known as the Academy (where Aristotle studied).
Aristotle 384 – 322 B.C.E Description: He studied at the Academy, and later, tutored Alexander the Great. He didn’t accept Plato’s theory of Ideal forms, and wanted a government that arrected human affairs. After examining 158 states and their government, he identified that monarchy, aristocracy and constitutional were good forms of government. He believed that women were inferior to men. Significance: His philosophical and political ideas played a big part in the development of Western thought during the middle ages.
Socrates 469 – 399 B.C.E Description: His most famous pupil was Plato. He left no writing, so most of what we know of him is from his pupils. He taught his pupils for free, and believed that education was only to improve the individual. He was sentenced to death because he was accused of corrupting the youth with his teachings. Significance: He created the teaching method “Socratic Method” which is a question and answer system in which it leads the student to use their own reasoning.
The Golden Age of Athens 480 – 404 B.C.E Description: Military and external affairs were controlled by 10 strategoi or generals. Pericles was the leader during the Golden Age. Athens was the first and most important polis. Significance: Caused the other city states to raise themselves to a higher standard and created democracy.
Persian War 547 – 478 B.C.E Description: It was a war between the Greeks and the Persians. It started with the conquering of Lonia. Greeks won the war. Erxes, Cyrus the Great’s son, led the second invasion. Cyrus the Great started the war. Greece was involved because of revolt against Persians. Significance: Made the Greek city states band together. Showed people that they should stand up for what they believe.
Origins of Greek Tragedy 5 th Century Description: Aristotle and other writers proposed theories of how tragedy developed by telling stories about people thought to be responsible. It was performed in late March / Early May as an honor for Dionysus. Tragedies usually were about the downfall of a hero through the will of the gods. Significance: Set a standard for future playwrights.
Paleponnesian Wars 431 – 421 B.C.E Description: War between Sparta and their allies vs. Athens and their Allies. The Spartans surrounded the cities and then starved out the occupants. A plague wiped out 1/3 of Athenian population in 433. Pericles was the leader of the Athenians in 429. Significance: Showed that military strength can over power smarts.
Punic Wars B.C.E. Known as the Punic Wars because the Carthagians are in origin Phonecian. 1 st war
Dated around B.C.E. After the Romans conquered Italy they were drawn into new wars, eventually winning those wars they dominated the Mediterranean.
Hellenistic Period During and after the period of Alexander the Great around 334 B.C.E ~ 146 B.C.E Alexander the Great went around conquering and left Greek culture behind him. “Hellenistic” is a Greek word meaning “to imitate Greeks” It’s a period of spread of Greek culture such as art, language, architecture, literature.
Founding of Rome 753 B.C.E According to Roman legend, Rome was founded by the twin brothers, Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C.E Early Romans spoke Latin Rome became one of the most classical civilization.
Roman Republic 509 B.C.E ~ 31 B.C.E Rome changed from Monarchy to republican government. Even at hard situations such as when Rome was surrounded by enemies and was about to be defeated, Roman Republic was victorious. After domination of Mediterranean Sea, process of creating an empire weakened and Roman Republic started failing. Decline and fall of Roman Republic started at 133 B.C.E and Roman Republic ended at 31 B.C.E
Building of the Parthenon Work began in 448 BC and was finished in 432 BC Burned by the Persians during construction Was built for the Greek goddess, Athena Built by Iktinos and Kallikrates Located on the Acropolis, a hill overlooking Athens, Greece Significance: One of the few architectural relics of Ancient, Greece, and the largest on still standing.
Rise of Philip of Macedon During the 4 th century BC Son of Amyntas III As soon as Philip took power, there were 4 main threats. He used his time wisely when dealing with threats when the Illyrians failed to act promptly on their attack. Used diplomacy and military force to achieve his goals. Father of Alexander the Great
75 Empire of Alexander the Great BC Took reign after Philip II of Macedon Alexander founded the Nile City of Alexandria Tremendous Empire was hard to handle because of different cultures and languages. 20 million square miles of land Significance: One of the biggest Empires of all time. Alexander created an Empire that no other king had seen before
Creation of the council of the plebs 471B.C.E The Roman Republic, then, witnessed the interplay of three major elements. Two consuls and other officials served as magistrates and ran the state. Adult males controlled by the wealthiest citizens, elected these officials, while the Senate, a small group of large landowners, advised them. It was important because the plebeians constituted the considerately larger group of “independent,underprivladged, poorer and vulnerable men” as well as non-patrician large landowners, less wealthy landholders, artisan, merchants, and small farmers.
Rise of Caesar In 47 B.C.E Caesar became dictator and in 44 B.C.he became dictator for life. Ceasar gave land to the poor and increased the size of the senate to 900 members. He also reformed the calendar by introducing the Egyptian solar year 365 days. In 44 B.C.E he was assonated by the leading senators.
Age of Augustus 31B.C.E- 14C.E His real name is Octavian. He changed it to Augustus in 27 B.C.E when the senate award the title of Augustus,“ the revered one”, a fitting title in view of his power, previously reserved for gods. Augustus maintained a standing army of twenty eight legions of 150,000 men. He conquered the central and maritime Alps and then expanded Roman control of the Balkan peninsula up toe the Danube River.
The Good Emperors (96 C.E-180 C.E) The Good Emperors were absolute monarchs known for their tolerance and diplomacy. They treated the ruling class with respect, cooperated with the Senate, and were praised for their building programs, such as bridges and roads. The Good Emperors created and maintained a period of peace in Rome that lasted for 100 years.
Birth Of Christianity (6 B.C.E 29 C.E) Christianity began with the teachings of Jesus. Jesus taught to love God and one another. Christianity spread through preaching and through written epistles. Christianity became one of the major world religions. The religion became an important part of the development of Medieval Europe.
Diocletian’s Reforms (284 C.E-305 C.E) Diocletian helped to restore order and stability to a collapsing empire. Diocletian’s reforms included a new governmental structure, a rigid economic and social system, and a new state religion, Christianity. He strengthened and enlarged the bureaucracy as well as the military.
Founding of Constantinople 324 In 324 when Constantine defeated Licentious he decided to found a new capital for the emperor. 1. It was ideally situated between the eastern and northern military frontiers.2. It was to become an important center of trade, located as it was on major north-south and east-west trade routes. Constantine wanted to honor his military victory in a typically imperial fashion, and felt the beauty of the city did just that. It was important, because after that date Roman Empire had two emperors.
Edict of Milan AD 313 A proclamation that permanently established religious toleration for Christianity within the Roman Empire. It was the outcome of a political agreement concluded in Milan between the Roman emperors Constantine I and Licinius in February 313. It was important, because the emperor made Christianity one of the few religions approved.
Fall(s) of Rome C.E There were many invasions on Rome. In the east, the Sassanid Persians made inroads into Roman territory. Germanic tribes also poured into the Roman empire.