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September 13 th, 2011. Language of the ancient Latins and Romans. Spread to Europe together with the Roman Empire; foundation of “Romance” languages (i.e.

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Presentation on theme: "September 13 th, 2011. Language of the ancient Latins and Romans. Spread to Europe together with the Roman Empire; foundation of “Romance” languages (i.e."— Presentation transcript:

1 September 13 th, 2011

2 Language of the ancient Latins and Romans. Spread to Europe together with the Roman Empire; foundation of “Romance” languages (i.e. French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian); Profound influence on the evolution of English. Language of literacy and scholarship in Europe down to 16 th century (emergence of vernacular literature, esp. Scripture). Language of science and international diplomacy well into the 19 th century. Indo-European language (i.e. One of a group of related languages sharing a common parent language and so common syntax, structure, morphology etc.). Indo-European languages include: Latin, Greek, Germanic (i.e. German, Dutch, Danish, English etc.), Slavonic (i.e. Russian, Polish, Ukrainian etc.), Gaelic (i.e. Irish, Welsh etc.), Persian (i.e. Pharsi), and Indic (i.e. Sanskrit et. al.).

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4 Mother Latin = mater. Sanskrit = matar. Greek = meter. Anglo-Saxon = modor. Old Irish = mathir. German = mütter. Russian = mat’. English = mother. Latin = est. Sanskrit = asti. Greek = esti. Anglo-Saxon = is. Old Irish = is. German = ist. Russian = jest’. English = is. Is

5 Latin = an inflected language; English no longer inflected. Inflected Language – the role of a word in a sentence is determined by the form of the word and NOT by word order. English relies on word order to convey the role played by a word in a sentence.

6 “The dog bites the boy.” Dog = subject. Bites = verb. Boy = object. The dog is the one who is biting the boy. “The man bites the dog.” Boy = subject. Bites = verb. Dog = object. The boy is now the one who is doing the biting.

7 Role of a word in a sentence determined by its form (i.e. Its inflection). “The dog bites (is biting) the boy.” Canis (dog) mordet puerum (boy). Puerum canis mordet. Puerum mordet canis. “The boy bites (is biting) the dog.” Puer mordet canem. Canem puer mordet. Canem mordet puer. Role of word in a sentence is determined by case ending for nouns, pronouns, adjectives, participles etc. (Nominative, Genitive, Accusative, Dative, Ablative, Vocative, Locative); Declensions. Person (1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd, singular or plural), Tense (present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, future, future perfect), Voice (active, passive), Mood (indicative, subjunctive, imperative) determined by form of the verb; Conjugation. Change in word order results in change in emphasis, not change in meaning. Typical Latin word order places the main verb at the end of the sentence.

8 Noun = Person, place, or thing. Adjective = Word describing a noun. Pronoun = Word standing in place of a noun. Verb = Action word; can be active or passive. Adverb = Word describing the manner in which an action is performed. Subject = the one performing the action of the main verb. Direct Object = the one receiving the action of the main verb. Indirect Object = the one with an interest in the action of the sentence (i.e. For whose benefit, advantage, or disadvantage the action of a verb is performed). Predicate = Word or phrase linked to the subject by the copulative verb “to be” (i.e. am, are, is etc.).

9 The handsome poet gave roses to the pretty woman. The cowardly soldier quickly abandoned his post to the enemy. Julius Caesar was a remarkable Roman General.

10 Crucial for research for any period of European history, culture, literature, religion etc. pre-sixteenth century. Deeper understanding of the nuances of Latin literature. Improves your understanding of English. Improves your understanding of other modern European languages.

11 Frederic Wheelock, Wheelock's Latin. 6th Edition. Harper Resource ISBN: James May, Thirty-eight Latin Stories Ancilla to Wheelock's Latin: An Introductory Course Based on Latin Authors. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers.ISBN: D.P. Simpson, Cassell's Latin and English Dictionary. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN:

12 In Class Test 1: 5% In Class Test 2: 5% In Class Test 3: 5% In Class Test 4: 5% Midterm Exam: 30% Final Exam: 40% Participation: 10% Tests based on readings from James May, Thirty-eight Latin Stories Ancilla to Wheelock's Latin: An Introductory Course Based on Latin Authors. Participation based on 1. attendance. 2. preparation of assigned exercises taken up in class.

13 Be familiar with the syllabus: Always prepare assignments to be taken up in class before class; make note of any difficulties, problems, and questions and bring them to class. Put in the effort in the beginning to memorize declensions, conjugations etc. DO A LITTLE EACH DAY. LANGUAGE BUILDS ON PREVIOUS LESSONS SO DON’T LEAVE ASSIGNMENTS UNTIL THE LAST MOMENT. USE IT OR LOSE IT. Try to read a little Latin every day (i.e. 15 minutes). Start studying early; bring questions/problems immediately. Have fun – Don’t make it a chore – Make mistakes in class not on tests and exams.


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