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AT/AAC Session 6. [to Bobby] “You don't have what they call "the social skills. That's why you never have any friends, 'cept fo' yo' mama.”  From Waterboy,

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Presentation on theme: "AT/AAC Session 6. [to Bobby] “You don't have what they call "the social skills. That's why you never have any friends, 'cept fo' yo' mama.”  From Waterboy,"— Presentation transcript:

1 AT/AAC Session 6

2 [to Bobby] “You don't have what they call "the social skills. That's why you never have any friends, 'cept fo' yo' mama.”  From Waterboy, 1998 starring Adam Sandler Welcome to Session 6: From Communication to Social Skills

3 Upcoming Assignments Due Today!- Ecological Inventories Assignment Remember this is with a group And….Critique of Research Article is due This is an individual assignment Wednesday, July 18 th … Technology Selection/Design Assignment is due

4 iPad Applications alternative-communication.html alternative-communication.html Scan-a-word…free OR upgrade for $0.99 Works on using a switch Spell-a-word On-screen keyboard Photo Touch Sight Words…free Photo Touch Concepts…. $0.99

5 Review

6

7 SETT- similar to ecological inventory Student S Environment E Task T Tools T What are the student’s current abilities? What are the student’s special needs? What are the functional areas of concern? What activities take place in the environment? What activities do other students do that this student cannot currently participate in? What assistive technology does the student have access to or currently use? What specific tasks occur in the environment? What activities is the student expected to do? What does success look like? Are the tools being considered on a continuum from no/low to high- tech? Are the tools student centered and task oriented and reflect the student’s current needs? What are the training requirements for the student, family and staff?

8 Functional Communication Training (FCT) is based on….. Based on notion that problem behavior may function as a means of communication 1.Conduct a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) to determine when, where, what, and why problem behaviors occur for a student. 2.Complete a competing behavior pathway to outline alternative/replacement behavior (way of communicating) 3.Design interventions to teach student new communication mode while not allowing problem behaviors to pay off for student. 3 steps to FCT

9 Understanding Alternate/ Replacement Behaviors Alternate Behaviors are: an immediate attempt to reduce disruption & potentially dangerous behavior in the classroom designed to actively begin breaking the student’s habit of using problem behavior to meet their needs, by replacing it with a more acceptable alternate behavior AAC device can be means for a student to use replacement behaviors

10 Essential Characteristics of a Replacement / Alternate Behavior An appropriate Replacement Behavior: Serves the same function as the problem behavior Is easier to do and more efficient than the problem behavior Alternate Behaviors require less physical effort & provide quicker, more reliable access to desired outcome/response than problem behavior Is socially acceptable

11 Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors? Leslie is 12, has severe intellectual disabilities, does not use words, and hits her head. Head hitting is maintained by adult attention during work periods. Which is the best Replacement Behavior hide under her desk and be ignored sign for “more” to another student take completed work up to show the teacher move to sit by another student Use picture communication system to request teacher help Start w/ the Function 1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult attn? 2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior? 3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?

12 Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors? Jason is nine and cries when asked to do difficult tasks. The crying is maintained by avoiding or escaping difficult tasks. Possible Replacement Behaviors: More rewards for doing tasks Asking for an easier task/ worksheet Asking to play w/ his Gameboy Requesting adult attention Asking to have soda after tasks are done Start w/ the Function 1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult attn? 2. Is behavior easier to do than problem behavior? 3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?

13 General Case Design— Why? Determine what to teach and features need to vary to increase generalization. 1. Define the Instructional Universe 2. Define the Range of Relevant Stimulus and Response Variation 3. Select Examples for Teaching & Testing 4. Sequencing Teaching Examples 5. Teaching the Examples 6. Testing with Non-trained Probe Examples

14 Quiz 3 Steps in implementing Functional Communication Training? 3 Essential characteristics of an alternative behavior? 6 Steps in General Case Design?

15 Discussion

16 Based on the Van Norman Article….Who’s on First? Work together with your group to design a Class Wide Peer Tutoring model that will also promote the student’s use of the device and social skills. This could be done in one of the activities from your ecological inventories assignment Or not.

17 1. Define the instructional universe (IU).---How? -Person-Centered Planning/ File Review/ IEP 2. Define the range of relevant stimulus & response variation within that IU.— -How? -Task Analysis 3. Select examples for the IU for use in teaching and probe testing.—How? Positive & Negative Examples 4. Sequence teaching examples.---How? Juxtapose maximally different, then minimally different examples. 5. Teach the examples.---How? Using Antecedent & Consequence Strategies 6. Test with non-trained probe examples— How? Programming Generalization

18 Stimulus Control Stimulus control refers to change in the likelihood of a response when a stimulus is presented. The stimulus is a signal that if the response is performed, a predictable outcome (consequence) is likely. If a person responds one way in the presence of a stimulus and another in its absence, than that stimulus is said to “control” behavior. A traffic light is an example Antecedent/Stimulu s: Green Light Antecedent/Stimulu s: Green Light Behavior: Drive or walk across the street Behavior: Drive or walk across the street

19 Stimulus control and teaching For any skill, teach a) what, b) when, c) why. What = the new response (skill) When = the stimulus that signals when to perform the new response Why = what is the likely consequence (reward)

20 Teaching and Stimulus Control Define the naturally occurring pattern Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence Define what you will “add” to assist learning. Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence Prompt Extra Reward or Correction

21 Instructional Concept #3 Range of Examples Show all the possibilities

22 Effective Instruction Effective example selection and sequencing Task analysis Facilitate success Delivered at the level of the student Effective instruction is:

23 INEFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION INEFFECTIVE MODELS INEFFECTIVE PRACTICE - TESTING OUTCOMES - Walk on green Don’t walk on red Walk on greenDon’t walk on red Green light = Walk YES NO LIGHT = ? = ? FAILURE

24 Instructional Concept #4 Logical Sequencing Juxtapose positive and negative examples

25 INEFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION INEFFECTIVE MODELS INEFFECTIVE PRACTICE - TESTING OUTCOMES - FAILURE = osh Osh = ?

26 EFFECTIVE MODELS EFFECTIVE PRACTICE - TESTING OUTCOMES - EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION = osh Osh = = not osh = osh RED SIDED RECTANGLE SUCCESS = osh

27 Instructional Sequence Model: Structured, Clear Be direct with multiple examples & non-examples Lead: High levels of opportunities to respond (OTR), success Individual Work - with clear teacher feedback -make sure students get it Group work -activities, experiments, etc. -chance to discover application to real world Test - Make sure they have skill fluency

28 Teaching and Stimulus Control Define the naturally occurring pattern Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence Define what you will “add” to assist learning. Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence Prompt Extra Reward or Correction

29 Step 1- Defining the Instructional Universe Jamal’s team (Mom, Dad, Jamal, etc.) decided that they wanted Jamal to ask for a break (behavior) within the following activities: 1. In school during a number of activities with a number of peers. 2. Activities at home with family members. 3. Activities in the community (soccer, tennis) with different coaches and peers.

30 Step 2- Identify the Range of Stimulus & Response variation in the Instructional Universe Range of stimulus (Antecedent) variation 1. Activities at school What can vary? Times of day, activities (difficulty, interest, setting) peers, staff 2. Activities at home What can vary? Activity (interest, chore, recreational), Parent home 3. Activities in community? Soccer, Tennis, coaches, peers, etc. Range of behavior (requesting a break) variation Using device (iPad with Proloquo2go) Pointing to graphic symbol for BREAK Point to watch (on self or others)

31 Step 3- Select examples Positive examples for when to ask for a break 1. Reading sight words with peers 2. Playing soccer or tennis 3. Playing games with family Negative examples of when to ask for a break 1. When riding in car/bus to an event 2. When first asked to do a chore (must attempt chore) 3. When having to get ready for school.

32 Step 4- Sequence examples May teach with the following sequence: Positive example #1: Reading sight words (OK for break) Positive example #2: Playing soccer (OK for break) Negative example #1: Riding to event (Not OK) Positive example #1: Reading sight words (OK for break) Negative example #2: Getting ready for school (not OK) Etc……

33 Step 5- Teach examples Use prompts and reinforcers to improve performance.

34 Step 6- Test in non-trained setting After success with multiple stimuli in trained situations, test within an un-trained situation (example: tennis [if not used in training] OR math class [if not used in training])

35 Functional Routines Instruction Cue (opportunity to respond) Response/ Behavior ConsequencePause FREnvironment provides a natural cue Student does each step needed to complete the activity Student gets natural outcome of activity Student focuses on next routine EXStudent’s bus arrives and door opens. Other students get off bus S gets off bus, goes in the correct direction, enters building, goes to class, puts away materials Student is now inside with other students and has inviting activities to do. Teacher offers praise Student transitions to next routine

36 Discrete Trial Training Cue (opportunity to respond) Response/ Behavior ConsequencePause DTTT provides instructional cue (prompting may be needed) Student Responds Teacher praises and give child a positive reinforcer There is a pause EX1.Student indicates interest in chips 2.Teacher says “Give me a car” Student gives car to teacher Teacher praises student and gives student a chip Student eats chip and teacher waits a few seconds before next cue

37 Discrete Trial Training Videos fu_in_order&list=UL fu_in_order&list=UL

38 Finding motivating reinforcers Reinforcers in view, ready to deliver Arrange environment for success Reinforce for a few seconds of side by side sitting Do not allow student to have access to the reinforcer unless they are sitting in the chair. Arick et al., 2010 Teaching Sitting in a Chair

39 Allow time for student to enjoy the reinforcer Use “my turn” and hold out your hand May need physical prompt first Place reinforcer in plain view, start right away, reinforce for correct response A timer can help with sharing issues Use token reinforcement system to teach delayed gratification Arick et al., 2010 Teaching Sharing & Waiting

40 For a correct response 1:1 tangible reward or token (Big R+ for this student and 1:1 social praise. For a prompted response 1:1 Social praise and (only if needed with this student) 1:1 little reward (not big R+) Arick et al., 2004 General Reinforcement Procedure

41 + = correct response Ø= incorrect/no response and then corrected with a prompt 0=incorrect/no response and not correct even with a prompt Data Collection

42 Skill #1: Ring Bell +++Notes: 3 in a row move on Skill #2: Ring Bell w/ Distractor (D) + Data Collection- Correct Responses

43 Skill #1: Ring Bell +++Notes: 3 in a row move on Skill #2: Ring Bell w/ Distractor (D) +0 Data Collection- Incorrect Trial Student Makes Error

44 1.It is not overly distracting for the child 2.It is never the correct response 3.In the same classification (object or picture) 4.Not an item you are currently teaching Arick et al., 2004 Rules/ Suggestions about the Distractor

45 Stop & restart trial Repeat Cue Prompt with just enough assistance to get correct response. R+ with social praise only or very little reinforcer (not the big R+) Repeat trial (with big R+ available) Arick et al., 2004 If the student makes an error…

46 Find extremely motivating reinforcers Talk about the reinforcers End sessions with correct response sequence and good behavior Withdraw & ignore tantrum behavior Present a simple trial when tantrum stops Redirect with a series of simple trials from an easier program Conduct an FBA Arick et al., 2010 Ideas for decreasing crying & tantrum behavior

47 Considered Naturalistic Intervention Teaches Language and Social/Play Skills Creates “Teachable” Moments in Context Follows ABA Format One Component of an Individualized Program What is Pivotal Response Training?

48 Pivotal Response Training Cue (opportunity to respond) Response/ Behavior ConsequencePause PRT1.S indicates interest 2.Teacher withholds access to desired item/activity Student Responds S gets desired itemThere is a pause EX1.Student reaches for car. 2.Teacher withholds and says, “Car” Student imitates the word car. Teacher gives student access to car Student plays with car

49 Video Examples

50 You can take it with you Can be used by parents/ peers/siblings Increases motivation Decreases frustration Increases generalization and maintenance of intervention gains Advantages

51 If Grabbing Objects/toys Avoid by teaching “hands down” and reinforce teaching “my turn” and block/withhold to encourage verbal language If Throwing Objects/toys Avoid by teaching “do this” and show the student what TO DO; teach them to say “no ______” for rejecting an object (have other reinforcing items to choose from) If Crying/Screaming Avoid by having highly reinforcing items; ignoring behavior if possible; waiting till quite then reinforce; ending session on a positive (maybe start with shorter session) Arick et al., 2010 Work on Behavior Throughout the Session

52 Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Frost, L. A. & Bondy, A.S. (1994). The Picture exchange communication system: Training manual. Cherry Hill, NJ: Pyramid Educational Consultants.

53 Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Six Phases ted ted elated elated

54 Devices by category of “writing” need Printed Graphic Organizers/Concept webbing applications For all ages Kidspiration or Inspiration Draft:Builder (Don Johnston) Helps transition from brainstorming to writing Portable word processors For all ages Alphasmart 3000, Neo, Dana Graphic word processing software For all ages Writing with Symbols 2000 Classroom Suite (IntelliTools) Clicker (Crick) PixWriter (Slater Software)

55 iPad Applications


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