FUNCTION: This doesn’t make any sense! Most tough kids “want” consequences that we would avoid! Most functions don’t “make sense” to us!
FUNCTION: This doesn’t make any sense! Kayla makes inappropriate comments frequently throughout math class. Each time she does, Mr. Tucker reprimands her in front of the whole class. Kayla continues to make inappropriate comments. What do we know about Kayla?
FUNCTION: This doesn’t make any sense! Michael, a second grader, fails to bring his homework to school on a regular basis. Each time he comes to school with no homework, he is sent to the principal’s office. What do we know about Michael?
FUNCTION: This doesn’t make any sense! Abi is a tenth grade student. She very often comes to school in clothing that breaks school dress code. When she does, she is required to wear the school’s sweat suit for the rest of the day. What do we know about Abi?
Positive Strategies: Applied Behavior Analysis Positive Behavior Support Absolutely no punishment procedures!
No Punishment?? Punishment teaches us to be very good at NOT getting caught. –Speeding Tough kids are immune to punishment Punishment is HARD to implement.
No Punishment?? Parents and teachers tend to overuse punishment Focus on prevention Focus on teaching new behaviors
Reinforcement-Based Procedures Reinforcement means “rewards” Everyone deserves to get “paid” for their work! –Payment varies from person to person
Reinforcement-Based Procedures Myth Busting! “It is wrong to use positive reinforcement because kids should use appropriate behavior because it is the right and responsible thing to do.”
Reinforcement-Based Procedures Myth Busting! “I don’t want to bribe my child.”
Reinforcement-Based Procedures Myth Busting! “Using a reward system is not fair to all students/children.” “Fair is NOT all students getting the same; fair is all students getting what is needed.” ~Rick Lavoie
Choosing Rewards Natural Edible Material Social
Natural Rewards - Elementary Go to the park Go to the zoo Visit grandma/grandpa Choose a game to play Watch TV Play video game Team captain Play outside
Natural Rewards - Elementary Choose school clothes Use of specific toys Visit a friend Have a friend over Remove a chore “Make-your-bed” pass Head of the table Use computer
Natural Rewards - Elementary Go to the library Family performance Lunch with mom/dad at school Time on the phone “Clean-your-room” pass Sleepover with friend Take a toy to school
Natural Rewards Middle and High School Have a friend over Drop off at a movie Drop off at the mall Free chore pass Drive mom/dad’s car Visit boy/girlfriend Out to lunch/dinner (their choice)
Natural Rewards Middle and High School Dinner choice Video game time TV time Computer time Phone time Park in the garage Use of cell phone
Natural Rewards Middle and High School Take out choice Attend school sporting event Attend school function “I don’t want to” pass No-dish-duty pass Ride to school Attend dance/karate/swim/etc. class
Natural Rewards Tips Don’t take away privileges for bad behavior ~ Give privileges for good behavior! Examples: –Finish your homework before dinner – you will get 30 minutes of free computer time –For every chore you complete you will get 5 minutes of video game time –If you and sibling play nicely 4 of 5 days you can choose 1 friend to sleep over on Friday.
Edible Candy Popcorn Drinks Crackers Chips Snack Foods Particularly good with very young and teens
Material Small toys Stickers Stamps Key chains Sunglasses School supplies Hackey Sack Comic books Books
Materials CD Makeup and accessories Bubbles Bookmarks Posters Puzzles DVD/VHS MONEY!!
More Myth-Busting “My child is not rewarded by ANYTHING.”
Now You Have Your Rewards... Now You Need a Distribution Plan
Token Economies For children who do not need the immediate reward –Most children Used when the actual reward cannot be given. Use when the child can “wait” for the reward. Tokens are exchanged for the rewards.
Token Economy Components Target behaviors Tokens Token distribution Back-up rewards The exchange process
Target Behaviors Home Rules A list of behaviors that will gain tokens –Be specific –Be clear –Be concise
Target Behaviors Finish all chores before dinner Interact with siblings in a nice manner without fighting or yelling Finish all homework before dinner Do anything mom or dad asks in a respectful, timely manner
Tokens Rules Safe Durable Cost-efficient Easy to distribute Easy to store Difficult to counterfeit –Why?
Distribution Least distracting Children must store them somewhere –Ideas?
Backup Rewards Now you have a LONG list! Natural rewards – Make “coupons”
Backup Rewards “Store” or “Menu” Large Variety Make rewards visible (or menu) Smaller or less valued items should be cheaper
Exchange System Have a set time and procedure for exchange: –Do all children exchange at the same time? –Do you have to have a certain number of tokens? –How long do you have at the store? Number One Error: –Infrequent Exchange
Instead of Collecting Tokens... Each child has a connect the dots!
Instead of Collecting Tokens... Erase a picture together M-A-K-E T-H-E B-E-D
Instead of Collecting Tokens... Draw a picture together Spell together: –N-O C-H-O-R-E-S O-N F-R-I-D-A-Y
Instead of A Store (or Menu)... Go To Movie with a Friend 1 Hour of TV Dinner Choice 30 Minutes of Computer 30 Minutes of Phone Sleepover Go To Park
Instead of Collecting Tokens... Play the lottery with siblings (or parents) When you get a “ticket ” – put your name on it and put it in the jar. At the end of the day, lottery drawing for winners. Winners get to choose items out of the store/off the menu.
Group Contingencies: How to get the children on YOUR side? Whole group contingency: –Every child must get a certain number of tokens for EVERYONE to get the reward. Example: –If everyone has 5 or more tokens, then no one has to do chores tonight. –If everyone has 10 points, then we go to the movies on Saturday.
Group Contingencies: Mystery Motivator How to play: –The reward is hidden in an envelope. –The calendar marks the days that the reward is available. –Every children must get a certain number of tokens for the mystery motivator. –At the end of the day, if the children have enough tokens, they get to see if it is a mystery motivator day.
Group Contingencies More Variations: How to get the children on YOUR side? Best with four or more children Team contingency: –Children compete to see who can get more points. –Children compete to see who can reach a pre-set criterion first. Example: –The first team with 20 tokens gets to choose dinner. –The team with the most tokens gets to watch TV after dinner.
Group Contingencies: How to get the children on YOUR side? Star Child contingency: –Everyone’s reward depends on the star child. –Everyone collects tokens during the day, but at the end of the day, we draw a child’s name. If he/she has enough tokens, everyone gets the reward. Example: –If the star child has at least ten tokens, everyone can play video games after dinner.