Presentation on theme: "The study of life! (bio = life) (ology = study of)"— Presentation transcript:
The study of life! (bio = life) (ology = study of)
Various Branches of Biology Biology Agriculture Anatomy and Physiology (human body) Botany (plants) Cell Biology Conservation Biology EcologyGenetics Pathology (disease) Zoology (animals) Marine Biology (ocean life)
Why is biology important? It is at the heart of many important careers such as Doctors, nurses, and other medical fields Veterinarians, marine biologists and zoologists Agriculturists, farmers and ranchers Environmentalists, foresters, wilderness rangers Forensics (criminal identification) Many others…
Are you considering any career choices related to biology? Grab your clickers for a Yes/No poll.
Why is biology important? It affects our everyday lives. Biology helps us to study and understand the basic needs of our bodies. Sleep, diet and exercise. We understand the importance of good hygiene. Brushing teeth, taking showers, cleaning the house, etc. We’ve learned how to treat various diseases in humans and animals. Developed medicine, identified viruses and bacteria, etc. We understand our place in nature and we’re learning how our actions can have an effect on it.
What biology topic do you hope to learn more about this year? Text your answer…
Activity: Communication is the Key! Before we start learning about science, we must learn one of the most important things in life, how to communicate. Partners will be assigned. You will have 4 minutes to work as a team to draw a picture of an image. One person will be the artist and the other person will be the speaker. The speaker will have a picture of the image and will try to describe it using ONLY WORDS to their partner, the artist. (No hand gestures or finger movements) The artist must remain silent and listen to the directions given by their partner. After 2 minutes I will allow the artist to ask questions of their partner.
How did you do? Take one minute and walk around the room to see how you did compared to other teams. Let’s discuss, grab your clickers.
Communication discussion Did your partner do a good job at describing the image? Did your partner do well at listening to directions? Was it easier when you were allowed to ask questions and talk? As a teacher it can be difficult to explain something so that everyone understands. Remember that it takes 2 to communicate and that asking questions does make things easier (for all of us)!!!! In science it is very important to explain our findings to others and we must know how to communicate so others can learn.
The Science of Biology Chapter 1 pg. 2 You have been a scientist since you were a small child. You look at the world around you, ask questions, and try to find answers to those questions. - Which toys float while taking a bath? - Can I run faster with flip flops or tennis shoes? - Will the soup taste better if I add some pepper? - Can a grasshopper jump without back legs?
Science Knowledge Pre-test 1. Science is primarily a search for truth. 2. Science can solve any problem or answer any question. 3. Science is primarily concerned with understanding how the natural world works. 4. Science can use supernatural explanations if necessary. 8. A "hypothesis" is just an "educated guess" about anything. 9. Scientists can believe in God or a supernatural being and still do good science. 10. Science is most concerned with collecting facts. 13. Science can be done poorly. 14. A scientific theory is merely a guess. 15. Scientists have solved most of the major mysteries of nature. 19. Anything done scientifically is always accurate and reliable. 21. Scientists often try to test or disprove possible explanations. 23. All scientific problems must be studied with The Scientific Method. 24. Disagreement between scientists is one of the weaknesses of science.
What is the goal of science? The goal of science is to understand the world in which we live explain what we find and make useful predictions based on our findings.
“Science begins by saying, let's forget about what we believe to be so, and try by investigation to find out what actually is so.” - Unkown
Science Science is an organized way of using EVIDENCE to learn about the natural world. Learning about science allows us to enjoy life more fully, to make intelligent decisions and to be more aware of ourselves.
Ready for a story? Everybody get up and stand in the back of the room.
Thinking Like a Scientist We all do it, all the time! The car won’t start, what do you do? It all starts with an observation. Observation: using one or more of our 5 senses to gather information. The information we gather from observations is called data. There are two types of data. Quantitative data are expressed as numbers. Ex. There are six cookies. You have one scar. I am five feet tall. Qualitative data describes things that can not be counted. Ex. She has blue eyes. It tasted sweet. It feels soft. It’s loud.
Next comes an inference. An inference is an educated guess based on our observations. Observation: My car won’t start. Inference: I’m out of gas.
Watch these music videos… While watching the world music video clips, I want you to make a list of observations and inferences. Do you understand the difference between the two? ObservationsInferences
Quick review… Last time in class we learned about the difference between an observation and an inference. We also learned the difference between qualitative and quantitative data. Pick an object in the room. List five observations about the object (use as many of your senses as you can). Make at least two inferences about it. Next to your observations, go back and write if it was a qualitative or quantitative observation.
Let’s go outside!!! You need, a piece of paper, clipboard and pencil. You will make at least ten observations using each of your five senses. Set up your paper with two columns, Qualitative Observation Quantitative Observations12345 My inferences about the courtyard based on my observations are…
Hypothesis After you’ve made your observation and formed an inference about the data, you’ve probably already made a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a testable prediction of what you think will happen in an experiment. Ex. If I put gas in the car then it will run. A hypothesis must be testable!
Hypothesis writing A hypothesis can be written as an “If…then…” statement. If I do not water my plants, then they will die. If I wear cleats, then I will run faster than if I wear sandals. If I turn the radio on then the ferret will wake up. Take out a piece of paper and write one hypothesis about each of the three objects on my desk.
Experiment In science it’s very important to test a hypothesis with a controlled experiment. A controlled experiment is when only one thing is changed at a time. Example: I want to see if a plant grows better with water or Gatorade. To be controlled, I must keep the lighting, temperature, potting soil, pot, etc. exactly the same. The only thing different will be what I water the plants with.
Experimental Variables The things that change in an experiment are called variables. Manipulated (independent) variables are the ones we purposely change. (The cause.) Ex. Putting gas in the car. Responding (dependent) variables is what happens because of what we changed. (The effect.) Ex. The car now runs.
Where are the variables? If I do not water my plants, then they will die. If I wear cleats, then I will run faster than if I wear flip flops. If I turn the radio on then the ferret will wake up. What type of variable’s are in green, manipulated (independent) or responding (dependent)?
Conclusion The results of an experiment that are used to determine if the hypothesis was supported by the evidence or not. If it was supported by the evidence then you’re done. If a hypothesis is not supported by the evidence then another hypothesis will be made and a new experiment will take place. It’s not a matter of right or wrong, it’s about finding answers that are supported by evidence.
Science is a Way of Knowing Scientific understanding is NOT a set of unchanging facts! New tools, technology and discoveries allow science to continually change and improve. Good scientists are skeptics. They question both existing ideas and new hypotheses. Chupacabra found in Texas found/65b64abeeaab6cc7f9a965b64abeeaab6cc7f9a ?q=chupacabra%20video&FORM=VIRE3 found/65b64abeeaab6cc7f9a965b64abeeaab6cc7f9a ?q=chupacabra%20video&FORM=VIRE3
How Scientists Work Section 1-2 pg. 8 It’s all about curiosity! Scientists ask a lot of questions and try to find the answers to their questions in a logical way. Observe Infer Hypothesize Experiment Conclusion
When an experiment is not possible… It isn’t always possible to do an experiment to test a hypothesis. Learning how animals interact with each other in groups. Requires a field study that doesn’t disturb the animals in question. Testing the toxicity of chemicals on humans. Medical researchers would have to seek out people exposed to the substance rather than exposing them in a controlled setting. Sometimes controlled experiments aren’t always possible.
How a theory develops What does the word theory mean to you? A guess, a hunch, an idea you have???? In science it has a MUCH different meaning. Theory: A theory in science is an explanation for a set of observations that have been confirmed by numerous investigations. A scientific law explains a single action. Laws can be a part of a theory.
The sling shot and the automobile Law: A scientific law is like a slingshot. A slingshot has but one moving part--the rubber band. If you put a rock in it and draw it back, the rock will fly out at a predictable speed, depending upon the distance the band is drawn back.
Theory: A scientific theory is like an automobile. Parts of it can be changed or improved upon, without changing the overall truth of the theory as a whole. An automobile has many moving parts, all working together to perform the chore of transporting someone from one point to another point. An automobile is a complex piece of machinery. Sometimes, improvements are made to one or more component parts. A new set of spark plugs that are composed of a better alloy that can withstand heat better, for example, might replace the existing set. But the function of the automobile as a whole remains unchanged.
We take for granted the things we know today… Where do living things come from? Francesco Redi : Theory of Biogenisis 1668 What are living things made of? Schwann (animals) & Schleiden (plants) : Cell Theory 1838 Why do people get sick? Louis Pasteur : Germ Theory of Disease 1857 How can species survive in an ever changing world? Charles Darwin: Theory of Evolution 1859 We will learn more about these theories and the scientists that have helped to develop them.
Watch this! Watch this video clip to understand more about the difference between a theory and a law. =6549&segmentID= =6549&segmentID=118807
Theory continued… Sometimes more than one theory is needed to explain a particular circumstance. Ex. Why are kangaroos and koalas found only in Australia? Theory of plate tectonics (continents move!) and the theory of evolution (change over time) help to explain this occurrence.
Not an absolute truth! No theory is considered an absolute truth. Scientists always analyze, review and critique the strengths and weaknesses of theories. As new evidence is uncovered, a theory can be revised or replaced by a more useful explanation. New EVIDENCE determines which ideas survive and which are replaced.
Studying Life Pg. 16 How can you tell if something is alive? Grab your clicker and text your one word answer.
Characteristics of Living Things No single characteristic is enough to describe a living thing. Living things… (skip 2 lines in between the following in your notes) Are made of cells Reproduce Have DNA Grow and develop Need energy and other materials Respond to their environment. Maintain a stable internal environment Change over time
Let’s read Open your books to pg. 17 Finish reading section 1-3 and add the notes from each section under the headings you’ve already written.