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WELCOME to Seminar 9: We will begin on time. Meanwhile, enjoy chatting. Hang on! The end is in sight!

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Presentation on theme: "WELCOME to Seminar 9: We will begin on time. Meanwhile, enjoy chatting. Hang on! The end is in sight!"— Presentation transcript:

1 WELCOME to Seminar 9: We will begin on time. Meanwhile, enjoy chatting. Hang on! The end is in sight!

2 It’s SHOWTIME !!!!!!! Welcome to Seminar 9! This is our last seminar together. The time has flown!

3 Reminders 1.Message board postings are part of your grade. late postings to me. 2.Late work must be turned in IMMEDIATELY. The term is almost over! Check the late policy in the syllabus for specifics.

4 Unit 9 Discussion Share your ideas about the relationship between the writing process and your career. Please provide specific examples of how you will use writing and how it will impact your career. Include the problems poor writing could cause.

5 The Final Project Final essays are due no later than midnight Thursday. –DO NOT BE LATE! Sources: You must use a minimum of 3 sources (two from the Kaplan Library). You may use more. Pages: The final project must be 3 to 5 pages of essay

6 About the Final Project The final project must –Be double-spaced, –Use 12 point font only, –Have standard margins, –Have a separate title page, –Have a separate reference page. Do NOT use any font larger than 12, not even for the title page! Do not use bold, colors, boxes, or lines on your title page or with your page numbers or headers.

7 For the Final Project Do not use first person (I, me, my, we, us, our) unless you have conducted an experiment, are using a personal example, or it is part of a direct quotation. Do not use second person (you, your) unless it is part of a quotation.

8 How are the informative essays coming? Does anyone need help or to discuss anything? Now is your chance to get help from all of us.

9 Introductions, Conclusions, and Background Information Now that you are done with your draft, it's time to revise. First, if you haven't already done so, add an introduction, a conclusion, and any background information your reader will need.

10 Remember: The introduction (hook) draws your audience into the topic. A narrative, an example, a description, a startling statement can be used. An introduction is more than just the first paragraph of your paper. It should make the reader want to continue reading.

11 In Conclusion… For your conclusion, do NOT just summarize what you have already written. Make your conclusion a “zinger.” Don't disappoint your readers by merely repeating what you've already said. Don’t do this to your readers!

12 Add background information if needed to provide the audience with the history of the situation and / or the current state of the situation. Since you can not expect your reader to know anything about your topic, provide a brief overview.

13 In order for the reader to follow your essay, your ideas should be connected by transitional words and phrases. What are transitions?

14 Transitions Transitions are words, phrases, or sentences that connect the parts of your paper. Most people do not add transitions naturally, so go back and add them if necessary. What are some examples of transitions?

15 Transitions Therefore, consequently, moreover, first, next, finally, in conclusion, another point to consider, in addition, for example, etc. Therefore, consequently, moreover, first, next, finally, in conclusion, another point to consider, in addition, for example, etc. An essay is nothing more than a series of related paragraphs, and a paragraph is a series of related sentences. To help this relationship along, good writers use transitional words and phrases in their writings. An essay is nothing more than a series of related paragraphs, and a paragraph is a series of related sentences. To help this relationship along, good writers use transitional words and phrases in their writings.

16 POP QUIZ! Which is the better paragraph? I have a number of good reasons for not turning in my homework this week. My computer refused to save anything. I pulled the monitor off the desk, hitting and breaking my finger. I cut my hand, and blood started spurting from the wound. I had to go to the hospital for stitches. OR I have a number of good reasons for not turning in my homework this week. First, my computer refused to save anything. While trying to fix the computer, I pulled the monitor off the desk, hitting and breaking my finger. As I picked up the pieces, I cut my hand, and blood started spurting from the wound, so I had to go to the hospital for stitches.

17 Transitional words and phrases tie the essay's ideas together and make your writing easier to understand. Without transitions, your writing may sound more like a shopping list than an essay. Each sentence may sound as if it is unrelated to the other sentences in the paragraph. Good writers use transitions! What is revising?

18 Revising Revising means "seeing again." This is the part of the writing process where you make sure that your paper says exactly what you want it to say. Doing so will probably involve rewriting parts of it. Why should you revise?

19 According to author Somerset Maugham, "Only a mediocre writer is always at his best." Writer Ernest Hemingway put it more pointedly, "The first draft of anything is sh--." What do you do after you are done writing your draft?

20 COOL DOWN! When you are finished with your draft, put your writing aside for minutes (over night is even better!). Walk away, and then come back and reread your essay. You will see your work differently after a cooling down period.

21 Ask yourself the following questions: 1. Have you fulfilled all the requirements? Your paper must discuss one of the topics from unit Do you have the correct number of pages? You must have 3-5 pages of ESSAY, not including the title and reference pages. 3. Do you have the correct number of sources? For this paper, a minimum of three.

22 Listen to the construction of your sentences. Are they clear and readable? Do they say what you want them to say? How would they sound to a reader? By reading out loud, you will often HEAR a mistake or a clumsy construction in your writing that has escaped your eye in silent reading. When grading, I often read your essays out loud. Fortunately, my pets don't mind. : ) Read the paper out loud.

23 When reading your paper, ask yourself: 1. Does the introduction grab attention? 2. Is the thesis statement clearly identifiable? * Can you point to it? If you can't, the reader won't be able to either. * Does the thesis statement make a point? 3. Have you stuck to the topic and the point you are trying to make?

24 5. Do the rest of the paragraphs prove your thesis? 6. Do the sentences and paragraphs flow? Do you need to move a sentence or paragraph to clarify a section? 6. Does the paper make sense? Can the reader follow your ideas? 7. Is the conclusion strong and original?

25 Other Things to Do When Revising 1. Ask yourself: "What should I cut?" Thomas Jefferson, former president & the author of the Declaration of Independence, stated: "The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one will do.” Stephen King, author of best selling horror novels, cuts words from his books when he revises. The chances are you may need to cut, also.

26 Avoid making the same point without adding new information or giving it a different interpretation. Dr. Seuss said it best: It has often been said there's so much to be read you never can cram all those thoughts in your head. So the writer who breeds more words than he needs is making a chore for the reader who reads. That's why my belief is the briefer the brief is the greater the sigh of the reader's relief is. (Theodore Geisel)

27 2.Add in Missing Details Ask yourself: "What should I add?“ Reread your paper to make sure that you have enough details so your reader can understand and accept your point. Do more research. Make your explanations clearer, and add examples.

28 3. Make Sentences Clear & Understandable Are all of your sentences clear? Do the words and sentences flow? If not, rewrite the awkward sections. Is your sentence structure varied? Vary the length and type of your sentences. Try to write not only simple sentences, but also compound and complex sentences. In plain English, that means to write some short sentences and some long sentences. [ LOL]

29 Variety is the spice of life! Vary the length of your paragraphs. –Begin a new paragraph every time you change the subject. –Avoid short paragraphs of one or two sentences. –Readers prefer shorter paragraphs, so if your paragraphs are long, look for a place to divide them. Variety in sentences and paragraphs makes your writing more interesting to read.

30 Make sure that your wording is exact. Avoid vague, general words and phrases. For example: Her work was poor. What type of work and what do you mean by poor? Make the situation clear to the readers: Her reports contained so many grammar and spelling errors that they were virtually illegible. 4. Avoid Vagueness

31 5. Avoid Giving Your Opinions You are writing an informative paper, so you should not have given any of YOUR opinions. If you have included opinions, they must be from a source, and you must have included both sides of the argument.

32 6. Verify Accuracy 7. Polish Introductions and Conclusions 8.Check your words. –Changing a word can make a big difference. –As author Mark Twain said, "The difference between the right word and the wrong word is the difference between the lightning and the lightning-bug."

33 Words have power. The words you use can make or break your writing. One student wrote about experiencing low self-a-steam [self esteem]. Another talked about the fowl [foul] behavior towards children by parents and coaches. Don't have your professional writing dismissed because of incorrect words.

34 For example, "a child" or “a person” can not be referred to with "they" or "them" or "their."  A child or a person is only one individual and must be referred to as "he or she." To avoid the "he or she" problem, use plural nouns such as "children" or "people." Have you used plural pronouns with singular nouns?

35 Write in Standard American English Your paper won't work if your reader can't understand what you mean. Delete all words that are slang or are too informal

36 Most of the paper should be written in your own words. If you have too many quotes, paraphrase instead. Remember what author Herman Melville said: "It is better to fail in originality, than to succeed in imitation." Make sure you've used  quotation marks when you used someone else's exact words.  In-text citations for quotes, paraphrases, and summaries.

37 When your are satisfied that your essay says what you want it to say in the way you want it said, then and only then are you ready to edit. What do you do when you edit?

38 Edit for spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammar. Use your spell and grammar check, but remember that you MUST read your work before making changes that the computer suggests.  Microsoft Word is often incorrect with regards to grammar.  Also, the computer will not pick up the fact that you used "send" instead of "sent" since both are spelled correctly.

39 Edit Words Have you chosen the correct word? Do you want accept or except? Their, there, or they're? Than or then? Is your word choice suitable for your subject and audience? Are your words repetitious? Do you use the same words over and over? Do you use trite, over-used expressions, or slang? Are your expressions too informal?

40 Have you followed the APA format?  12 point font, not bold type.  double-spaced the entire paper  Eliminate extra lines between paragraphs. Are pages properly numbered with a running header (shortened version of the title)? Edit Format

41 Editing Format Do you have a title page with your name on it? Is your title page in 12 point font and NOT in bold type? Do you have a reference page?  Is it double-spaced?  Do the references have hanging indents?  Are the references in alphabetical order?  Are they in APA format?

42 Edit Details Are names, dates, and quotes accurate? Are facts and statistics clearly stated? Do the in-text citations match the reference page?

43 Last Seminar This is our last seminar together. You’ve been a great group to work with!


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